[Page] [Page] [...], De Studio Theologiae: OR, DIRECTIONS FOR THE Choice of Books IN THE Study of Divinity. Written by the Rt Reverend Father in GOD, Dr. THOMAS BARLOW, Late Ld Bishop of Lincoln, Provost of Queen's College, and MARGARET Professor of DIVINITY in OXFORD.

Publish'd from the Original Manuscript, By WILLIAM OFFLEY, M. A. Pre­bendary of Lincoln, and Domestick Chaplain to His Lordship.

OXFORD, Printed by LEON. LICHFIELD, 1699.

TO THE Right Reverend Father in GOD, JAMES, Lord Bishop of LINCOLN.


WHilst others, who are more immediately under Your Episcopal Government, do equally approve and commend Your Generous Disposition, and indefatigable Industry upon all Accounts, to advance the Honour of the most Excellent Church of ENGLAND; I cannot at this unhappy distance be silent, but think my self obliged to mention that great Esteem which Your Lordship entertains for the Memory of many Learned Prelates, who have presided over that Holy See, which Your Lordship at present so deservedly fills: And I am very sensible what an honourable regard Your Lordship in particu­lar has for Bishop Barlow's Memory, which suf­fer'd extreamly from those a two Relick-mon­gers, who printed a b Spurious Book under his [Page] Lordship's Commanding Name and Character: And whereas neither Religion or Gratitude were of any force to restrain their Endeavours, from blasting their Great Benefactor's Reputation af­ter his Death, by their publishing of many small Tracts; it was thought necessary for Bi­shop Barlow's Legatees (to whose Care his Lord­ship had committed all his own Original MSS.) to undeceive the World, and put a stop to mer­cenary proceedings, by exposing the Defects of those Papers which were surreptitiously print­ed: And, I hope, those Reflections, which were drawn up, and publish'd in the Year 1694. by my Brother Chaplain (the late Ingenious Mr. Henry Brougham) and My-self, have been so far serviceable, as to do justice to our Pious Patron's Memory, and to vindicate Our selves from all Suspicion of being any way concern'd in so base an Action, as that of Selling to be Printed many private Papers, with the specious Title of the Genuine Remains of that Learned Prelate Dr. Thomas Barlow, &c.

My late Lord commanded, that particular care should be taken of all his Original MSS. And that I may with greater ease discharge my Trust, I have lately reposited all Bishop Bar­low's Original Writings, in the Archives of [Page] Queens College Library in Oxon, two MSS. on­ly excepted; one treating of Bishop Grosthead's Life and Works, which I left in Your Lordship's Library at Buckden, in its way hereafter to the Library at Lincoln, where the Ashes of that Memorable Prelate are Intomb'd: The other MS. relating to the Choice of Books in the Stu­dy of Divinity, I here humbly present to Your Lordship's Patronage; which Your Lordship has already been pleas'd in a great measure to grant, by approving of my Design, and giving me good Hopes of Your Lordship's recommending These Directions to the Clergy of Your Exten­sive Diocese, that they may be acquainted with the smallest part of that Learned Bishop's Stu­dy, whose Communicative Presence they were not so happy to enjoy, by his Visiting of them in such a Regular, and Episcopal manner, as Your Lordship has lately done in Your Pri­mary Visitation of Your Diocese. That part of his Sacred Office in our Church, Bishop Bar­low often complain'd he was not able to dis­charge as he ought: And when he once attem­pted to visit his Diocese in Person (which he often did by Legal Deputies) by Confirming great numbers of People, at a Four several [Page] Towns in Hunting tonshire, he was necessitated to tell some that then waited on him, ‘That his great a Age, and Infirmities wou'd not permit him to go through The * several Counties of his Diocese: But to express his Willingness, and Readiness to Confirm, such as wanted Confirma­tion, his Lordship publish'd an Advertisement at the end of his Articles of Inquiry; upon which many Persons of good Quality came to Buck­den, and receiv'd Confirmation from him in the Chapel of his Palace.

How diligent he was constantly to perform all other Duties of his Episcopal Function, none are ignorant, who at any convenient time wait­ed on his Lordship about Matters Ecclesiastical.

And as his Lordship's repeated wishes were, that the Diocese of Lincoln, might be bless'd here­after more duly with the Solemn Rite of Confir­mation; so it was my Duty to attend, whilst Your Lordship perform'd the Sacred Office, for many Days together, in Your Cathedral Church at Lincoln, and elsewhere, within some Peculiars belonging to that Magnificent Church; particularly at Banbury, where near a thou­sand Persons receiv'd Confirmation the 25th and [Page] 26th of September last, some 80 Years of Age, and scarce any under 12, for which Blessing that Ancient Corporation owns it self for ever oblig'd to Your Lordship.

May Your Lordship's Exemplary Life, and Doctrine, adorn the Faith and Practice of that * Numerous and Learned Body of Men com­mitted to Your Pastoral Care, is the earnest of his Prayer, who is,

Your LORDSHIP's most Obedient Servant, WILLIAM OFFLEY.


I Shall not trouble the Reader with any long Apology for the Pub­lication of the following Directions; only I think it necessary to inform Him, That had not this Method for the Study of Divinity been first printed, and prefix'd to many other Papers, which swell'd the Book to such a * Price, that few cared to buy, it might the sooner have pass'd without Censure, considering the Use­fulness of such a Treatise, wheresoever it shou'd be kindly receiv'd: But being sensible withal that several Copies of this Method were dispers'd abroad, and that many things already falsly printed, did prejudice the Church of England, and lessen the Great Author's Reputation; I thought it my Duty to publish These Directions from the Original Manuscript, (which the late Mercenary Editors never saw) without the long Train of Letters, which are of no use, but to expose the Secrets of a Private and Hasty Correspondence.

And since some angry Men are known to pass many unkind Refle­ctions upon Bishop Barlow's Memory, I leave the Bishop's own Words (in a Letter, which I have publish'd at the end of these Di­rections) to vindicate himself from those unchristian Censures, some at this day make use of, that they may wound the Memory of A Great Father of the Church, who has written many Learned Books in Defence of the Church of England, against all that oppose it.

As for the first Letter, which follows these Directions, I found it written with Bishop Barlow's own Hand; and as an Instance of its [Page] being proper to be included in his Directions to a Young Divine, his Lordship left it fix'd to his Original MS. on that Subject.

The Second Letter sell into my Hands, as I was making a Col­lection of some scatter'd Papers, in my late Lord's Study; and ha­ving communicated it to many Judicious Men, they advis'd me not to conceal such Modest and Excellent Advice, but to do the Unknown Author the Justice of Printing of it: And I question not, but such as are studious to know how to make Choice of the most proper Books for the Study of Divinity, will soon experience the great Useful­ness of these following Directions, which I have publish'd, to pre­vent them for the future from being impos'd on, by false Copies of this, or any other of Bishop Barlow's Learned Works.

[...], De Studio Theologiae: OR, DIRECTIONS For the CHOICE of BOOKS, IN THE STUDY of DIVINITY.

THeology, or Divinity, is a Science, or Prudence, containing our Knowledge of God, and our Duty, and that Divine Worship which is due to Him: And there are but two Principles to know both:

1. Lumen Naturae, or the Principles of Natural Reason (common to all Mankind) and on these Theologia Naturalis is built.

2. Lumen Scripturae, or Divine Revelation; on this Theologia Revelata, seu a Evangelica is sound­ed, containing such further Knowledge of God and our Duty, as we have (beyond all that Natu­ral [Page 2] Reason can tell us) by Divine Revelation in Scripture.

1. Theologia Naturalis, we may call Morality, and the Religion common to all Men, as Men, and Rational Creatures.

2. Theologia Revelata, we call Christianity, and it is the Religion peculiar to Christians. Now to be a Christian pre-supposes him to be a Man, and Christianity does not exclude, but pre-suppose Mo­rality, and is an addition to, and perfection of it; yet these two, Morality and Christianity, are as di­stinct as Natural Reason and Revelation, which are their respective Measures and Principles.

1. Theologia Naturalis, being grounded on the [...] Law of Nature (or the Moral Law) it will be convenient to know the Nature, Extent and Obli­gation of that Law (as also of all Laws in general) to which end, we may consult, Grot. de Ju. Belli, lib. 1. cap. 1. §. 9. &c. Pet. à Sancto Joseph. Idaea Theol. Moralis, lib. 1. de Legibus. Aquinas, 1. 2. Quaest. 90. &c. Suarez de Legibus. Azortus Instit. Moral. part. 3. lib. 1. cap. 1. And when there is necessity to see more, all the Commentators on Aquinas, and all Casuists, where they speak of the Ten Commandments, or Moral Law; amongst others Filliucius Quaest. Mor. Tract. 21. Besides those many Divines and Chri­stians, who have expresly written upon the Ten Commandments, and all things enjoin'd or forbid in them, there are many Authors of excellent Use, and Authority to understand the Nature of Moral Ha­bits and Actions, good and bad; as (to omit others) Arist. Eth. ad Nicom. Andro. Rhodius paraphr. ex Edit. Heinsii, Lugd. Batav. 1617. in an Octavo. The Greek [Page 3] Scholia in Arist. Eth. Hierocles in [...] Pythag. so call'd, because they contain Pythagoras's Doctrine; for Philo Crotoniates was the Author of those Verses. Johan. Stobaei [...], Aurel. Allobrog. 1609. highly commended by Suidas a. Many of this kind there are (even amongst Pagan Writers) who have described well the Nature and Kinds of Moral Vir­tues and Vices.

2. Theologia Revelata (of which the Sacred Scri­ptures Theologia [...] are the sole Rule) is to be understood by con­sidering the Text it self, and the true meaning of it.

For the Text of the Old Testament, it will be con­venient Bibles pr [...]pe [...] for the Te [...]t of the Old Testament. to have,

1. Biblia Interlinearia Hebr. Lat. Antverp. 1584.

2. Biblia Graeca Septu. Interpr. Paris 1628.

3. Biblia Latina Junii & Tremel. in Fol. or Quarto.

4. Biblia Lat. Sixti Quinti Romae 1590. & Bablia Lat. Clementis Octavi Romae 1592. Both Popes pre­tend to Infallibility, and yet their Bibles contradict one another expresly, and in terminis, above an hun­dred times. The Bibles of Clement the Eighth, are many times Printed with a false Title-page, and miscall'd, Biblia Sixti Quinti; as in an Edition at Antverp 1628. in Octavo, and in an Edition at Antverp 1603. in Fol. and in another Edition Colon. Agrip. 1666. in 8 little Vol. The [...] is Biblia Sacra Vulgatae Editionis Sixti Quinti Pont Max. reco­gnita; and yet (by comparing) it appears to be the Bible of Clement the Eighth.

[Page 4] For the Text of the New Testament, there are For the New Te­stament. many Editions; but I conceive two only to be most useful.

1. Novum Testamentum Gr. per Rob. Steph. Paris. 1550. in Folio; 'tis the best for Character and Ex­actness, and it furnishes us with an Account of all the ancient Sections and Divisions of the Testament, call'd Vid. Su­idam, verb. [...]. [...].

2. Nov. Test. Gr. a Steph. Curcel. Edit. Amstelod. 1658. in Octavo; it has the Various Lections, and Parallel Places, more exactly than any other I have yet seen; and yet Robert Steph. Edition has the Va­rious Lections of 15 MSS.

When occasion is to consult the Bible in more Languages, and more Editions, we have Bibles.

1. Biblia Complutensia, Complut. 1515. in 3 Folio's.

2. Biblia Regia (Reg. Hisp.) per Ar. Montanum, Antverp. 1569.

3. Biblia per Mich. Le Jai, 7 Linguis, and 10 Vo­lumes, printed at Paris 1645.

4. Biblia Polyglot. Lond. 1657. by collating these, we may see the difference and variety of Reading.

For the better understanding of these Languages, Concordan­ces. and the Bible by them, it will be convenient to have some Concordances and Lexicons.

We have many Concordances, and some of great use:

1. For the a Hebrew (and Chaldee words, as ma­ny as are in the Bible) Concordantiae Bibl. Hebr. per [Page 5] Joh. Buxtorf. Basil. 1632. There are other (but worse) Editions.

2. For the Hebrew and Greek of the Old Testam. Conrad. Kercheri Concord. Vet. Test. Gr. Hebr. Vocibus respondentes, Francof. 1607. And it will be con­venient to have his Book (explaining the use of his Concordance) De Concordantiarum Bibl. usu, in 4o, Whitberg. 1622.

3. For the Greek of the New Testam. Concordantiae Gr. Lat. N. Test. ab Hen. Steph. Edit. Genevae 1624, there are former, and worse Editions.

4. For the Latin (which are of some, but much less use in the Study of Divinity) Concordances, we may consult Concord. Bibl. Lat. ad Correctionem Rom. Edit. Vulgat. &c. Francofurti 1620. there are former Editions, but imperfect.

5. We may consult Corn. Jansenii Commentar. in suam Concordiam Evang. Mogunt. 1612. an 8o. Con­cordiam Evangel. per Theologum Parisiensem, an 8o, Printed at Paris 1660. Osiandri Elench. Harmoniae, Basil. 1561. Comment. Ja. Fabri Stapul. in Quatuor E­vang. & ihi post Praefat. Canones seu Concord. Evang.

6. Nov. Test. Gr. per Steph. Lutetiae 1550. & Cae­nones Evang. ab Ammonio conditos, & ab Eusebio ab­solutos.

7. We may consult eosdem Canones apud Hierony­mum, & per M. Victorium, Tom. 6. in initio, & Dan, Tossanum in Evang. Harmoniam.

The use of the Hebrew and Greek Concordance is very great: In Reading of the Text, when I doubt what a word signifies, I turn to my Concordance, to see how many times the word occurs, and in what Sence it is taken. For Instance, Hebrews 11. 1. [Page 6] Fides est [...], which some render, Persona, Sub­stantia, Expectatio, &c.

Now 'tis very incongruous to affirm, That Faith is a Person, Substance, or Expectation; for 'tis an Accident, an Assent of the Understanding, and Truth is the sole Object of it: I do not mean Bo­num futurum, for that is the proper Object of Expe­ctation, or Hope. By consulting, in this Doubt, my Concordance, I find the word [...], to occur five times in the N. Testament:

1. It signifies a a Person,

2. And twice b it evidently signifies, and we render it Confidence;

3. Tho' not so evidently, yet most probably it signifies c Confidence too: For [...], is Faith oppos'd to [...], in the 12. and 19. verses, which is Principium & Fundamentum Fiduciae & Con­fidentiae nostrae:

By the Circumstances then of the Text, it is evi­dent, that [...] signifies Confidence; and if we apply that Signification to Hebrews the 11. 1. (the place doubted of) it will appear to be very agree­able to the Nature of Faith, and the thing there spoken of. Fides est [...], and [...], i. e. Fides est eorum quae sperantur d Confidentia, & eorum quae non videntur argumen­tum; so e [...] properly signifies; and Hierom, and the Vulgar render it, Faith is [...], i. e. [...], such an Argument, [Page 7] as is the ground of all the Assurance and Confidence we have, or can have of Heaven. This seems to me the Genuine Sence of the place, if we consider either the signification of the Words, or the Nature of the thing signified; it is certain, and concluded by all, That a true and firm Faith in the Promises of GOD in the Gospel, is the Foundation and Evi­dence of all our Hopes of Heaven, &c. whence it is that the a Trent Conventicle calls Faith,—Hu­manae salutis initium, fundamentum, & radix; and in the Margent cites this very Text, Heb. 11. 1.

2. For Lexicons and Glossaries, they are useful for Lexicons for the Old Testament. Explanation of the Words, in the Originals of the Old and New Testament; and amongst them we may consult, for the Old Testament,

1. Lexicon Polyglot. 7. Linguis, per Ed. Castellum, Londini 1669.

2. Lex. Pentaglot. Val. Shindleri, Hanoviae 1612.

3. Masii Lex. Hebr. Syr. Chald. Gr. Antverp. 1571.

4. Joh. Buxtorsii Lex. Chald. Talmud. Rabbin. or his excellent Opus triginta Annorum (as he calls it) printed at Basil 1639.

5. Kercher's Concordance (before mention'd) may well be call'd, and us'd for a Lexicon Heb. Gr. every word in the Bible, and the various Translations of them being express'd by the LXX. in their (as they call it) Hellenestical Greek.

6. Nomenclator Biblicus Hebr. Lat. per Ant. Hulsium, Bredae 1650. useful for all Divines.

[Page 8] 7. For Proper b Names (for these already na­med are for Appellative words) such as these may be consulted:

1. Gregorii Greg. Lexicon Sanctum, Hanoviae 1634. in Octavo; wherein all proper Names in Scripture are explain'd.

2. Onomasticon Sacrum, in quo omnia Nomina pro­pria, Hebr. Chald. Gr. quae tam in Vet. quam Nov. Test. & Apocryphis occurrunt explicantur, per Joh. Leusden, Ultrajecti 1665. in Octavo.

For the New Testament, and 1. Appellative words, consult Hesychius, Suidas, Phavorinus, Etymolog. L [...]i [...]ons for the New Test. mag. Glossae veteres, per Stephan. & Bonavent. Vulca­nius, Stephani Thesaurus, Harpocration, all these are useful.

2. For Proper Names, Lex. Sanct. Gregorii Greg. (before mention'd) gives an Account of all their Pro­per Names, Hebrew and Greek in both Testaments. So c Stephanus of Cities, and Suidas of the Proper Names of Men.

3. For Greek-barbarous words, you may consult Petri Chritomaei Graeco-barbara Nov. Test. quae Orienti Originem debent, Amstel. in Octavo. his Lexicon also Graeco Barbarum.

After the Knowledge of Words, (quae sunt Rerum Commentators on the Old Test. Signa & Indices) the next business will be to know the true Sence of Scripture signified by those words; [Page 9] to this purpose you must consult Commentators: And first of all, those that have written upon the whole Bible.

1. The Criticks of the last Edition at London, in several Tomes, the first Printed 1669. the benefit of which Book is very great (I may call it Bibliotheca) seeing when we doubt of any Text of Scripture, we may (uno intuitu) see what many Learned Men say of it; and then (by collation of them and others) judge which (or whether any) of their Expositions be true.

2. Biblia Universa cum Commentariis, 1. Lyrani, (Gente Judaei, Religioni Christiani, Oxoniensis, hic enim literis operam dedit) 2. Cum Glossa ordinaria quam Strabo Fuldensis condidit circa An. 846. 3. Cum Glossa Interlinearia, Ansel. Laudunens. circa An. 1077. Of these three Lyranus is much the best, especially on the Old Test. because he well understood the the Hebrew and Greek Languages, which the other two (as most of the Barbarous Age) were wholly ignorant of.

3. Biblia Sacra Vet. & Nov. Test. cum Notis Tri­mellii & Junii Editionis tertiae, Hanov. 1596.

4. Cornelius a Lapide, Stephanus Monochius, Jaco­bus Tirinus, Emmanuel Sa, (all Jesuites) and Joh. Deodat.

For your understanding of the Old Test. how the Ancient Jews interpreted it, consult

  • 1. The Chaldee Paraphrase.
  • 2. Josephus.
  • 3. Philo-Judaeus.

As for Antiquity, so for Authority and Sobriety, they are more significant than any (may be) than [Page 10] all the Rabbins. Maimonides (Qui primus inter suos nug ari desiit) comes next them.

5. Lugd. de Dieu has written very short, and sig­nificant Critical Notes on all the Old and New Test. in 5 or 6 Volumes in 4o.

On the Pentateuch, consult Ainsworth, inferior to none. Cajetan, Calvin, (ubi bene nemo melius) Joh. Ferus, (a Pious Papist) who has said many things well and truly, and therefore the Spanish Expurga­tory Index has damn'd many Passages in his Com­mentaries on the New Test. and his other Works: As for his Commentaries on the Old Test. they are absolutely prohibited a, till the Inquisitors think fit to correct them. Paulus Fagius his Annotations on the Chaldee Paraphrase, on the Penta. Procopius Gazaeus, Theodoret's Questions on the Penta. Hyero­nymus ab Oleastro, Antverp 1568.

Besides the Pentateuch, Cajetan, Calvin, Ferus, Theodoret, Hierom, August. and Beda, and Pareus, have written on other parts of the Old Test. and up­on occasion may be consulted.

And for Genesis and Exodus in particular, you may consult Andr. Rivetus, who hath wrote well on both; he hath also publish'd a very useful Book in Quarto on the XX. Chap. of Exod. Lugd. Batav. 1637. Pererius (the Jesuite) hath also long and learned Commentaries on both the two first Books of Moses.

In short, you have Catalogues of the Commen­tators on every part of the Bible already printed, out of which you may chuse the Commentaries of [Page 11] Brentius, Calvin, Pet. Martyr, Joh. Wolsius, Bucer, Melanchton, Luther, Musculus, &c. Cajetan, Masius, Ar. Montanus, Gaspar Sanctius, Simeon de Muis, (the best Popish Writer on the Psalms) A Lapide, Corn. Jansen. Vitalpandus in Ezek. Fran. Ribera in 12. Pro­phetas Minores, Arias Montanus in 12 Prophetas.

In Hexameron, you may consult, 1. Eusta. Antio­chenum, Lugduni per Alatium 1629. in 4o. 2. Ambro­sium in Hexameron Tom. 4. Operum, Edit. Erasmi, Ba­sil 1527.

For the New Testament, very many (Ancient and Commentators on the New Test. Modern) have writ Explications of it; some, or all may be consulted,

1. Chrysost. hath Homilies on most parts of the Ancient. N. Test. 2. Hierom on the Gospels, Acts, and all St. Paul's Epistles; but they are * none of his, as is certain and confess'd. 3. Ven. Bede in 5 or 6 Tomes. 4. Theophylact. on the Gospels, Acts, and all St. Paul's Epistles; his Commentary on the Acts, is by it self very hard to be met with, Gr. Lat. per Laur. Sifanum, Col. Agrip. 1567. Theophylact. hath nothing on the Canonical Epistles, or Revelations.

2. Beza's Notes on the whole New Test. the best Modern. Edition (for there are many) is that at Cambridge 1642. Camerarius's Notes on the whole N. Test. are joyn'd with it. Calvin on all the N. Test. except the Apocalyps, these two (paucis exceptis quae Disci­plinam Presbyterianam & Genevetismam sapiunt) are inferior to none, for the Literal Sence of the Scri­ptures. Aug. Marloratus his Comment on all the N. Test. containing the Expositions of many Prote­stant Writers. Zach. Muthesius in 4o. Edit. 1611. Dr. [Page 12] Wm. Foulke in Nov. Test. contra Annotationes Anglo-Rhemensium. Erasmi Annot. in N. Test. Aquinas in Nov. Test.

Chemnitius, Gochardus, Brentius, Bucer, Novae Writers on the Gospels. Glossae in Mat. Mar. Luc. per Rob. Steph. They are damn'd by the a Spanish Inquisitors, and therefore Protestants. more valuable.

Lucas Brugensis in 4. Evang. Antv. 1606. Maldo­natus Papists., Lutetiae 1629. There are former and worse Editions; he is Vir Dotatus, but, as Causabon calls him, maledicentissimus.

Hugo Cardinalis (alias Hugo de Sancto Claro) he writ about the Year 1244. in which he was created b Cardinal by Pope Innoc. the IV. in a time of great Ignorance, when Popery was not form'd; whence it is that He, and others of that Age, have many things, which they at Rome like not. Jacobus Fa­ber Stapulensis in 4 Evangel. He was an Honest and Sober Papist; and has an Excellent Preface before his Commentaries, concerning the Excellency, Per­fection, and universal Use of Scripture, &c. And therefore that Preface totally, and many other things in his Commentaries, are damn'd by the c Inquisitors, and all his Works prohibited by d Clement VIII. till they be purg'd, that is cor­rupted, and spoil'd by the Inquisitors, and their In­dices.

1. Theodoret in omnes Pauli Epistolas, num. 14. he Writers on the Epistles and Apo­calyps. has nothing on the 7. Canonical Epistles (James, Pe­ter, John, Jude) nor the Revelation; he is amongst Ancient. [Page 13] the Ancients one of the best, and usually comes nearest the Literal Sence.

Ambrose in omnes Pauli Epist. (except. ad Hebr.) Peradventure because that Epistle was not in his time, receiv'd in the Roman a Church; which may be the reason too, why St. Hierom has no Commentary on that Epistle, nor any Preface to it, as he has to most Books of the Bible; but those Commentaries are deny'd to be Ambrose's by b ma­ny, and suspected by more.

Primasius Utiensis circa Annum 545. Sedulius, circa Annum 430.

c Oecumenius (quisque demum fuerit) in omnes Pauli & Canonicas Epist. cum quo conjungitur Arethas Caesariensis in Apocalyp. Who he was, and when he liv'd is uncertain: Bellarmine places him after the Year 1000. and some sooner; his Commentary is indeed a Catena taken out of about 121. d Ancient Authors, (for so many he cites) and amongst them he often cites Photius; whence 'tis evident he liv'd after Photius's time, who flourish'd after the middle of the Ninth Century.

1. Conrad. Vorstius, on all the Epistles, (excepting Modern. that to the Hebrews) who has, first, the Analysis, 2. the Paraphrasis, 3. Scholia in Paraphrasin, 4. The Loci Communes of every Chapter. Dr. Hammond's Annotations on the New Testament. Cameronis Mi­rothecium [Page 14] Evang. & Lud. Capelli Spicilegium, (both bound together, printed in 4to 1632.) they have both many short and considerable Notes on many parti­cular places in the Epistles and Apocalyps, &c. Estius in Epistolas; one of the best Popish Writers on that Subject. Joh. Gagnaeius in omnes Epistolas & Apoca­lypsin, Brevissima & facillima Scholia, in 80, Antv. 1564. Petrus Lombardus in omnes Pauli Epistolas; He writ before Transubstantiation (Opinionis portentum & prodigium) was Decreed in the Lateran Council, Anno 1215. and in many things Honest Peter is no Papist.

Dionysius Carthusianus in omnes Pauli Epistolas, and many others, &c. Arias Montanus in omnes Epistolas, & Apocalyp.

For the better Understanding of the Scriptures, it will be convenient to know, and to consult such Books as have given General Directions for Study­ing Scriptures, and particular Explications of the Jewish Antiquities, and Customs, &c. such as these,

1. Antiquitatum Judaicarum lib. 9. per Ar. Monta­num, Apparatua ad Scripturas intel­legend. 11. Lug. Bat. 1593. in Quarto:

2. Buxtorfii Tiberias, seu Commentarius Historicus, Didacticus Criticus, ad illustrationem operis Biblici, &c. Bas. 1620. Folio.

3. And. Riveti Isagoge, seu Introductio ad Scriptu­ram Sacram Vet. & Nov. Test. Lug. Bat. 1627.

4. Ant. Possevini Apparatus ad Studia Scripturae, Theologiae Scholasticae & practicae, &c. Ferrariae 1609. Quarto.

5. Ejusdem Bibliotheca Selecta, & dictae Bibliothecae, lib. 2. &. 3. Colon. Agrip. 1607. Fol. there are many such more:

[Page 15] Bibliotheca Studiosi Theol. per Gilb. Voetium, Ultra­jecti 1651. lib. 2. sect. 2a. pag. 481. De Apparatu Theo­logico, Hen. Hottingeri Clavis Scripturae, seu Thesaurus Philologicus, Tiguri 1649. in Quarto.

Seeing there are many Controversies concerning De Canone Scri­ptures. the Canon of Scripture, some Books being Canonical to some, which to others are Apocryphal; it will be convenient to consult some who have writ ex pro­fesso of that Subject: Amongst others, these that follow,

1. Joh. Rainolds, de lib. Apocryphis, Tom. 1, 2. sunt qua­tuor, Oppenheim 1611. there are many Controversies learnedly discuss'd (obiter) in those two Volumes, besides those about the Canon:

2. The Scholastical History of the Canon of Scri­pture, by Dr. Cosins, late Bishop of Durham, Lon­don 1657.

3. Hen. Lemmichii Vindicatio Lib. Apocryph. 1638. Octavo.

4. Consulendi sunt (cum opus fuerit) Scriptores Eri­stici (Pontificii & Reformati) qui Controversiam de Canone Bib. tractant, quales sunt Chemnitius in exam. Concilii Trident. Dan. Chamier. (Panstrat. Cath. Tom. 10.) Andr. Rivetus (Catholici Orthodoxi) Tom. 1. Tract. 1. Eras. Brochman. universae Theol. System. Tom. 1. de Sacra Script. Bellarm. Tom. 1. Controv. 1. de Verbo Dei, G. Amesius contra Bellarminum. Vet. Erbormannus Je­suita in sua pro Bellarm. Replica. contra Amesium, Her­bipoli 1661.

5. It will be convenient also to consult, what the Ancient Fathers, and Canons of Council determine concerning the Canon of Scripture; as, that I may name some,

[Page 16] 1. Canon Apostol. 85. apud Balsamonem pag. 278. apud Zonaram, est Canon 84. pag. 42. Dionysius exi­guus, antiquissimus Canonum Collector, Apostolorum Ca­nones tantum habet, spurius ideo est hic Canon 85. vet. 84. &c.

2. Canon Concil. Laodiceni 59. apud Justellum, in Cod. can. Eccl. Univer. can. 163. seu ult.

3. Canon 47. Concilii Carthag. 3. apud Joverium, Conc. part. 2. p. 19. col. 2a, & in Conciliis per Labbe, Paris 1671. Tom. 2. pag. 1177. But this Canon is a Spurious, as might evidently be prov'd, if need require.

4. Athanasius in Synopsi, Tom. 2, pag. 55. Gr. Lat. he reckons the Books of Scripture as we do.

5. b Nicephorus Patriarch of Constantinople, his Catalogue of Canonical Books, apud Eusebium Chro­nologic. pag. 312. Gr. Editionis Amstel. 1658.

6. c Hieronymi Prefatio 106. quae est in lib. Re­gum, Tom. 3, pag. 682, 689. ubi libros vet. Testamenti, eodem plane modo quo Ecclesia Anglicana enumerat, & tum addit—Quicquid extra hos est inter Apocry­pha reponendum.

7. Ruffinus in Symbolum Apostolorum, inter Opera Cypriani per Pamelium, pag. 552, 553. per Goular­tium, pag. 575. where he has a Catalogue of Ca­nonical Books of both Testaments, the very same with Ours of the Church of England.

[Page 17] 8. Epiphanius de Ponderibus & Mensuris, §. 4, 5. Tom. 2, pag. 161.

9. Nazianzenus carm. 33. operum Tom. 2. pag. 98. utriusque Testamenti libros (nisi quod a Apocalypsis desideratur) eosdem plane, quos Ecclesia Anglicana, agnoscit, ( [...].)

Eusebius (out of Origen) reckons the Canonical Books as we do; only he (neither the Protestants nor Papists do) reckons an Epistle of Jeremy's, with his Prophesie and Lamentations, Eccles. History, lib. 6. cap. 25. pag. 225. Edit. Valesii. Vide etiam Cy­rillum Cateches. Mystog. 4. pag. 36, 37. & Nicephorum Hist. Eccles. lib. 2. cap. 46. pag. 216, 217.

For the Fathers and Ecclesiastical Writers, it will be convenient to know who they were, when they De Patribus & co [...]um Saecul [...] Scriptis. lived, and what they writ: And for this, such Books and Tracts as these may be consulted.

1. Nomenclator praecipuorum jam inde a Christo nato Ecclesiae Doctorum, Scriptorum, Professorum, Episcopo­rum, Testium Veritatis, Scholasticorum, Conciliorum, Haereticorum, Imperatorum, Pontificum Rom. &c. per Hen. Ozaeum, Hanoviae 1619. He (in an Alphabe­tical order) only sets down the Age, or Year they flourish'd in.

2. Hieronymus de Illustribus Eccl. Scriptoribus: Ex­tat operam Sancti Hieronymi, per M. Victorium Tom. 1. pag. 263. Gr. Lat. ubi Sophronius dicitur Versionis Gr. Author, cum tamen inepta est Versio, & b Sophronio indigna. Prodiit Hieronymus de Script Illustr. (una [Page 18] cum Gennadio Massiliensi de Illustr. Eccles. Doctoribus) Helmest. 1611. Prodiit postea (cum aliis) 1639. quod ex sequente Aub. Miraei opere constet.

3. Bibliotheca Ecclesiastica, seu Nomenclatores sep­tem Veteres, Hieronymus, Gennadius, Ildefonsus, Si­gebertus, per Aubertum Miraeum, cum ejus Scholiis & Auctariis, Antverp. 1639. Fol. Sed hi Authores à Miraeo editi caute sunt legendi; Miraeus enim non uno loco Romae potius, quam veritati favet.

4. Illustrium Eccl. Orientalis Scriptorum, qui secundo saeculo sloruerunt vitae & monumenta; Authore Pet. Halloix, Duaci 1636. habet etiam Pontifices, Imperato­res, Persecutiones, & Concilia istius saeculi, &c. Fol.

5. Scriptorum Ecclesiast. Abacus Chronologicus (Vet. & Nov. Test.) a Mose ad Annum Christi 1589. Au­thore Phil. Labbe, Paris 1658.

6. Tabulae Ecclesiasticae, quibus Scriptores Ecclesia­stici, eorumque Patria, Aetas, Ordo, & Obitus, exhiben­tur, a Christo nato ad Annum 1517. Lond. 1674.

7. Phil. Labbe de Scriptoribus Ecclesiasticis, &c. in 2. Tom. 80. Paris 1660. in calce Tom. 1. Tractatus Jo. Papissae Coenotaphium eversum.

8. Joh. Tritthemius de Scriptoribus Ecclesiasticis, cum Appendicibus duobus, Paris 1546.

There are many such as these, who have given an account of the Time wherein they liv'd, and the Writings of the Fathers, and Ecclesiastical Writers, and upon occasion may also be consulted.

But because there are (in the Works of the An­cient De Scriptis Pa­t [...]um Genuinis, Spuriis. Fathers, and Ecclesiastical Writers) many Apo­cryphal and Spurious Books, and Tracts, which are indeed none of theirs, whose Name they bear, it will be necessary for a Divine to know, and have some of those Authors, who have writ Critica Sacra, [Page 19] and Censures of Books, discovering the Fraud or Ig­norance of those who have publish'd Erroneous and Heretical Books, under Catholick Names; amongst others, such as these may be consulted:

1. Photii Bibliotheca by Shottus, 1611. Folio.

2. Hierom de Scriptoribus Eccles. of the Edition of Paris 1630. or rather of Philip Labbe's Edition, with his Additions, in 2 Volumes, Paris 1660.

3. Censura quorundam Scriptorum, quae sub nomini­bus Sanctorum & Veterum Authorum, a Pontificiis ci­tari solent, &c. per Rob. Cocum, in Quarto Lond. 1623.

4. A Treatise of the Corruption of the Fathers, by Dr. James, Quarto, Lond. 1612.

5. Andr. Riveti Crit. Sac. libri quatuor, in Octavo, cum Tractat. de Authoritate Patrum, Errorum causis, & Nothorum Notis, Genevae 1626.

6. Abrahami Sculteti, Syntagma Medullae Theologiae Patrum, in Quarto, Francof. 1634. he gives an Ac­count of almost forty very ancient Writers, of their Genuine Works, of their Suppositions, of their Er­rors, of their Consent with Protestants, (and the Par­ticulars wherein) and an Analysis of all their Ge­nuine Writings.

7. Joh. Dallaeus de Pseudepigraphis Apostolicis, Harderb. 1653.

8. Davidis Blondelli, Pseudo-Isiodorus & Turria­nus Vapul. in Quarto, Edit. 1628. veterum Roman. Pontificum (à Clemente X. ad Sirisium, i. e. An. 383.) Epistolas decretales ab Isiodoro Mercatore suppositas, & a Ioh. a Bosco editas, ac tandem a b Francisco Turri­ano defensas, spurias esse demonstrat Blondellus.

[Page 20] 9. Bellarmine de Scriptoribus Ecclesiast. Sixtus Se­nensis in Bibliotheca: Possevinus in Apparatu Sacro, &c. and many other Popish Authors confess and prove many supposititious Books, printed and publish'd with the Genuine Works of the Fathers, and yet very usually cite those Tracts (when they make for them) against Protestants: In the a Edition of Hie­rom's Works, the whole ninth Tome consists of such Tracts, as are now confess'd to be all b Spurious. In the 17th. Tome of the Magna Bibliotheca Patrum, Paris 1654: There is Index Chronologicus, and Index omnium Patrum Alphabeticus, in which we have many things well, and truly said of the Times, and Writings of the Ancient Fathers.

10. Vide Gratian. Dist. 15, 16. praecipue can. Sanc. Rom. 3. where we have a long Catalogue of Au­thentick and Apocryphal Books, made by Pope Ge­lasius (and he infallible sure as any of his Succes­sors) and his Council of 70 Bishops An. 494. (the c Canons of that Council we have elsewhere bet­ter than in Gratian.) In that Canon and Council they call some things Canonical and Authentick, which they damn now as Apocryphal (and so do we too) and other things they approve, as Authen­tick, which now neither they nor we approve; vid. Joh. de Turre Cremata his 15 and 16 Can. & Glossas, (especially the late d ones) where to reconcile the Contradictions of this Canon and Council to the present Opinions of Rome, they are glad to say, that [Page 21] this Canon is so much a corrupted, that they can­not tell which words in it are really the words of Ge­lasius, and which not.

It will be requisite, for a Divine, to consult some De Authoritate & Usu Patrum. Writers about the Authority and Use of Fathers, (as to their Works which are confess'd to be Genuine) such as these;

1. Dallaeus de usu Patrum, Extat. 1. Gallice, 2. La­tine, per Joh. Mettaienum, Genev. 1656. in 4o.

2. Tractatus de Patrum, Concil. & Traditionum Authoritate in rebus Fidei, &c. per Emend. K. Vyfal­vinum cum Praefat. D. Paraei, Francof. 1611. in 8o.

3. Tractatus de Patrum Authoritate, &c. (Qui sint Patres, Quid eorum Authoritas, & ad quid, &c.) per And. Rivetum, praefixus libro suo, Quem Criticum Sa­crum inscripsit.

4. Vide Gratiani Distinctio 9. Glossam a Tur. Cre­mata ibidem, & multa de Authoritate Scripturae, Concil. Patrum, &c. True it is that the Socinians grant the b Fathers no Authority at all, and the Papists (tho' all their Ecclesiasticks, Secular and Regular, are c sworn never to expound Scripture, but secundum unanimem Patrum consensum) but very little; and (when they make against them) none at all: as we [Page 22] may evidently see by a Cajetan, b Feuardentius, c Maldonatus, &c. who tell us, it was the Opinion of Augustin and Pope Innocent the I. that it was neces­sary to Communicate Infants, and that Augustin de­liver'd this,—d Non ut opinionem suam, sed ut Fidei & totius Ecclesiae Dogma: which Opinion pre­vail'd in the Church for many Centuries, tho' 'tis now denied.

For the better understanding Scripture, and Fa­thers, De Historicis Ecclesiasticis. the Knowledge of Ecclesiastical History will be necessary: To this end you may consult such as have writ general Epitomes, and Comprehensions of Ecclesiastical Histories; for instance (to omit others)

1. Timanni Gesselii Historia Sacra, ordine Chrono­logico compendiose digesta, à Mundo condito ad annum Christi 1125. Trajecti ad Rhe. 1659. 2 Vol. in 4o.

2. Joh. Cluverii Historiarum totius Mundi Epit. ab origine Mundi ad an. Christi 1633. Lug. Bat. 1639. 1 Vol. Quarto.

There are others who have writ Ecclesiastical History anciently, and more fully, as,

1. Eusebii Hist. Eccl. cum Notis Hen. Valesii, Pa­ris 1659.

2. Socrates & Sozomon, per eundem, Par. 1668.

3. Theodor. Evagrii Philostorgii, & Theodori Hi­storia, per eundem, Paris 1673. These give an Ac­count [Page 23] of Church Affairs for almost 600 Years: And if Ruffinus his 2 Books of Ecclesiastical History, by Ben. Laurent. de la Barre, Paris 1580. and the Historia Tripartita, compos'd by Cassiodore, and publish'd by Ben. Rhenanus, Basil. 1528. be added, it may com­pleat and facilitate the Understanding of the fore­mention'd Histories.

The late Writers of Ecclesiastical History, which are very full, are such as these,

1. Historia Ecclesiastica per Centuriatores, Magdeburg. Basil. 1624. or the Epitome of it in 7 Volumes, in Quarto, by Lucas Osiander, Tubing. 1607.

2. Annales Ecclesiastici Card. Baronii, à nato Chri­sto ad annum 1197. continuati à Provio ad an. 1431. & à Spondano ad an. 1646. observand. de his Annali­bus. 1. Quod ex Editionibus omnibus illam Antverpiae 1612. solam & correctissimam agnoscit a Baronius: There were three or four former Editions.

3. Rob. Saliani Annales Ecclesiastici Vet. Test. Tom. 8. Col. 1620. in Fol. notand. extat Epit. Annal. Card. Baronii, per Lud. Aurel. 8o. Monast. 1638. 2 Vol. But before Baronius's Annals be read, it will be useful to read the most Learned b Exercitations of Causabon upon them, which discover the many Errors and Frauds of the Annalist. For Baronius is very zea­lous in maintaining the Pope's Prerogative, and [Page 24] all the receiv'd Errors, and ridiculous Superstitions of that Church: And on the other side, the Centu­riators are (in some things) a little too strait-laced; so that the Truth (many times) lies between them, that the Reader of their Stories can find it no other­ways, but by collection of what they have said, and the grounds why they did so.

It is useful also for to consult, Ad. Trebbechorii Exercitationes ad Annales Baronii, ubi desiit Causabo­nus, in Quarto Edit. Kilonii 1673.

There are two Historians more, which I wou'd commend, (for understanding the state of Religion since Luther) both Persons of great Moderation, and Fidelity (tho' of different Religions) and writ what they might, and did know.

1. Joh. Sleidani Commentarii de statu Religionis ab anno 1519. ad an. 1556.

2. Thuani Historia ab an. 1543. ad an. 1607. And to these you may add Father Paul's History of the Council of Trent, all excellent Persons. Cedro digna locuti.

It is necessary for a Divine, in Reading of Eccle­siastical Chronology. History, to have some skill in Chronology; after a convenient Knowledge of the * Tecknical part of Chronology: (de Anno, Mense, Septimana, &c. de Aeris, seu Epochis, &c.) In order to this, He may consult such as these:

[Page 25] 1. Helvicus's Chronology, [...], (as they call it,) Oxon. 1651. of continual use in reading any History, Sacred or Civil.

2. Ja. Usserii Armach. Annales, &c. à Mundo condito ad an. Christi 73. 2 Vol. Fol.

3. Chronicon Cath. Ed. Simson, Oxon. 1652. Fol.

4. Chronicon Charionis, à Melancthone & Peacero auctum & editum, Aureliae 1610.

Chronology and Geography are justly the Eyes of Geography. History, (Sacred or Civil) and therefore such Maps and Books as are useful in that kind, may with benefit be a consulted, amongst others such as these:

1. For Maps. Those publish'd by George Hor­mius, Accuratissima Orbis Antiqui Delineatio, sive Geo­graphia Vet. Sacra, & Prophana, Folio, Amstel. 1657. particularly you may consult those Maps which concern b Palestine, and other places of Scripture, which are mention'd in Ecclesiastical History.

You may consult for Books, such as by way of Lexicon, or Dictionary, explain the proper Names of Nations, Provinces, Cities, &c. which are spoken of in Scripture, as

1. Stephanus [...], Gr. Basil. 1568. it is but an Epitome of Stephanus, made by Hermolaus [Page 26] Grammaticus, and dedicated to Justinian the * Emperor.

2. Fragmentum Stephani de Urbibus, per Tennulium, Amstel. 1669. in Quarto.

3. Eusebius de locis Hebraicis, seu Onomasticon Ur­bium & locorum S. Scripturae, &c. a Jac. Bonfrerio, Edit. Paris 1659. Gr. Lat. in Fol. Vide Geographiae Episco­palis Breviarium, per Phil. Labbe in Concil. Collectione maxima, Paris 1671. Tom. 16. p. 1, 2. &c.

4. Lexic. Geograph. Stephani, per N. Lloydium, Oxon. 1670. Folio.

5. Abrah. Ortelii Thesaurus Geographicus.

6. Lexic. Geographicum Mich. Antonii Baudrand, Paris 1670. the most exact of any.

Such as have not writ by way of Lexicon, are these; which may also be consulted.

1. Geographia Sac. Sam. Bocharti, Cadomi 1646. Fol.

2. Geographia Sacra Caroli à Scto Paulo, Par. 1641. in Folio; the most considerable, and of greatest use for understanding Ecclesiastical History.

3. Notitia Episcopatuum Orbis Christiani, per Aub. Miraeam, 8o. Antverp. 1613.

4. Notitia Graecorum Episcopatuum, a Jac. Goar. Edit. Paris 1648. in calce Codini.

5 Notitia Episcopatuum totius Orbis MSS. in Ar­chivis Laudanis, J. 17. Bib. Bodleiana.

6. Notitia utrius que Imperii, cum Notis Pancirolae, Genev. 1623. in Folio.

7. Notitia Dignitatum Imperii Romani, ex nova Recentione Phil. Labbe, cum plurimis aliis Opusculis, & Notis, Paris 1651. He has none of Pancirola's Notes, [Page 27] but only the Text of the ancient Notitia, and that somewhat more correct than in the Edition of Ge­neva 1623.

8. Theatrum Terrae Sanctae, & Biblicarum Historia­rum, cum Tabulis Geographicis, Authore Christiano A­dricomio, Colon. Agrip. 1590. Fol.

9. [...], Gr. Lat. cum Notis Gotho­fredi, Edit. 1608. in Quarto.

10. Geographia Vet. & Nov. Test. per Cluverium, Amstel. 1661. in Quarto.

In the next place, those Authors, which have Councils. writ of Councils (General, Imperial, Patriarchal, &c.) are to be consulted: And in the first place such as have given a general Account, when, and where, and by whom they were call'd; what, and how they acted, &c.

1. Synopsis Conciliorum, in qua indicatur, Quale, Ubi, Quando, propter Quod habitum fuit unumquodque Concilium, &c. there is joyn'd with it Chronologia Pa­trum, Pontificum, &c. & Chronologiae Ecclesiasticae con­tinuatio ad an. 1671. Op. Douja. Par. 1671. in 8o.

2. [...] vetus omnes Synod. tam Orthodox. quam Hereticas brevi Compendio continens, quae ab Apostolo­rum tempore ad Synodum 8. (i. e. ad an. 869.) celebratae sunt, Gr. & Lat. per Joh. Pappum. Argentorati 1621. 4o. cum Notis Joh. Pappi, & concil. omnium Historicam Synopsin, per P. Labbe, Paris. 1661. 4o.

3. Synopsis Concilii Historica, &c. in Collectione Con­ciliorum maxima, Paris. 1671. Tom. 16, in principio.

4. Notitia Concil. Ecclesiae, &c. per Joh. Cabassutium, Lugd. 1670. in 8o.

5. Solomon Gesnerus, de Conciliis lib. quatuor Wit­teberg. 1600. in 2 Vol. in Quarto: The former Au­thors are Papists, the last a Protestant, and there­fore [Page 28] much rather to be credited than the other, who are all a sworn to believe, maintain, and (to the utmost of their power) propagate all the Roman Doctrines and Practices, or all their receiv'd Do­ctrine, Discipline, Rites, and Ceremonies.

6. Epitome Conciliorum omnium à Nato Christo ad an. 1619. Edidit (ac condidit) Dan. Angelocrator, Francof. 1620. in Quarto: Angelocrator was a Pro­testant, and an Anti-Arminian, as you may perceive in his Epitome, pag. 162, 163.

7. Brevis Historia omnium Concil. in calce Epitom. omnium Conciliorum, per Greg. de Rives, Lugd. 1663. Fol.

There are some Authors, who have given us only the Canons of Councils, and not the Order, and Acts which pass'd in every Session; amongst many, these which follow:

1. Codex Canonum Eccl. Dionysii exiguii (i. e. Ipso Interprete) floruit circa b annos 525, 533, 540. Edit. à Justello, Paris. 1628. in 8o. erat Abbas Roman. & Codicem Canonum Ecclesiae Univ. primus corrupit, si­quidem Canones Apostolorum, 50. Concilii Laodicensis XXI. Concilii Carthag. 138. & Epistolam Cyrilli, & Concilii Alexandrini addidit. And he c has left out, 1. a great part of the last Canon of the Council of [Page 29] Laodicea, (that is the Catalogue of the Canonical Books) pag. 86. 2. he has left out all the Canons of the Council of Ephesus: 3. four Canons of the Coun­cil of Constantinople, pag. 86. 4. The 28th Canon of Chalcedon; for these Canons, even in the 6 Century were not lik'd at Rome.

2. [...], Gr. publish'd by Joh. Tilius, Par. 1540. in 4o. In which the last Ca­non of the Council of Laodicea, the Canons of Con­stantinople, Ephesus, and Chalcedon (left out by Diony­sius exiguus) are (according to all the Greek Copies) faithfully put in. And the Canons of the Constan­tinopolitan Council in Trullo, 103. and 22 Canons of the second Nicene Council put in.

3. Canones dictos à Joh. Tilio, Gr. solum editos; * Elias Ehingerus edidit eos Gr. & Lat. cum Notis nonnullis, Wittenbergae 1614. in Quarto.

4. Codex Can. Ecclesiae Universae, Gr. Lat. cum No­tis, Edit. Justellus, Paris. 1610. This is the true and best Edition of that Codex Can. as it is publish'd by Justellus; and is indeed a most authentick Book, being it is approv'd and receiv'd by the Universal Church, (Greek and Latin, East and West) whence it was call'd Codex Canonum Ecclesiae Universae.

5. Codex Can. Ecclesiae Affricanae, Gr. Lat. per Ju­stellum, Paris. 1614. 8o. The best Edition of those Affrican Councils, with Justellus's Notes.

6. Synodorum General. & Provincial. Decreta, & Canones, Scholiis, Notis, & Historicâ Actorum Disser­tatione illustrati, per Chr. Lupum, in 5 Tom. in 4o. Buxelii 1673.

[Page 30] Next you may consult such Authors, as have writ Conciliorum Summas; and have not only the Ca­nons, but several Censures, Explications and Ani­madversions upon them, &c.

1. Summa omnium Conciliorum per Bar. Caranzam, in 8o. Rothomagi 1633. there is not much credit to be given to this Collection of Canons: For when any thing makes against Rome, Caranza will corrupt the Text; so when they are in the Council of Lao­dicea condemn'd,—Qui a Angelos colunt, he reads it—Qui Angulos colunt, and that both in the Lemma and Canon too. So of Pope Silvester the II. For—Is Magus fuisse fertur, he has it,—Is b Mag­nus fuisse fertur.

2. Summa Concil. omnium per Francisc. Longum a Cariolano, Antverp. 1623. Fol. A great and confi­dent Parasite of the Court of Rome, & Pontificiae Omnipotentiae vindex acerrimus.

3. Summa Concil. omnium per Lud. Basil. in two Tomes in Folio, Paris 1659. as high, and confident for Rome and Heresie, as the former, but of much more use; he has in the beginning of the first Tome an erroneous Apparatus, De Triplici c Verbo Dei.

4. Sanctiones Ecclesiasticae tam Synodales, quam Pon­tificiae in tres partes distinctae: 1ma Synodos universales; 2da Particulares; 3tia Pontificum Decreta continet, per Fr. Joverium, Paris. 1555. Fol. This (both for Me­thod, a good Index, and the Author's Fidelity) is (by much) the best, and of most use.

[Page 31] In the next place you may consult such as have reduc'd the Canons of Councils to Common-places, having made a Catalogue of their several Heads, and then refer'd to every Head those Canons which concern it.

1. Epit. Juris Pontificii veteris, per Ant. Augustinum, Paris. 1641. Fol. or (if that cannot be had) Romae an. 1614. a very useful Book, or rather a Library of the Canon-Law, to those that rightly use it.

2. Epit. Canonum, Conciliorum omnium, per Gr. de Rives, Lugduni 1663. Folio. He has the Heads for Common-places in an Alphabetical Order, and then refers to each of them, those Canons which concern them: a Book of good use.

It will be convenient to have, and (on occasion to consult) such Authors as have made more full Collections of the Councils, with the Order and Time of each Session of their Acts, Canons, E­pistles, &c. such as these;

1. Concil. per Pet. Crabbe, in 3 Tomes, Col. Agrip. 1551. there is a former, and worse Edition in two Tomes, Colon. 1538.

2. Concil. per Laurent. Surium, in 4 Tomes, Col. Agrip. 1567.

3. Concil. per Nicolinum, in 5 Tomes, Venet. 1585.

4. Concil. per Binium, in 9 Tomes, and X. Vol. Paris. 1636.

5. Concil. in Tomis 37. Paris. 1644.

6. Concil. per Labbe & Cossartium, Tom. 16. Paris 1671.

Now concerning all these, it may be observ'd;

1. That they are all Popish Editions, and have many things to be read with great care and cau­tion; [Page 32] there are Spurious Canons, and Decretal E­pistles of ancient Popes put in, and Genuine Canons left out, or corrupted, or industriously contriv'd Notes to make them look like Rome.

2. To sence against these Frauds, you must col­late Editions and MS. Copies, and consult those Authors (before-mention'd) which have writ Cen­sures upon the Works of Fathers and Councils.

3. Of all the Editions of Councils, and their Col­lections, Peter Crabbe is most commended for his Fi­delity, and (not for none but) less Fraud than those who follow him. All of them generally leave out the 28th Canon of the Council of Chalcedon: And those few who have it, rail at it, and always damn it, as got by Fraud, and the Pride of the Patriarch of Constantinople.

And every one of them, even Crabbe, and Cossar­tius, in their Concil. Maxim. (tho' it be a extant, and printed before b Luther) leave out Concilium Pisa­num secundum, and only name it; and both they and their c Index Expurgatorius damn it, because it makes against them; tho' it was call'd by the Emperor, King of France, and Cardinals, and kept only by Catholicks (as they call them) and that ac­cording to the Constitutions of their own General Councils of Constance and Basil; and the Council it self (both in the time it sate, and after) call'd—d Sacrum Concilium Pisanum.

[Page 33] Of all the foremention'd Editions, that of Labbe and Cossartius, Paris 1671. in 17 Volumes, is the most comprehensive, containing above a fourth part more than any other former Edition; by reason whereof (as also for exact Indices, and many things in the Ap­paratus explain'd) it is of far more general, and be­neficial use for a Divine, than any other Edition.

There are also other Editions or Collections of Councils, or their Canons, of great Use:

1. Versio Vet. Latina Concilii Niceni 2di, per G. Long, Col. 1540. In which, pag. 68. we have these Words,—Post Consecrationem, Corpus Domini & San­guis vocantur, (he speaks of the Eucharistical Ele­ments) now Binius reads it thus—a [...], i. e. Post Conse­crationem Corpus propriè & Sanguis Christi dicuntur.

It was (as is evident by the old b Latin Version) [...], and Binius makes it [...].

2. Concilium Illiberitanum, an. 305. cum Discursu Apolegetico Ferd. de Mendosa, & Notis Uberioribus Emanuel. Gundisalvi Tellei, Lugd. 1665. Fol.

3. Concil. Trident. cum Declarationibus Cardinal. Citationibus Sotealli, Remissionibus Barbosae, Additio­nibus Balthaseris Andreae, Antverp. 1633. 8o. It is of all Editions (for there are many) the best, and indeed an Authentick Common-place-Book, and a Reper­tory for all Points of Popery.

4. Concil. Trident. Canones & Decreta, cum aliis in Concilio gestis, viz. 1. cum Principum Literis ad Con­cilium: 2. Legatorum Orationibus ad Synodum habitis: 3. Synodi Responsis: 4. Patrum Orationibus: 5. Eo­rundem [Page 34] Sententiis & Disputationibus, de Rebus gravi­oribus in Synodo habitis, &c. per Phil. Labbe, Paris. 1667. Fol.

5. Concil. Constantiense & Basiliense, per Zachariam Ferrerium, Mediolani 1511. six years before Luther wrote against Rome.

6. Concil. Constantiense & Pisanum 2um, (quod aliàs non extat) editum ab Hieronymo de Croazia, Paris. 1514. in Octavo. These last Editions of the Coun­cils of Constance, Basil, and Pisa, are of unquestionable Authority, as writ by Papists of those Times, Men of great Note and Learning, and no way infected (as they call it) with Luther's Heresies, seeing they writ before he appear'd against Rome, and her In­dulgences, which he first oppos'd.

And as for particular Editions of some particular Councils, it will be convenient to know some more accurate Collections of the Canons and Decrees of Councils. I shall only name two or three.

1. Bibliotheca Juris Canonici vet. oper a Gul. Voelli Dris Sorbonici, & Hen. Justelli, (Men of great Learn­ing and Fidelity) Paris 1661. in 2 Vol. Folio. In them we have the Codex Canonum Eccles. Anglicanae, (with Justellus's Notes upon both) scarce elsewhere to be had; and many more particulars truly pub­lished, according to the Original MSS. Gr. Lat. and not (as many are) according to any partial Interest.

2. [...], seu Pandect. Can. Apostolorum & Con­ciliorum ab Ecclesia Graeca receptorum, & Epistolarum Canonicarum SS. Patrum, cum Scholiis Balsamonis, Aristeni, Zonarae, &c. per Gul. Beveregium, Vol. 2. in Fol. Oxon. 1672. of great use for a Comprehensive Knowledge of Ecclesiastical Antiquity.

[Page 35] Other Collections there are of Councils of par­ticular Nations, which are to be known, and (when there is occasion) consulted: For Instance,

1. For our Nation,—Spelman's Councils, in two Vol. Folio.

2. For Spain, Collectio Conciliorum Hispa. per Gar. Loaisam, Madriti 1593. Folio. For tho' they may be in Labbe's Concil. Maxim. yet they are not there in so good Order, nor so easy to be made use of.

3. For France, the Collectors of their Councils are many; to instance in some,

1. Concil. Galliae, per Sirmondum, Tom. 3. Fol. 1629.

2. Concilia Galliae novissima, per Lud. Odespun, Paris. 1646. Fol.

3. Conciliorum Antiquorum Galliae Supplemen­tum, Opera & Studio Pet. Delalande, Paris. 1666. Fol.

4. Concil. Galliae Narbonensis, Stephanus Balasius Notis illustravit & edidit, Paris. 1668. in 8o.

As Controversies in Religion are now stated, it will be necessary for a Divine to be acquainted School-men. with School-Divinity: The Fathers of the School-men are Lombard, and Aquinas.

1. For Lombard, the Master of the Sentences (as they call him) Bishop of Paris; he flourish'd about the Year 1145. as * Bellarmine (if he says true) in­forms us. It will be convenient to have,

1. His four Books of Sentences, either Editionis Lovarii 1568. in Quarto; or (which is much better) [Page 36] Edit. Moguntiae 1632. in 8o. Edidit Ant. Demochares, Dr. Sorbon. sub finem annexi sunt Articuli erronei (in quibus Magister non tenetur) partim Parisiis olim dam­nati, partim communiter non probati.

2. Lambertus Danaeus in 1m Librum Sententiarum, in 8o. Genevae 1589. He has, 1. Prolegomena, quibus Scholasticae Theologiae Origo, Progressus & Aetates osten­duntur: 2. Commentarius Triplex: 3. Elenchus Loco­rum, Scripturae & Patrum, quos addendo, detrahendo, vel mutando corrupit Lombardus: 4. In calce, Synopsis sanae & veteris Doctrinae de Trinitate.

3. Joh. Martinez de Ripalda in lib. 4. Lombardi: He 1. gives a short Analysis of each Distinction: 2. A List of the Questions the Schoolmen handle on those Distinctions: 3. Under every Question he cites the Schoolmen, who, and where they handle such Que­stions, and so refers the Reader to the chief Authors who handle each Question.

4. Durandus and Ariminensis; amongst the more ancient Schoolmen, Ockam, Scotus, Ant. 1620. Ockam is damn'd in Indice Expurg. Alexand. Papae VII. Romae 1667. And therefore we may be sure, 'tis some great Truth he is guilty of.

For later Commentators on the Sentences, you may consult Gabriel Biel and Estius (especially Estius) By comparing the Ancient and Modern Schoolmen, you may see that Popery does proficere in pejus; for the Old speak many things more freely, which (since Luther and the Trent Conventicle) pass for lit­tle better than Heresie at Rome.

For Aquinas's Summes, it will be convenient to have,

1. His Summes, Col. Agrip. 1562.

[Page 37] 2. Bannes Vasques, Suarez, &c. or Cajetan (who is the most moderate, and comes nearer Truth and Us) and such others, (for there are many) and Ca­talogues of them may be a consulted. Aquinas's Summes are the most considerable of his Works; and the impious Picture before them tells us, it had the express Approbation of our Blessed b Saviour,—Bene scripsisti de me, Thoma.—

Concerning Schoolmen, and their Theologia Scho­lastica, we may further consider;

1. That our Reformed Writers observe three Intervals of time, which they call Theologiae Scholasticae Aetates.

1. Scholasticorum, & Theologiae Scholasticae aetas pri­ma, seu vetus; incepit c Anno 1020. Lanfranco Pa­piensi Scholasticorum istius aetatis Principe, & duravit ad An. 1220. In this Interval Lanfranc and his fol­lowers undertook the Justification of Rome, and all her Errors and Superstitions, particularly Transub­stantiation, which then began to be hatch'd, and was fully defin'd in the d Lateran Council. 1st To ef­fect this, they equal the Fathers to Scripture: (find­ing something in them) but nothing in this for their purpose: 2ly They make much use of Aristotle's Philosophy, & Aristotelem in Sacrae Theologiae Templi & Sacrarii limen introducunt: 3ly Decretal Constitu­tions of Popes, and all the receiv'd Doctrines and [Page 38] Rites of Rome were Authentick with them; and whatever seem'd to contradict them, was deny'd, or constru'd to a complying Sense.

2. Scholastica Media ab Alberto Magno (ejus Prin­cipe) an. 1220. ad Durandum an. 1330. In hoc Inter­vallo Aristoteles in ipsa adyto Sacrarii Theologiae intro­ductus, & Script a ejus demonstratione miti censentur; quae autem Verbum Dei docet credulitate & opinione, pro­babili teneri; quod etiam expresse & publice a fatentur, & asserunt eorum Doctissimi: hac aetate Quaestiones cu­riosas impias, b Blasphemas temere proponunt Schola­stici, & impie discutiunt, & ex principiis Philosophiae Peripateticae, potius quam Scripturae statuunt defini­untque.

3. Scholastica tertia, ultima & pessima, ab an. 1330. ad an. 1517. Haec Aetas (says my Author) longe im­pudentissima, nam quae modestia in veteri & media Scho­lastica adhuc manserat (ne temere de quibusdam Ritibus & Quaestionibus adhuc dubiis affirmaretur) ista aetate periit. Utrum Papa sit simplex Homo, an quasi c Deus? an participet utramque naturam cum Christo? an potestas ejus sit supra Concilium? an Mariae Conceptio erat im­maculata? An Calix sit Laicis negandus? Haec & si­milia, sub deliberatione quâdam positâ quaesivit Schola­stica prior, sed haec ultima decrevit.

If you desire a fuller Account of the Schoolmen, and their Theologia Scholastica, of the Original and Pro­gress of it, and the Approbation and Incouragement [Page 39] Rome gave it (the main Business and Endeavours of the Schoolmen being to aggrandize and maintain the Pope's Power, and all the receiv'd Doctrines and Rites of that Church, how Erroneous and Supersti­tious soever) these Authors may be consulted:

  • 1. Hospinian Historiae Sacramentariae, Tom. 1. lib. 4. cap. 9. p. 401, &c.
  • 2. Lamb. Danaeus in Prolegom. ad lib. Senten. Lom­bardi 1. cap. 1. 2, &c. fusi. 9.
  • 3. Sixt. Senensis Bibliot hec. Sanctae, lib. 3. pag. 216. Edit. Col. Agrip. 1626.
  • 4. Possevin. Bibliothec. Selectae, lib. 3. c. 1, 2, &c.

The two first give a true Account of the Iniquity and Ignorance of those Times, of the Corruption of Divinity, Introduction of Errors and Superstitions, and the Schoolmen's industrious and impious En­deavours to vindicate and establish what the Pope and his Adherents had as impiously introduced: The two last, Senensis and Possevine (being concern'd and engag'd in the same cause the Schoolmen were) mince the Matter, and conceal the Truth, and tell a confused Tale of the Original of School-Divinity; and at last highly commend it, and its Authors; (even for their a Learning, which all know they were never guilty of) and excuse their bad Latin and Barbarisms with a piece of Scripture, miserably mis­apply'd, transferring that of St. b Paul, to Peter Lombard and his Followers. But others, and more sober Papists, are of another Opinion, and candidly confess that Truth which Protestants affirm and [Page 40] know: I shall name one or two, and 1. Joh. Tritthe­mius Abbas Spanheimensis, speaking of the time of the Emperor Conrad. Tertius, 1140, tells us, a Ab hoc tem­pore Philosophia saecularis Sacram Theologiam suâ cu­riositate inutili foedare cepit, &c. Tritthemius writ and finish'd that Work an. Christi 1494. Joh. Aventinus, no Papist, yet he is commended by Learned Papists, and Conradus Adelmannus, Canonici August. 2. Quod legem Historiae, veritatem scilicet religiose in scribendo observavit. I say Aventine speaking of Pet. Lombard (who was made Bishop of Paris 1159.) writes thus,—Eâ b tempestate Petrus Longobardus Lut. Parisio­rum creatur Pontifex, is quidem Theologumenωn. 4. Lib. scripsit, sed Sacrosanct. Philosophiae veritatem, Fon­temque purissimum (sicuti plus millies à Jacobo Fabro, & Jodoco Chichtoveo, Proeceptoribus meis; and they not Lutherans or Calvinists, accepi atque audivi) coeno Quae­stionum, & rivulis opinionum conturbavit [id quod & usus rerum magis (nisi coeci sumus) satis super que docet] verba haec lineis inclusa, ex jussu Inquisitorum, ex Indi­cibus Expurgatoriis Hispan. Madriti 1667. & Lusitan. Olysipone 1624. sunt delenda: Vide dictos Indices in Joh. Aventino, qui floruit circa an. 1500.

One thing more may be observ'd of the School­men, (and of Popish Casuists and Commentators too, especially those before Luther) that when they speak of Moral Duties, and those things which are within the compass of Natural Reason, to know and judge [Page 41] of, we shall find many things well, and some very acutely said: But when they speak of those things, the Knowledge of which depends solely on Scrip­ture and Revelation (as of Faith, Repentance, Sacra­ments, Justification, &c.) their Ignorance of Tongues and Antiquity, and consequently of the meaning of Scripture being so great: (besides their being inslav'd to maintain all the Errors and Superstitions of Rome, which at that time were very many) In their Dis­courses of such subjects, 'tis no wonder if their Mistakes (ex inscitiâ aut partium studio) be many and great.

It is next necessary for a Divine to have some Casuists, and to know more, that upon occasion he Casuists. may consult them. Amongst the Popish Authors, there are very many; so that all Persons of their Faction may find most Cases, (at least in the gene­ral) stated and determin'd according to the Prin­ciples and Interest of their Church; and their Pru­dence in this is great, was their Cause good.

For Protestants, there no part of Divinity, which has been (I know not the reason) more neglected, very few having writ a just and comprehensive Tract of Cases of Conscience: However, it may be useful to consult both Protestants and Papists.

1. Protestants Casuists; and amongst them

1. Dr. Sanderson, Bishop of Lincoln, his two Tracts Protestants Casuists. or Prelections De obligatione Conscientiae, and De Ju­ramento, are of great use and excellence; for in those Prelections he has so plainly explain'd, and prov'd many Propositions concerning Oaths and Conscience in Thesi, and in general, that he who seriously reads them, and remembers what he reads, may deter­mine [Page 42] and resolve many other Cases, which are not mention'd by Dr. Sanderson.

2. Consult the five Cases of Conscience deter­min'd by a late Learned Hand, (that's the [...], London 1666. in Octavo) no Name to them, but—Parentem referunt, they look so like that good Bishop, that any wou'd suspect (and it is certainly known) those Resolutions are his, and worthy our perusal.

3. Amesius de Conscientia, &c. A Non-conformist, and therefore cautè legendus, as to that particular; but otherwise he writes very rationally, and what he resolves is short, and the Texts he urges very per­tinent: So that when is out, (which is not usual) you lose not much; and when he is right, you have it in a little time.

4. Fr. Balduinus (a Lutheran) and therefore must be warily read, as to that Point, De Casibus Conscien. Witterbergae 1628.

5. Casp. Eras. Brochmanni Systema Universae Theo­logiae, in quo singuli Religionis Christianoe Articuli, Con­troversiae priscae & recentes polemicae expediuntur, & praecipui Conscientiae Casus è verbo Dei practicè deci­duntur, in 3. Vol. 4o, Lipsiae 1638. there be former, but worse Editions.

Popish Casuists are many, and Voluminous; for Ant. Dieina consists of 12 Parts, and 6 or 7 Vol. in Popish Ca­suists. Folio; but these that I shall here mention are of greatest Note, and Authority.

1. Manuale Confessariorum, &c. per Mart. Azpili­vetam Navar. Par. 1620. 8o.

2. Franc. Toleti Cardinal. de Instructione Sacerdotis, &c. lib. 8. Rothomagi 1630. in Octavo.

[Page 43] 3. Vincent. Filliucii Quaestiones Morales, &c. Colon. Agrip. 1629. Fol. He writes as fully and learnedly, as any among the Jesuites; of which sort of Ca­suists, amongst those who do not (as some do) with ambiguous Words and soft Expressions, disguise and mollifie their harsh, and horrid Opinions; I shall name a few, who write plain Popery, and openly en­deavour to prove their most desperate Opinions.

1. Ant. de Escobar Theologia Moralis, &c. Lugd. 1646. 8o. This is a good Edition, but there are two something better after it; one at Lions, and an­other at Brussels 1651.

2. Thomae Tamburini è Societate Jesu, Explicatio Decalogi, &c. Lugd. 1659. Fol.

3. And that we may know what his Erroneous Opinions are, and where to be found, we have a Ca­talogue of no less than 103 pernicious Errors found in his Works, and the place where signify'd, in a Book with this Title—Extraict de plusieurs Erreurs & Maximes pernicieuses, contenues dans un Volume du Pere Tambourin Jesuite, &c. Imprimé à Lion, en la presente Annee 1659. in Quarto.

4. If you desire to see more of the Jesuites Casui­stical Divinity, you may consult Pauli Lymanni Je­suitae Theologiam Moralem, Lugduni 1654. and Fr: Bordoni propugnaculum opinionis probabilis in concursu probationis operum Bordoni, Tom. 6. Lugd. 1668. in Folio.

5. And Lastly, vid. Amadaei Guimenii Opusculum singularia universae ferè Theologiae Moral. complectens, adversus quorundam Expostulationes contra nonnullas Jesuit arum Opiniones Morales, Lugd. 1664. in Quarto. He endeavours to justifie all the Jesuites wild and extravagant Opinions, which the Jansenists charge [Page 44] them withal in their a Provincial Letters and the b Jesuites Morals, and the c Mystery of Jesuitism; and to do this, he shews that many Eminent Au­thors and Writers of the Roman Church (before and besides the Jesuites) maintain'd (with Approbation) the very same Opinions, which are charg'd upon the Jesuites. So that this Work of Guimenius is a Common-place-Book, wherein we may find all the Impious Opinions of the Roman Church, particular­ly cited by Guimenius, and eight or ten more Emi­nent and approv'd Writers of that Church, who publickly held and defended them.

Besides Popish Casuists, they have many Writers, whom they call Summistae, who have put all the Summists. Heads of Divinity in an Alphabetical Order, and then explain each by way of Position, Case, or Que­stion. There are many such Writings, the more Ancient (before Luther, when they writ more se­cure) speak plain Popery, the later are more cun­ning and cautious, yet sufficiently erroneous; I shall name two only:

1. Summa Universae Theologiae Rainerii de Pisis, Venet. 1585. in two Tomes, Quarto.

2. Summa Ecclesiasticae Disciplinae, & totius Juris Canonici, aucta & recognita, &c. Lugd. 1598. Authore [Page 45] P. Crespetio; the most useful amongst them, if I mistake not, under every Head, he cites passages out of the Fathers, Councils, Historians, Schoolmen, &c. And any thing which he thinks makes for the Ca­tholick Cause.

Of this sort of Writers (or Casuists) are Antonius Archiepisc. Florentinus, Card. Cajetan, Turre-Cremata, (in his Summa de Ecclesia) a Book (by reason of the Cardinal's Authority) considerable; as also (which occurs in the end of his Summa) for his Apparatus super Decreto Vorionis Graecorum in Concil. Floren­tino ab Eugenio Papâ IV. promulgato. August. de Ancona, and a Rabble of such Romish Janizaries, the Pope's Pretorian Band, Capitolii Custodes, & Pontificiae Omni­potentiae jurati Vindices.

Seeing every Divine of the Church of England is bound to subscribe and defend the Doctrine and Di­scipline Writers of the Doctrine and Disci­pline of the Church. of our Church, against all Adversaries; and none can do that, before they know and understand what that Doctrine and Discipline is, and where 'tis authentically treated of, and to be found; Jewel, Rainolds, Hooker, * Laud, and Whitaker, are excel­lent Authors; but the most Authentick are, and to be consulted,

1. Our XXXIX Articles, compos'd in the Synod at London 1552. i. e. 6to Edvardi VIti, printed in La­tin, An. 1553. they were in number 42, they were after (An. 1562. Elizabethae 5to) revised in the Con­vocation at London, and reduced to 39. and publish'd in Latin 1563. A Copy of which is in Bodley's Li­brary amongst Selden's Books, with the Original Subscriptions of the Clergy annex'd to it.

[Page 46] 2. Our Book of Homilies, compos'd 5 Years be­fore the Articles An. 1o Edvardi VIti, & Anno 1547.

3. Our Liturgy, which was first publish'd An. 1549. then revised by Cranmer and Bucer, and publish'd An. 1552. i. e. 6to Edv. VIti. And left a establish'd at his Death; abolish'd by Queen b Mary, and again establish'd by Queen c Elizabeth, with some Alte­rations, 1558.

4. Our Book of Ordination; all these are confirm'd by Parliament and Convocation, the Supreme Power Ecclesiastical and Civil; and therefore whatever these four Books contain, relating to the Doctrine and Discipline of the Church of England, is authentick, and obligatory to the whole Church and Nation, and to all Persons, whether Clergy or Laity. This our Common Lawyers will admit, but no more; be­cause they wou'd increase their own Civil Power, and diminish the Ecclesiastical. But we say, and can d prove, that there are other Books, which (as to the Discipline of our Church, and her Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction) are, and de Jure shou'd be, as authen­tick and obligatory, as the former four already men­tion'd; that is,

1. Our Ecclesiastical Canons, made in Convoca­tion in the first Year of K. James the First, An. 1603.

2. The Provincial Constitutions, quas collegit Gul. Linwood, (erat e Officialis Curiae de Arcubus, dein Cu­stos Privati Sigilli, demum Meneven. Episcopus) & Glossis illustrare f incepit An. 1423. perfecit g Glossas [Page 47] illas 1429. not and. Constitutiones has, cum erant in Sy­nodo Provinciae Cantuar. conditae, Provinciam illam so­lum obligasse.

3. Constitutiones Legatinae Othonis, & Othoboni (erant Legati Pontificii in Anglia sub Hen. III.) cum Glossis Johan. de Aton, Canonici Lincolniensis. Not and. 1. Quod Gul. a Linwood citat hunc Johan. de Aton, qui erat Linwoodo antiquior: 2. Costitutiones has Angliam universam obligasse, conditae enim erant in b Conciliis, ubi ader ant utriusque Provinciae Episcopi, Pontificio Le­gato Preside.

Now all these Canons, and Constitutions (Provin­cial and Legantine, and indeed the whole Canon-Law) are still in use, in all our Ecclesiastical Courts, and Obligatory, so far as they are not contrary or in­consistent with, 1. The Law of GOD: 2. The Law of the Land, or the Prerogative Royal: as may (and evidently does) appear by many c Statutes not yet Repeal'd.

The next Inquiry will be, How a Divine may come to know the true Meaning of those Writings, which authentickly contain Our Doctrine and Disci­pline, and the Reason of both?

In answer to this Query (with Submission to bet­ter Judgments) there can be no better way to know the true Meaning of our Articles, Canons, and Con­stitutions, than by a diligent and intelligent reading the Works of those Excellent Persons, who con­triv'd those Authentick Writings, (ejusdem enim est [Page 48] exponere, cujus est componere) and have ever since suc­cessively defended them against all the Adversaries of Our Church (Pope, Presbyter, and Fanatick) and that with Victory; I mean such as Cranmer, a Bucer, b Peter Martyr, Jewel, Rainolds, Whitgift, Ban­croft, Hooker, Joh. White, Dav'nant, Abbot, Cra­kanthorp, Field, Laud, Chillingworth, &c. and such others. As for some later Wtiters (Scriblers rather) they have endeavour'd by the many Apocryphal Pam­plets, which they have of late Years publish'd, to confute the establish'd and known Doctrine of Our Church, and all Reform'd Churches in Europe, and maintain Positions, which are evidently Socinian, Popish, or Pelagian; and we have too much ground to wonder why such as are in Authority, do give an Imprimatur to such pestilent Heresies, which they are bound (by Law and Conscience) to condemn.

Now as it concerns a Divine to know the Doctrine How to know the Er­rors and Opinions of the Enemies of our Church. and Discipline of the Church of England, &c. so he ought to know what are those erroneous Opinions which our Enemies and the Church's hold: for no one can confute what he does not know. To write against Rome or Geneva, and upbraid them for Do­ctines they do not hold, is a Calumny; all that Bel­larmine, Lombard, Vasquez, or Cajetan hold, (who were Great, but Private Men) is not presently to be charg'd upon the Roman Church, but such things as she (by publick Authority) owns in her Authen­tick Constitutions, or Sacred and approv'd Offices: As for Popish Errors, they are either Fidei aut Facti, [Page 49] in credendis aut agendis, such as concern their Doctrine and Discipline.

1. For their Credenda, and Errors in Doctrine, (and many in Discipline too) they have authenti­cally declared, and we may find them,

1. In their Trent * Council; the Best Edition is that at Antverp 1633. in Octavo, (of which before) pag. 18. §. 3.

2. In the Catechism. Trident. (seu Roman.) ex De­creto Concil. Trident. jussu Pii Papae Quinti; there are many Editions of it, but the best and most useful, is that of Paris 1635. in Octavo.

3. In their Pope's Bulls; many Collections of them there are: As for Instance, 1, Eclog. Bullarum Pii IV, Pii V, Gregorii XIII. Lugd. 1582. in 8o. Item. 2, Literae Apostolicae, &c. De Officio Inquisitionis, cum Superiorum Approbatione, Romae 1579. Fol. Extant hae Literae cum aliarum Auctario, in calce Directorii In­quisitionis, per Nicol. Eimericum, Venet. 1607. 3, Novae Compilatio Privilegiorum Apostolicorum Regularium, Mendicantium, &c. per Iman. Roclerium, Turnoni 1609. Fol. In which Collection we have the Bulls of about 44 Popes: 4, Bullarium Romanum Noeissi, à Leone Magno ad Urbanum Octavum, Tomis 4. in Fol. Romae [Page 50] 1638. Edidit Mar. Cherubinus, extat Editio hujus Bul­larii alia posterior, & (additis Urbani Octavi, & In­nocentii Decimi Constitutionibus) auctior, Lugd. sum­ptibus Phil. Borde, &c. This last Edition is best: 1. Because it contains more Bulls: 2, Because I find many things in this last Edition of Lyons, which (be­ing damn'd by the Inquisitors) are to be expun­ged, and the Edition prohibited, till they be so.

4. In their Canon-Law, (of which I shall hereafter write something) all these are of Publick Autho­rity, receiv'd with Approbation of their Popes and Church.

For the Popish Agenda, Matters of Fact and Di­scipline, their Sacred and Civil Rites, and Ceremo­nies, we have them authentically set down in these Books:

1. In Missali Roma. There are very many Editions of it, and much differing one from another, as is evident, and may appear by comparing the MSS. (of which there are many in Bodley's Library, and some in my own) with the printed Copies; the first and more ancient with those that follow. Be­sides the Roman Missal (which never was in use in England in any Age) there are many others proper for other Countries and Places: So we had in Eng­land, 1, Missale secund. usum Hereford. 2, secund. usum Sarum: 3, secund. usum Yorke: 4, secundum usum Evesham: 5, Lincoln: 6, Bangor, &c.

2. Breviarium Roman. there be many, and dif­fering Editions of this, and Breviaries of other [Page 51] Churches, as well as Rome: The Breviary of Sa­rum (so famous in England) they call'd it Portifo­rium, &c.

3. Pontificale Romanum, containing their Offices for Ordination, Confirmation, Consecration of Churches, &c. and other things particular to the Bishop.

4. Rituale Romanum, continet Ritus in Administra­tione Sacramentorum usitatos, viz. Baptismi, Euchari­stiae, Poenitentiae, Matrimonii, Unctionis Extremae, quorum Administratio ad Parochos spectat, &c.

5. Sacrarum Ceremoniarum, sea Rituum Ecclesiastico­rum S. Roma. Ecclesiae Libritres, Romae 1560. Folio: there are many more Editions of it, at Venice 1506. at Colon. 1572. and there again 1574, in Octavo. Whoever desires to be inform'd, and convinc'd of the many Ridiculous (as well as Impious) Roman Superstitions, and the prodigious Papal Pride, let him get that Book.

6. Processionale, Graduale, Paris 1668. Fol. Officium B. Mariae Manuale, secundum usum Sarum, Horae B. Virginis, &c. And (to omit the rest) Psalterium B. Mariae, per Bonaventuram (so they call it) and 'tis printed amongst his Works; it is the most Blasphe­mous and Impious piece of Superstition and Idolatry that ever saw the Sun: For whatever in David's Psalms is spoken of GOD, or our B. Saviour, is in that Psal­ter attributed to the Virgin Mary; and yet * Posse­vine has the Impudence to write—Psalterium Divi Bonaventurae laudibus Beatissimae Virginis summa Pie­tate (Impietate potius in Deum Blasphemâ & Idolola­trica) accommodatum.

[Page 52] All the fore-mention'd Councils, Canons, and Sa­cred Offices, have been receiv'd, and publickly ap­prov'd by the Church of Rome, and so what Errors or Superstitions soever occur in them, may be justly charg'd upon the Roman Church, and they are re­sponsable for them; but not so for the Writings of Particular and private Men, altho' otherwise (for Place and Learning) of greatest Eminence in their Church.

It is necessary to understand the Popish Contro­versies; Books of this kind are very many, to read Writers of Controver­sies. them all, is not opus unius hominis, aut aetatis; I shall name some few of the best, which will furnish an Intelligent Reader with a convenient Know­ledge of those things that are controverted.

1. Dr. Crackanthorp contra Archiepisc. Spalatensem, 4o. London 1625. It gives the shortest and best Ac­count of most Popish Controversies.

2. Gul. Amesii Bellarminus enervatus: I noted to you before, that he was a Non-conformist, but he has very distinctly expos'd Rome, and Bellarmine's Pretences, and given a Clear, Short, and Rational Answer to them. Vitus Erbermannus, a Jesuite, and Publick Professor at Mentz, has published (an im­pertinent thing he miscalls) an Answer to Amesius, printed at Herbipolis 1661. in 2 Vol. in Octavo. But—Omnia cum fecit Thaida, Thais olet; his pretended Reply is inconsistent and irrational.

3. Andr. Riveti Catholicus orthodoxus, &c. It is extant in his Works, Roterodami 1652. In French, Saumur 1616. Lat. 2. Tomes 4.o. Lugd. Bat. 1630. he very fully handles almost all Popish controversies.

4. Chamierus contractus, seu Panstratiae Catholicae Dan. Chamieri Epitome, per Fred. Spanhemium, one [Page 53] Vol. Fol. Genevae 1645. This is more full and large than the former, and may supply their Bre­vity and Omissions.

5. If you desire (upon occasion) further Satisfa­ction in any Question, our own Great and Learned Men, Jewel, Rainolds, John White, Whitaker, Laud, Chillingworth, and others already mention'd, may be consulted; for none have oppos'd Rome, and de­fended the Reformation with more Learning and Success. To these may be added, such as have (ex professo) examin'd and confuted the Council of Trent; as for Instance,

1. Chemnicii Examen Concil. Trident. Francofurti 1578.

2. Examen Concilii Trident. per Innocentium Gen­tilletum, Genevae 1586. Octavo.

3. Anatome Concilii Trident. Historic. Theolog. cum Historia Concil. Trident. per Thuanum, & vindiciis pro P. Suavo Polano, contra Scipionem Henricum, per Jo. Hen. Heideggerum, 2 Tomis, in Octavo, Tiguri 1672. more such Writers there are, but one (Chemnitius) is best, or all of these will be sufficient.

There are some who have writ Enchiridia Contro­versiarum; such as these may be consulted, Epitomizers of Contro­versies.

1. Manuale Controversiarum, per Martinum Beca­num, Herbipoli 1623.

2. Or if that be too large a Work, we may get his Enchiridion Manual. Controversiarum hujus Tem­poris, Duaci 1631. He gives also an Account of the Lutheran Controversies, and of the Calvinists, and of the Anabaptists, &c.

3. Enchiridion Controversiarum, per Fr. Costerum, Jesuitam, Col. Agrip. 1587. & postea Turnoni 1591.

[Page 54] 4. Controversiae Generales Fidei, contra Infideles omnes, (he puts all Protestants in that Catalogue) Octavo, Paris 1660.

And because in all Controversies about Religion, Scripture is urged on all sides, and some things are Interpreters of the more difficult Texts of S. Scripture. hard to be understood; it will be convenient to con­sult such Authors as have writ Explicationes & Con­ciliationes Locorum difficilium.

1. Fred. Spanhemii Dubia Evangelica, Tom. 3. in Quarto: the first Tome was printed at Geneva 1634. the second and third Tomes 1639.

2. Gul. Estius in loca Scripturae dissiciliora, Folio, Duaci 1629. a Learned Writer, who explains many places very well; but being sworn (as all their Ec­clesiasticks are) to maintain all the receiv'd Doctrine, Discipline, and Rites of the Church of Rome, [...], he does explain Places so, as may make most (not for Truth, but) for the Interest of the Church of Rome.

3. Symphonia Prophetarum & Apostolorum, &c. à Joh. Schorpio, 4o. Genev. 1625.

4. [...], seu Contradictiones apparentes S. Scri­pturae, &c. Ven. 1645. 12o.

5. Vindicatio Locorum praecipuorum Vet. Test. à cor­ruptelis Pontificiorum (praecipue Bellarmini) Calvini­starum (he was a Learned Man, and a Lutheran) Photinianorum, &c. in Octavo, Gissae 1620. per C. Helvicum.

6. Conciliationes locorum S. Scripturae, in specie pugnantium ex libris Augustini, per Ludovic. Rabum, 4o. Noribergae 1561.

7. Harmonia totius Scripturae, seu Conciliatio loco­rum Script. &c. per Mich. Waltheum, 8o. Argent. 1621. a Lutheran.

[Page 55] 8. Conciliationes S. Scripturae, &c. per Andr. Athal­merum, 4o. Noribergae, an. 1561.

There are many more Writers of this nature, but these I have here mention'd, may be sufficient.

An mysteria Fidei à ratione naturali apprehendi possunt? Negant.
  • 1. Lubbertus de Christo Servatore, lib. 4. cap. 12.
    For the So­cinian Con­troversie.
    pag. 582.
  • 2. Ludovicus Crocius in Anti-Socinianismo, Disp. 7. pag. 64.
  • 3. Jac. ad Portum Orthodoxa Fidei Defensione, cap. 30. pag. 377.
  • 4. Andreas Prolaeus in Mataeologiâ sua Sociniana, cap. 2. pag. 21, 22. &c.
  • 5. Christianus Dithmarsus in Coll. Exercitationum Anti-Socinianarum, Exercit. 2. pag. 32. &c.
  • 6. Balth. Meisnerus Considerat. Theologiae Photinia­nae, cap. 4. pag. 310.
  • 7. Joh. Hoornebeck Socinianismi confutati, Tom. 1. lib. 1. cap. 5. fusè.
  • 8. Sam. Maresius in Hydrâ Socinianismi confutatâ, lib. 1. cap. 25. pag. 392.
  • 9. Suarez Opuscul. lib. 3. cap. 1o, 2o.
  • 10. Pet. Lombard. Sent. lib. 2. Disp. 26. Vid. Com­mentatores, ibid.
  • 11. Aquinas, 22. Quaest. 2. Art. 3. 4. & Commenta­tores, ibid.
An Sociniani sint verè Christiani? Negant.
  • 1. Lud. Crocius Anti-Socinianismi, Disp. 1. §. 4.
  • 2. And. Prolaeus in Mataeol. Socinianâ, cap. 1. qu. 5. lib. 7. &c.
  • [Page 56] 3. Balthas. Meisnerus in brevi Consid. Theologiae Photinianae, cap. 4. pag. 294. &c. 5. pag. 634.
  • 4. Jacob. Martinus. Synopsi Religionis Photinianae, cap. 6. §. 26. pag. 144. &c. 1. §. 14.
  • 5. Joh. Polyander Concertat. Anti-Socinianâ, prima Disp. 4, 5.
  • 6. Joh. Hoornebeck Socinianismi confut. Tom. 1. l. 2. cap. 9. pag. 188.
Authores aliqui qui contra F. Socinum Senensem, sui (que) sequaces scripserunt.
  • 1. Jacobus ad Portum, SS. Theol. in Acad. Lausan­nensi Professor, scripsit Defensionem Fidei Orthodoxae adversus Christophori Ostorodii Institutiones Religionis Christianae, Genev. edit. an. 1613. 4o.
  • 2. Sibrandus Lubbertus scripsit contra F. Socinum. lib. 4. de Jesu Christo Servatore, 4o.
  • 3. Andreas Essenius [...], Hug. Grotii scripsit lib. cui Titulus—Triumphus Crucis, seu Fides Ca­tholica de Satisfactione Christi, contra Joh. Crellium, Francofurti, 4o.
  • 4. Johan. Henr. Bisterfeldius Nassovius, scripsit de Uno Deo, Patre, Filio, & Spiritu Sancto, contra Joh. Crellii, l. 2. de Uno Deo Patre, Lugd. Batav. 1639. 4o.
  • 5. Wolfangus Franzius scripsit Disp. varias adver­sus Photinianos pro satisfactione Christi, sub hoc Titulo, Disputationes Theolog. de Sacrificiis Satisfactionis Chri­sti pro peccatis totius Mundi praestitae, Typis Firmissi­mis, 4o.
  • 6. Christanus Matthias Dithmarsus in Academiâ Noricorum Altorsinâ Professor, scripsit & edidit Colle­gium Exercitationum Theologicarum Anti-Photinia­num, in quo Disputationes decem: 1. De Notitiae Dei naturalis existentia & essentiâ: 2. De Notitiae natura­lis [Page 57] usu & efficaciâ: 3. De [...], i. e. Nomenclaturâ Divinâ in genere & in specie de nomine Jehova: 4. De Appellatione Deus: 5. De Appellatione Adon, [...] Dominus: 6. De Dei definitione, genere & Praedica­torum qualitate: 7. De Essentiae Divinae unitate: 8. De naturâ Attributorum Divinorum ad intra considerato­rum: 9. De Attributis Divinis ad extra: 10. De or­dine Attributorum Divinorum, 4o.
  • 7. Valentinus Legdaeus Suerinensis edidit Examen Refutationis Valent. Smalcii, quam Thesibus Al­berti Graweri de Aeterna Deitate & Incarnatione Filii Dei, opposuit, 4o.
  • 8. Joh. Winterus Naumburgensis edidit Refutatio­nem Sententiae F. Socini de Justificatione hominis coram Deo, quam tractat in Praelectionibus Theol. cap. 15. Problemata Socini quinque ponit & refellit. Quarto.
    • 1. An in Justificatione nostra peccata nostra delean­tur nuda remissione, sine satisfactione? Asserit Socinus.
    • 2. An Deus poterat peccata condonare sine satis­factione? Asserit Socinus.
    • 3. An vitae innocentia possit censeri loco satisfa­ctionis, & articulum Justificationis ingredi? As­serit Socinus.
    • 4. An Deus voluerit peccata sine satisfactione con­donare? Asserit Socinus.
    • 5 An Christus pro peccatis nostris satisfecerit? Ne­gat Socinus. Idem Scripsit Collationem & Dif­ferentiam Vet. & Nov. Testamenti Sacerdo­tum: Item Tractatum de hac quaestione, An Ada­mus in statu Integritatis fuerit Mortalis? Asserit Socinus. Negat Winterus.
  • [Page 58] 9. Joh. Junius Ecclesiae Sylvae Ducensis Pastor, scripsit Refutationem Praelectionum Theologicarum F. So­cini Senensis, Amstel. 1633. 8o.
  • 10. Balthazar Meisnerus in Academiâ Wittebergensi Professor, scripsit Lib. cui Tit. Brevis Consideratio Theologiae Photinianae, prout eam F. Socinus descri­psit Libello cui Titulus—Quod Evangelici omnino debent se illorum coetui adjungere, qui falso Ariani & Ebionitae vocantur, 8o.
  • 11. Jacob. Martin. scripsit Lib. cui Tit.—Syno­psis totius Religionis Photinianae ex illorum Institu­tione brevi, Volkelio, Ostorodo, aliisque ejus Sectae authoribus repetitae, & breviter refutatae, 8o.
  • 12. Joh. Junius Ecclesiae Essendelphensis Minister, scripsit Examen Responsionis F. Socini ad Librum Jacobi Wieki, de Divinitate Filii Dei, & Spiritus Sancti, Amstel. an. 1628. 8o.
  • 13. Joh. Polyander Professor Leidensis, scripsit Lib. cui Tit. Prima Concertatio Anti-Sociniana Disputa­tionibus 48. comprehensa, Amstel. an. 1640. 8o.
  • 14. Joh. Paulus Fetwinger in Academ. Altdorphinâ Alumnorum Noricorum Ephorus, scripsit Lib. cui Tit.—Vindiciae Incarnationis Jesu Christi aeterni Pa­tris aeterni Filii, pro Alberto Grawero Professore olim Jenensi, 8o.
  • 15. Andreas * Keslerus Superintendens Eisfelden­sis, scripsit Lib. cui Tit. Physicae Photinianae Examen, &c. an. 1630. 8o.
  • 16. Jacob. Martin. scripsit Lib. cui Tit. J. Martini de tribus Elohim liber primus, Photinianorum no­vorum, praecipuè Georg. Emeldeni blasphemiis op­positus, an. 1619. 8o.
  • [Page 59] 17. Andreas Volanus, scripsit Lib. cui Tit. Paraenesis Ard. Volani ad omnes in Regno Poloniae, magno Ducatu Lithuaniae, Somosatenianae Doctrinae Pro­fessores: & ad nova Ebionitarum contra Paraenesin objecta respontio. Spirae, an. 1582.
  • 18. Prodiit not it a pridem Libellus cui Titulus, Specimen Refutationis libri Johannis Crellii de Sa­tisfactione Christi: Auth. L. V. &c. Trajecti ad Rhe­num, an. 1648. 12mo.
  • 19. Extat Meditatio Theologica De usu & abusu rationis humanae, in interpretandis & aestimandis re­bus & Scripturis Divinis, per C. S. A. Lugd. Batav. 1633. 12mo.
  • 20. Ambrosius de Penalosa scripsit Opus egregium de Christi & Spiritus Sancti Divinitate, & Trinitatis Mysterio, contra Socinianos, an. 1635. Fol.
  • 21. Nicolaus Arnoldus Polonus Ecclesiae Beetkumanae Minister, Lib. edidit cui Tit. Johan. Maccovius Redi­vivus; continens, 1. [...] Pontificiorum So­cinianorum, &c. 2. Casus Conscientiae ad normam Doctrinae Socinianae; 3. Anti-Socinum, cum Appen­dice de Atheis: An. 1647. 4o.
  • 22. Hugo Grotius De Satisfactione Christi, contra F. Socinum, * cui resp. Andreas Essenuis in Trium­pho Crucis, & L. V. in Specimine refutationis Joh. Crellii de Satisfactione Christi, Octavo.
  • 23. Vid. Ludov. Lucium De Satisfactione Christi, contra Michaelem Gettichium, Edit. Bas. 1612. 8o.
  • 24. Lambert. Danaeus in P. Lomb. Sentent. lib. 1. multa pro Trinitate disputat. Edit. an. 1580. 8o.
  • [Page 60] 25. Christianus Beemannus Bornensis, edidit Exer­citationes Theolog. pro Deitate Christi, &c. contra Socinum, Smalcium, Ostorodum, Crellium, Menno­nem Simonis, Paracelsum, Wiegelium, & c. Amst. an. 1643. Fol.
  • 26. Joh. Paulus Felwingern, scripsit Examen Dis­quisitionis brevis edit. Norembergae 1637. Octavo.
  • 27. Sam. Maresii Xenia Academica, seu de Divi­nitate & Personalitate Sp. Sancti, contra Socinianos (cum aliis) Quarto.
  • 28. Disputatio Theologica Orthodoxa De Sanctissi­ma Trinitate, Auth. Josepho Voisin, Par. 1647. 8o.
  • 29. Socinianismi confutati, Tom. 1. Auth. Johanne Hoornebecke Professore Ultrajectano, Ultrajecti 1650. Quarto.

  • 30. Hydra Socinianismi expugnata, contra Joh. Volkelium & Joh. Crellium, per Sam. Maresium, Groningae 1651. Quarto.
  • 31. Bernardus Paxillus, scripsit Monomachian pro defensione Fidei Trinitatis, Cracov. 1616. in Biblioth. Bodl.
  • 32. Joh. Cloppenburg. scripsit Vindicias pro Deitate Sp. Sancti, adversus Joh. Bidellum Anglum, Franck. 1652.
  • 33. Josuae Stegmanni Photiniasmus, seu succincta refutatio errorum Photinianorum, &c. Rhinthelii 1623. 8o.
Alli pene infiniti, Pontificii pariter & Reformati sese Socino opposuere, ut passim videre est. Vide sis.
  • Aegidium Hunnium in Articulo de Trinitate.
  • Polanum in Syntagm. Theol. l. 3. c. 2. ad 11.
  • Barthol. Terres in 1. part. Aquinatis.
  • Benedict. Szentkiral. Transylvanum, contra Ge­orgium Enjedinum.
  • [Page 61] Hieron. Zanchium de tribus Elohim, &c.
  • Hannib. Rosseli Comment. in Paemandrum Her­metis.

Calvinum in defensione Orthodoxae Fidei Sacrae Tri­nitatis, contra M. Servetum, & Georg. Blandr.

Erasmum Brochmannum, qui utraque Controvers. parte quaestiones Socinianas proponit & discutit.

Dionys. Petavium, qui fusè pariter & doctè in Dog­matis Theologicis tractandis, contra Socinum disputat, testimoniis ex intimâ Antiquitate petitis.

Tandem longum Scriptorum Catalogum (eorum nempè qui contra Socinum & sui sequaces militant) tibi exhibet Christianus Becmannus Bornensis, in Exercita­tionibus Theologicis Amstelod. editis an. 1643 pag. 12. Ubi Authores 56 plus minus enumerat, qui justo Bello & Marte internecino contra Socinum, ipsumque etiam Socinianismum animosè militant. Qui vellet, videat.

Scholastici (quod ad Articulum Trinitatis attinet) in 1. Sent. P. Lombardi distinct. 2. & in 1. parte Aquina­tis multa disputant, curiosa mag is fateor quam viro cor­dato profutura. Quorum omnium Catalogum laboriosè contextum tibi exhibet Iohan. Martinez de Ripaldâ in Lib. Sent. 1. Disp. 2.

Amongst other things, 'tis exceeding useful for a Divine, to have some knowledge of the Canon Law; Canon Law. there are many Books written of this Faculty, and amongst others (to omit those which concern the Forum, and Jurisdictionem contentiosam) these follow­ing may be useful.

1. For the Original, Parts, and Use of the Canon Law, it will be very useful, first of all to read Dr. Duck De Usu & Authoritate Juris Civilis, Roman. Lib. 1. c. 7. de Jure Canonico, pag. 39. Edit. Lond. 1653.

[Page 62] 2. Institutiones Juris Canonici, per Paulum Lance­lottum, cum Casibus Joh. Bapt. Bartoloni, in Octavo, Col. 1609.

3. Arnoldi Corvini Jus Canonicum per Aphorismos strict. explicat. Amstel. 1651. in Octavo. And this for Brevity, Method, and Perspicuity, may (at the first) be more useful to a Divine, than the afore­said Institutions.

4. Corpus Juris Canonici, cum Accessione novarum Constitutionum summorum Pontificum, & Annotatio­nibus Ant. Naldi, &c. Lugd. 1661. in Quarto, and 2 Volumes: This is the last and best Edition Corporis Juris Canonici, (without the Gloss) and contains many useful things, which are not in any former Edition.

5. If the aforesaid Edition cannot be had, then consult Corpus Juris Canonici, at Paris 1618. Folio, the next in Time and Goodness.

6. Corpus Juris Canonici, cum Glossis, Par. 1612. cum Indice Steph. Davys, in 4 Volumes Fol.

7. The old Edition of the Canon Law, with the Gloss, at Par. 1519. in 3 Vol. in 4o; or any other Edi­tion before the Year 1572. for since that Time, many things are left out of the Gloss, which were in be­fore.

8. Censurae in Glossas Juris Canonici, Colon. 1672. where what is to be left out of the Gloss, is di­stinctly set down.

After a General Knowledge of this Law, a few Books more will be of Advantage to perfect that Knowledge, (so far as a Divine may be concern'd in it) for Instance such as these:

[Page 63] 1. Joh. Cardinal de Turre-Cremata in Decretum Gra­tiani.

2. Abbas Panormitanus in Decretales, &c.

3. Conclusionum Practicarum in Jur. Utr. Foro, &c. 8. Tom. Fol. per Card. Tuschum, Lugd. 1634. The whole Work is in an Alphabetical Order, like a Law Dictionary, and things easy to be found in it.

4. Epit. Juris Pontificii veteris, per Ant. Augusti­num, Fol. Rom. 1614. aut Par. 1641. It is divided into 3 parts: 1. De Personis; 2. De Judiciis; 3. De Rebus, &c. He has a Catalogue of the Popes Councils, Collectors of the Canons, and his Censure of them. A Book of great use for a Divine.

For Explanation of the Terms, and Ecclesiastical Words, which occur in the ancient Canons, Histo­ries, Law Lexi­cons. Councils, and Ecclesiastical Writers, Greek and Latin, some Law Lexicons will be necessary; there are many, but I shall name only what I think most useful.

1. Glossarium Graeco-Barbarum, Jo. Meursii, 4o. For the Greek. Lugd. Bat. 1614.

2. Lexicon Juridicum Juris Caesarei Canonici, per For the Latin. Jo. Calvinum, Joh. Christum, Genevae 1640. which Edition has escaped the Inquisitors Fury.

Notand. Many things in this Lexicon are damn'd, and to be expung'd by the Command of the Inquisi­tors, in the Spanish and Portugal Indices; sed salva res est, this Edition has escap'd Purgatory. Vid. In­dicem Expurg. Hisp. Madriti 1667. pag. 570, & Indi­cem Olysipone 1624. p. 742.

There are more Lexicons, which may (on many occasions) be consulted:

[Page 64] 1. Lexicon Juris, per Sim. Schardium, Fol. Colon. Agrip. 1600.

2. Vocabulum Utriusque Juris, per Alexandr. Scot. 8o. Lugd. 1622.

3. Notitia de Vocabulis Eccles. &c. Rauolta de Do­menico, Magri, &c. Romae 1650. part Latin, and part Italian.

4. Glossae P. Pithaei Capitulis Caroli Magni proefixae, Paris 1640, &c.

It is exceeding useful for a Divine to know the Civil Law. Civil Law also (setting aside the Litigious part of it) such Books as these may be useful: And first,

For a General Knowledge of the Civil Law, con­sult, 1. Ridley's View of the Civil Law, &c. 4o. 2. Dr. Duck's first Book De Usu & Authoritate Juris Civilis, Lond. 1653. Elementa Juris Civilis, per Joh. Arnold Corvinum, Amstel. 1645. in 12o. Justinian's Institu­tions shou'd be read with it: And for a fuller Ex­plication of Justinian's Institutions, it will be conve­nient to have, either

1. Joachim. Mynsingerus: 2. Joh. Scheideuinus; both have writ well on the Institutions, but Schei­deuinus later, and more fully, and (in many things) more useful for a Divine: 3. Theophili Antecessoris Institutiones, Gr. Lat. cum Scholiis Fa­berti, & Notis Curtii, 4o. Par. 1638.

3. Corpus Juris Civilis, (without the Gloss and Case) 2 Vol. in 8o. per Dion. Gothofredum, 1614.

4. Or which is far better, Corpus Juris Civilis (with Gloss and Case) Paris 1612.

5. Codex Theodosianus, cum perpetuis Commentariis Jac. Gothofredi, &c. in 6 Vol. Fol. Lugd. 1665. In [Page 65] which there are many Titles, which concern Eccle­siastical Matters, (Doctrine or Discipline) for In­stance—De Summâ Trinitate Catholicâ—De Sacro-Sanctis Ecclesiis, &c. De Episcopis & Clericis, De Episcopali Audientiâ—De Haereticis, Manichaeis, & Samaritis, ne Sanctum Baptisma Iteretur, De Ju­daeis, De Apostatis, &c. and many such more. Now if we consider the Antiquity of those Laws, and Ga­thofred's most Learned Commentary, and Explicati­ons of them, it must be confess'd, That the Know­ledge of them will be very useful for a Divine.

1. Calvini: 2. Schardii Lexica Juridica (but now Lexicons to explain the Terms of the Civil Law. mention'd) or one of them; Calvin is more useful, and will be sufficient, as to most Latin Words in that Law. Vid. Bar. Brissonii de verborum quae ad jus pertinent significatione, libros 19. Par. 1596. Fol. An Excellent and Learned Work; Alciate and Joh. Goeddaeus, have writ well on the same Subject, in Octavo both. And after them Arnoldus Corvinus, very well, in Octavo, Amstel. 1646. one, or all of these may be consulted.

You may consult (besides Meursius his Glossary) For the Greek. 1. Rigaltii Glossarium [...], De Verborum sig­nificatione, quae Novellis Imperatorum Orientis, post Justinianum regnabant, &c. 4o. Lut. 1601. 2. Glossae veteres Verborum Juris in Basilicis, &c. per Card. Lab­baeum, Paris. 1606. In Calce Emendat. & Observatio­num in Synopsin Basilic [...]

6. There is one Title in the Law of great use in Divinity; (as well as Policy and Civil Prudence) and that is,—De * Regulis juris Antiqui: It contains above 200 Maxims of Law and Reason, so many [Page 66] Principles, and Axioms of greatest Evidence and Authority; being great Truths universally receiv'd in the Roman Empire (Pagan and Christian) by Di­vines, as well as States-men, and Lawyers: And be­cause there is hardly any Rule so universal, but it may admit of some Exception, or Limitations, so those Regulae Juris have been cautiously and learned­ly explain'd by several Eminent Lawyers: For In­stance,

  • 1. Everard Broncherst, 12o. Lugd. Bat. 1641. one of the last, and (I believe) the best.
    De Regulis Juris scripse­runt.
  • 2. Jacob. Cujacius, Octavo, Bas. 1594.
  • 3. Pet. Faber, Lugduni 1590.
  • 4. Philip. Decius (cum Additionibus) Octavo, Lug­duni 1601.

It is of use to a Divine for to be acquainted with De Indic [...] ­bus Expur­gatoriis. the Roman Inquisitors, who corrupt (rather than purge) Authors in all Faculties and Arts; (some of the Fathers not excepted) for this purpose we have,

1. The Popes Bulls, about their Expurgatory Indices, as

1. The Bulls of Pius IV. 1564. in Bullario Che­rubini, Romae 1638. Tom. 2. p. 81, 82.

2. That of Clement VIII. 1595. In the same Bullarii, Tome the 3d. pages 37, 38. vide ibi citatâ de Congregatione Indicis, (as they call it) that is a Con­gregation (A Committee) of Cardinals, who consulted about the composing and perfecting the Index Ex­purgatorius.

[Page 67] For the Rules and Directions given the Inquisi­tors, for prohibiting what Books they pleas'd, we have them (as given by the Authority of the Trent Council) in the end of * some Edi­tions of the Council.

3. For the Indices Expurgatorii themselves, it will be useful to have one or more of them, (for there are many) and if possible of their own Edi­tions: Amongst those we have,

1. Index Trid. publish'd at the end of those Edi­tions of the Trent Council, quoted in the Margin.

2. Index Hispan. Madriti 1612. Fol. & Madriti 1571, 1584. Salmurii 1601. Madriti iterum 1614, 1628. & Hispali 1632. & Madr. iterum 1640. these are the several Editions of it, but the most complete and useful, is that Madr. ex Typograph. Didaci Duaci. Fol. an. 1667. In which we have 4 or 5000 Au­thors damn'd absolutely, or so corrected with a Purgation (as they call it) that the best things are left out, and corrupted .

3. Index Libr. Prohibit. Alex. 7mi. jussu editus, Ro­mae 1664. & iterum 1665. ibid. extat etiàm ex MS. 1667. Fol. In this last Edition the Index Tridenti­nus is joyn'd with it, and many Decrees of the Con­gregatio Indicis (wherein they name particularly, [Page 68] and censure Books) which elsewhere I find * not extant.

4. The Portugal Index, Olysipone 1624. in Folio: Continet 1. Indicem Roman. 2. Indicem Prohibitorum, Lusitaniae: 3. Indicem Expurgandorum, a. pag. 195. &c. vid. Papa. Bullas, & Librorum Expurgandorum Regu­las, ibidem in Principio, ante Indicem.

5. Index Expurgatorius, juxta Concilii Trident. Decretum, Philippi 2i. Regis Catholici jussu, Albani Ducis Consilio, ac Ministerio in Belgico concinnatus, an. 1571. & à Franc. Junio Edit. an. 1586. vide Epist. Dedicatoriam, & Praefat. Junii, Diploma Regis Ca­tholici, & Praefationem B. Ariae Montani, dicto Indici praefixam.

Now 'tis to be observ'd, That in their Indices, Authors and Books are distinguish'd into 3 Classes.

1. In the first Class, the Books and Authors too are damn'd, and all Hereticks (amongst which we Protestants are reckon'd) and all their Books writ of Religion: 2. In the second Class, Books damn'd, but not their Authors, when the Authors are Catho­licks, and yet their Books absolutely forbid: 3. In the third Class, such Books (writ by Papist or Pro­testant) as be purged, may pass. By this we may come to know the best Books; i. e. Those condemn'd by them; Magnum aliquid bonum est quod à Nerone damnatur.

[Page 69] 2. By considering their Indices, we come to know the best Editions of many good Books: For they name the Edition of every Book to be purged: so that if we have that Edition they name (or any be­fore) we are sure it has not been in their Purgatory, nor (by putting in and leaving out) corrupted Edi­tions.

3. Their Indices Expurgatorii (for that use we may make of them) are very good Common-place-Books, and Repertories, by help of which we may pre­sently find what any Author (by them censur'd) has against them,

I shall only commend four Authors more of ex­cellent use.

1. Historia Conciliorum Generalium, in 4 Libros di­stributa, Authore Ed. Richerio, Doctore Sorbonico, Col. 1680. and again at Colon. 1683.

2. Joh. Launoii Parisiensis Theologi Epistolae, in 8 Parts or Volumes; both Sorbon Doctors, and yet write learnedly against the Corruptions of Rome.

3. De Antiquâ Ecclesiae Disciplinâ Dissertationes 7. Par. 1686. Auth. Ludov. Ellis Du Pin Doct. Sorbonico.

4. Selectae Historiae Ecclesiasticae capita, & in loca ejusdem insignia Dissertationes, &c. Paris. 1676. Au­thore Natali Alexandro, Ord. Praedicatorum, & Doctore Sorbonico, in Octavo, and 23 or 24 Volumes. You may consult French Men's Writings (both before and since Luther) such as Gerson, Chancellor of Pa­ris, and Espensaeas, &c. for they write more freely and learnedly against the Corruptions and Errors of Rome, than any another Popish Writers.

[Page 70]Having writ this at several times, and scarce perus'd any part of it, as I would; I hope the Reader will pardon my [...], and (not wilful) Mistakes. If He desire to see any of the aforemention'd Authors, they are all (some few excepted) in my own * Li­brary here at Buckden.

THOMAS Lincoln,

Bishop BARLOW's Letter to Dr. Howell Chancellor of the Diocese of Lincoln, concerning his Primary Vi­sitation.


WHEN I appointed this present Visitation of my Diocese, it was both my Duty, and Desire to have done it in Person; as for several other Ends, so more particularly that I might have the Happiness to know, and be acquainted with my Brethren of the Clergy: But my Age (being now actually past 71.) and Infirmities, necessitate me to lay upon you that Burthen, which my weak In­disposition at this time has disabled me to bear.

The Reason why I have not Visited before this Time, was this: My Predecessor visited the Year he died, and tho' (de Jure) I might have visited the next Year, yet I was unwilling to bring a bur­then upon the Clergy so suddenly; and therefore resolv'd not to visit, until such time as my Prede­cessor (if he had liv'd) might have visited, which was Anno 1677. When being call'd to the Parlia­ment, I was detain'd there, and (till now) had [Page 72] no Opportunity to undertake (what I had really design'd) a Visitation. This premised, I shall in­treat You to commend to my Brethren two or three things, in what Words, and with what En­forcement You in Prudence shall think fit.

1. That they wou'd be conscientiously careful to live a pious Life, and be Exemplary in walking Themselves in that way they commend to their Hearers from the Pulpit; for if they Preach never so well, and do not Live accordingly, they will dis­honour GOD, and do Mischief to the People, who are more apt to follow Examples than Pre­cepts.

2. That they wou'd be diligent in Catechizing the Younger People (I fear too many of the Older sort may need it) that they may know the Prin­ciples and Grounds of our Religion; otherwise to preach to Uncatechiz'd People, is to build without a Foundation.

3. That they wou'd studiously endeavour to understand the Doctrine and Discipline of the Church of England, which they have subscrib'd to, and are bound to vindicate. And in order to this, let them read such Books as authentically contain both the Doctrine and Discipline of our Church, viz. Our Liturgy, Homilies, XXXIX. Articles, and our Book of Ordination. These Books are esta­blish'd by Convocation and Parliament, and ought both before and after Ordination, seriously to be read and consider'd.

[Page 73] Jewel, Whitaker, Reynolds, Hooker, are excellent Authors, who vindicated the Church of England, against all her Adversaries, with great Learning, and Victorious Success; and if young Students in Divinity will apply themselves to read them dili­gently, they will find that these Books are of ex­cellent use for the Explication, and Confirmation of Our Churches Doctrine, and Approved Discipline.

4. And as Divines, we are bound to inable our selves, to know and defend our own Doctrine and Discipline, (than which no Church in Christendom has better, or more consonant to Scripture and Primitive Antiquity) so we shou'd endeavour, according to our Ability, to confute our Adversaries, Papists and Non-conformists, who (as Herod and Pontius Pilate against our Blessed Saviour) are Confede­rates against Truth, and the Church of England.

What I have here mention'd, is to re-mind my Brethren, of what they know already, and of the pressing necessity We now have (if We love Truth, and our Holy Mother the Church of England) to know and confute the Impious and Blasphemous Practices of all those Recusants, which at this Day disturb the Peace of the Church and State.

I desire You to advise the Clergy to pay their Tenths to the King duly, for the Reasons in a Pa­per, which the Reverend Mr. Skelton, my Dome­stick Chaplain will give You: And I have taken ef­fectual order, to prevent the Clergy's being impos'd on, by undue Exactions, from any Officer or Colle­ctor, of their respective Dues within my Diocese; [Page 74] resolving to lessen rather than augment the Fees, &c. which the Clergy pay.

With my Respects to Your self, and my Bre­thren, I rest theirs, and

Your Affectionate (tho' Infirm) Friend, THOMAS Lincoln.

A Short Method for the Study of Di­vinity, in a Letter to a Friend, by an Unknown Author; and found in Bishop BARLOW's Study.


YOU ask of me one of the Hardest things I know: To direct A Young Student in the the Methodical Study of Divinity. If I have any Knowledge in it, I must profess to You, I know not how I came by it: I read as it happen'd, and thought of what I read, and this is all I know of it. It is, I confess, a great Defect in our Church, and the occasion of many Mischiefs to it, but it re­quires a much better Hand than mine, and more Leisure than I have, to prescribe a Remedy for it. But if You will be contented with some free and hasty Thoughts, You shall have them.

The constant Reading of S. Scripture, with great application of Mind, is a General Rule, and ought to be a constant Practice, whether we rightly ap­prehend the true Sence of it at present, or not: For when the very Phrase or Expression of S. Scripture, and the History of it is imprinted on our Minds, when we come strictly to examine any particular Doctrine of Religion, various Expressions will oc­cur [Page 76] to our Minds, and will suggest such Thoughts to us, as are to be had no other way. And tho' it is not suppos'd, that any Man acquainted with other parts of Learning, and beginning to apply himself to the Study of Divinity, can be in such a State; yet the Scripture is to be read, and learnt, as the Grammar is by Children, who know not how to apply the Rules, much less understand the Reason of them. And therefore part of them is to be read every Day, tho' only in English (which I think very adviseable for one who intends the Mi­nistry) without stopping at every Difficulty he meets with, but charging his Memory with the Phrase, and the Series, and order of Events.

But to make the Reading of the S. Scripture use­ful, he must furnish himself with all variety of Que­stions about Religion, that he may know what to observe and enquire after: And you will think it hard, that I cannot direct him better, than to send him to the Master of the Sentences, or Thomas Aquinas's Summs, or Estius upon the Sentences: And yet so it is; Not that I think that either their Que­stions, or Resolutions are always wise, but they will surnish a wise Man with many Material Questions, and with some very Material Answers, and deliver him from the Danger of ever being impos'd on with School-Falacies. And a Man who reads them with this Design and this Caution, will find great Benefit by it. For tho' I am no Admirer of School-Divinity, I doubt the great Ignorance of some Per­sons may be ascrib'd to a Contempt of it, without knowing it.

But then he ought also to read other Systems of Divinity, as Calvin's Institutions, and Zanchius, [Page 77] (whom I take to be one of the best and subtilest Writers of Calvinists) and Arminius, Episcopius, or the late Remonstrant Philip à Limborch. For a Man who will throughly enquire, ought to have the different Schemes of Religion in his Head: But especially to read and consider well the Articles, Homilies, and Canons of our Church: which every one, who intends to be a Minister of the Church of England, ought to do.

Having thus far advanced, you may think I bring him back again, when I come to more par­ticular Enquiries: But if you think well of it, you will find he is not sufficiently prepar'd for them before. And now I begin from the very Founda­tions of Religion; To enquire strictly and severely into the Reasons of Our Faith. And, 1. Why He believes there is a GOD. And here he must review all the several Hypotheses of Philosophy, and exa­mine the Powers of Nature, and the Arguments of Atheists. Tully and Dr. Cudworth, will sufficiently furnish him, if his Curiosity does not draw him further.

The next Enquiry is, Whether GOD has made any Revelation of his Will to the Word: And here he must consider the Authority of Revelation, and the Canon of Scripture: And Dr. Stillingfleet's Origines Sacrae, Huetius, or Dr. Cosin's Canon of Scripture, will furnish him with all that is needful to be known, or direct him where he may enquire further. And this is the most proper time to read the Apologists for Christianity, Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Minutius Felix, Arnobius, Lactantius, St. Austin de Civitate Dei, Theodoret contra Gentes, and such like, as Euse­bius's Praeparatio and Demonstratio, &c.

[Page 78] And now especially it is time to read the Scri­ptures with greater Care; both to understand the Grammatical and Critical. Sence of them, by com­paring the various Versions, especially the Septua­gint, with the Original of the Old Testament, and by our Volumes of Criticks (which have more than all that is useful) and to understand the true Sence of them.

As for particular Commentators, I know not how to direct, because there is so great variety of them: But Ainsworth upon the Pentateuch is allow'd by all. Josephus and Philo-Judaeus (tho'a Platonick Jew) are very useful for the Old Testament, and Maimonides Nevochim, and such Tracts of Jewish Writers, as he may meet with.

Dr. Lightfoot (I think) has prescrib'd the best Method of Reading the Scriptures, by digesting the Historical and Prophetical Books into the order of Time. And the Prophesies are certainly under­stood, by considering the times to which they re­late. Tho' I must needs say, That the shortest and most compendious way to useful Knowledge, is to study the New Testament, and those parts of the Old Testament, which he there finds apply'd to the state of the Gospel; which will enable him the better to understand the Old Testament, when he has more leisure for the thorough Study of it. And for Modern Authors, let him read Mr. Poole's Synopsis Criticorum, allowing for the different Hypotheses of the Authors, and reading with Caution. Tho' (if I may advise) when he intends thoroughly to understand any Book of Scripture, let him read it several times over, and make himself Master of it: Then let him read it Verse by Verse, and observe what the Difficulties [Page 79] are, and try by the Construction and Signification of the Words, and the Series of the Discourse, what he can make of it; and after that consult Expositors. This is the most laborious and slow, but the most useful, and will be found at last the shortest way to true and substantial Knowledge. I have found such advantage by it my self, that I dare recommend it.

From hence, he may proceed to the Enquiry into particular Controversies, which he is now well fur­nish'd for, with a great compass of Knowledge: And here he may begin, and end (if ever he can find an end) where he pleases. And he will easily inform himself of the best Writers on both sides.

As for the Fathers, and Councils, and Ecclesia­stical Historians, I think the best way at first, is to examine, as he has opportunity, such Citations as he meets with; and see to what purpose their Autho­rity is urg'd on all sides; or to read any particu­lar Tract in them, as he has occasion for it: And then when he finds leisure to read them, he will know how to use them.

This is sufficient Employment for some Years; and as imperfect as the Rules are, if observ'd, will certainly make him a very good Divine, and furnish him with useful Knowledge; and before he has done half this, he will need no Director.

I have taken no notice of Reading the Ancient Moralists, and observing the Differences of their several Sects, and how they differ from, or agree with the Precepts of Christianity; nor of the Na­ture of Laws, &c. These being suppos'd neces­sary Prolegomena.


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