THE COMPLETE FARRIAR, OR THE KINGS HIGH-WAY TO HORSMANSHIP. Experimentally unfolding 1. The dyeting and governing of the Running HORSE. 2. How to order, feed, and keep any Horse for War, Pleasure, Hunting, or Travell. 3. How to know the age of any Horse. Lastly, Certaine rare and approved secrets for the Cure of the worst infirmities in Horses.

By G. Markam.


LONDON, Printed by J. D. for R. Young, and are sold by P. Nevill in Ivie-lane, 1639.

To all courteous Readers, and lo­vers of good Horses.

THis my ensuing Book (which I have stiled, The complete Farriar, or the Kings High­way to Horsemanship) was some yeares since collected for my own private benefit, and now, by the request of many friends, sent to the view of the World: It being the last of all my la­bours, I will not commend it; yet so far I will allow of it, that it is not inferiour, if not equall to any of my former Bookes. For my bosome receipts, which I practised daily, not knowne to any but my selfe, (and being now aged) I was willing to impart to the benefit of [Page] all well-wishers and lovers of Horses, to their posteritie: for these will re­vive my memorie, when time hath al­most raz'd out the remembrance of me. And so wishing you all good successe in your experiments, I heartily take leave, and rest,

Yours G. M.
A Table of the things handled in the first Booke.
  • AN Introduction to the Worke, or [...] giving of satisfaction to all reaso­nable practicers, & confuting the wilfull selfe-conceited, touching the limitation of time, for prepa­ring of the Running Horse. 1
  • The first ordering of the Running Horse, ac­cording to the severall estates of their bodies. 11
  • How to diet an Horse (for a match) that is fat, foule, and either newly taken from grass or soyle, being the first fortnight. 15
  • Foure principall considerations touching heates. 30
  • The second fortnight. 32
  • The first bread. 34
  • The first scowring. 46
  • The ordering of the Horse after his scow­ [...]ing. 48
  • The third fortnight. 54
  • The second Bread. 55
  • The fourth and last fortnight. 56
  • The last Bread. 57
  • Certain necessary observations and advan­tages [Page] for every Keeper to observe in sundry accidents. 67
  • How to order, feed, and keep any Horse for warre, pleasure, hunting, or travell. 84
  • Generall observations, helpes, and adver­tisements for any man when he goeth to buy an Horse. 92
  • An uncontroulable way how to know the age of any Horse. 119
A Table of the second Booke.
  • OF sicknesse in generall. 123
  • The true manner of making the true Diahexaple. 126
  • The vertues of the Diahexaple. 127
  • The making of the Cordiall balls. 129
  • For the Botts, and all manner of wormes, & [...] 133
  • Another for the Bots, &c. 134
  • An excellent purgation when a Horse is sick [...] of grease, &c. 135
  • For laxativenesse, &c. 136
  • An help for the stone, &c. 13 [...]
  • T [...]cure and breake an old festered cold, & [...] 138
  • Another for a violent cold, &c. 139
  • An excellent cordiall powder. 14 [...]
  • An excellent medicine against scowring, &c. 141
  • [Page]A [...]ater for sore eyes, &c. 142
  • Another for sore eyes. 143
  • For a bruise on the eye, pearle, or pinne, &c. 144
  • An excellent medicine for a backe sinew straine, &c. 145
  • Saint Anthonies cure for a straine. 146
  • Another for a desperate old straine. 147
  • An excellent medicine for a new straine, &c. 148
  • A perfect cure for a new straine. 149
  • My owne Balme for straines, &c. and sinewes that are extended. 150, 151
  • To help a sinew straine in twenty foure houres. 152
  • An unguent to take away aches, &c. 153
  • For swell'd or gourded legges, &c. 154
  • Another for gourdings, &c. 157
  • Another for scratches, &c. 158
  • For any splent, spaven, &c. 159
  • Another for a splent, spaven, &c. 160
  • A cure for the swiftcut, &c. 161
  • To cure saddle bruises, &c. 162
  • For any maunge, scab, &c. 163
  • For the [...]oulest and most desperate farcie that may be. 164
  • For any founder, frettize, &c. 165
  • To make hoofes grow quickly, &c. 166
  • [Page]A generall salve for any sore occasioned by a pricke, &c. 168
  • An excellent remedy for decayed rotten lungs, which we call broken winded, or any old dry cough, &c. 170
  • How to make Balsamum sulphuris. 171
  • An approved cure for the swiftcut, or any hewing on the legges. 172

AN Introduction to the worke, or a giving of satis­faction to all reasonable pra­ctisers, and confuting the wilfull self­conceited.


I will not dispute the severall opinions of men in this kingdome touch­ing the keeping of the running Horse, because I know many are idle and frivolous, some uncertaine, and a few in the right way: onely (in this worke) I would clear one paradox which is strongly maintained, and infi­nitely [Page 2] pursued by many of our best professors, and that is the li­mitation or length of time for the preparing or making ready of an horse for a match or great wager.

There be divers, nay some which I know, carry the goddesse Isis on their backs, that affirme an horse which is exceeding fat, full, newly taken from grasse, soyle, or lofty, liberall and unbounded feeding, cannot be brought to the performance of his best labour, under six moneths; five is too lit­tle, and four an act of impossibili­tie: by which they rob their noble masters of half a years pleasure, thrust upon them a tyring charge to make the sport loathsome, and get nothing but a cloak for igno­rance, and a few false-got crowns, that melt as they are possessed: yet as hereticks cite Scriptures, so these finde reasons to defend want of knowledge; as the danger of [Page 3] too early exercise, the offence of grease too sodainly broken, the moving of evill humours too ha­stily (which leads to mortall sick­nesse) and the moderation or helping of all these by a slow pro­ceeding and bringing of the horse into order by degrees and time, or (as I may say) by an ignorant suf­ferance.

These reasons I know have the shew of a good ground; for too early exercise is dangerous, but not, if free from violence. To break grease too sodainly is an offence unsufferable, for it puts both the limbs and life in hazard, but not if it be purg'd away by wholsome scouring; the hasty stirring up of humors in a body where they su­perabound, and are generally dis­persed and not setled, cannot but breed sicknesse, but not where discretion and judgement eva [...]ua­teth them in wholsome sweats and [Page 4] moderate ayrings; and for the moderation of all these by the tea­diousnesse of time, as two moneths for the first, two moneths for the second, and as much for the last, tis like the curing of the Gangreen in an old man, better to dye then be dismembred, better loose the prize then bear the charge. For I dare appeale to any noble judge­ment (whose purse hath experi­ence in these actions) if 6 moneths preparation, and the dependences belonging to it and his person, do not devoure up an hundred pound wager.

But you will demand of mee what limitation of time I will al­low for this purpose of prepara­tion, and I answer, that two moneths is sufficient at any time of the year whatsoever, the horse having years, strength, and for­mer trayning, for I speak not of Colts, and he that cannot do it in [Page 5] two moneths, shall never do it truly in fifteen.

But (reply they) no scouring is to be allowed; for they are phy­sicall, then unnaturall, they force nature, and so hurt nature, they make sicknesse, and so empaire health, and that indeed nothing is comparable to the length of time, because Nature works e­very thing her self, though she be longer, yet she hath lesse danger;

I confesse, that slibbersauce scowrings which are stuft with poysonous ingredients, cannot choose but bring forth infirmity, but wholesome scowrings that are composed of beneficiall and nourishing simples, neither occa­sion sicknesse nor any manner of infirmity, but bring away grease and all manner of foulnesse in that kindly and abundant sort, that one week shall effect and cleanse away more, then two moneths of dila­torie [Page 6] and doubtfull forbearance; I call it dilatorie and doubtfull, because no man in this lingering course can certainly tell which way the grease and other foulnes­ses will avoyd, as whether into his ordure, which is the safest; in­to sweat, which is hazardous; into his limbs, which is mischievous; or remain and putrifie in his body, which is mortally dangerous; since the issue of any, or al of these, fall out according to the strength of the horses body, and the dili­gence of the keeper; and if either the one fayl in power, or the o­ther in care, farwell horse for that year. All this envie cannot chuse but confesse, onely they have one broken crutch to support them, which is, they know no scowring, therefore they will allow of no scowring (for thus they have ar­gued with me) Against Barbarisme I will not dispute, onely I appeal [Page 7] to Art and discretion, whether purgation or sufferance (when na­ture is offended) bee the better doers.

To conclude, two moneths I al­low for preparation, and accord­ing to that time I have layd my directions: my humble suite is, out of a sincere opinion to truth & justice, so to allow or disallow, to refraine or imitate.

But they reply (by a figure cal­led Absurdity) that whatsoever is given to an horse more then his naturall food, and that which hee will naturally and with all willing­nesse receive of his own accord, is both unproper & unwholsome, and therefore he ought not to be forced with any thing against his appetite: this I have heard them affirme, and to this I thus reply;

The naturall food of man is Bread onely, other things (accord­ing to the Philosopher) are but su­perfluities [Page 8] and so to be refrained▪ The naturall food of an horse is Grasse onely, and so all things else to be eschewed: at this argument both humanity & divinity laughs. For other helps, as physick, divers meats and divers means are ordai­ned for both, even by the power of the Almightie: himselfe tels the contemners thereof, how grosly they erre in this foolish opinion. Nay allow them a little shadow of truth, that things most naturall are most beneficiall, then it must follow that Grasse is most naturall, and so most beneficiall: now Grasse is physicall, for in it is con­tained all manner of simples of all manner of natures, hot, cold, moist, drie, of all qualities, all quantities, all mixtures; so that whatsoever I give (that is good) is but that which he hath former­ly gathered out of his own nature, onely with this difference, that [Page 9] what he gathereth, is in a confused manner, clapping contraries toge­ther so abundantly, that we are not able to judge where the: pre­dominant quality lyeth; and that which we compound is so gover­ned by Art and Reason, that we know how it should work, and we expect the event, if it be not cro [...] by some greater disaster.

But will they binde themselves to keep the Running-horse onely with grasse, they know then the end of their labour will be losse. No, they will allow Corn, nay di­vers corns, some nourishing and loosening, as Oats and Rye, some astringent and binding, as Beans, and some fatning and breeding both bloud and sperm, as Wheat; nay they will allow Bread of di­vers compositions and divers mixtures, some before heats, some after, some quick of digestion, and some slow, and if this be not [Page 10] as physicall as any scowring a good horseman gives, I report me to him that shall read the mix­tures: nay these contemners of scowrings will allow an egge, nay an egge mixt with other ingredi­ents, and for butter and garlick they will use it, though it be never so fulsome; the reason is, because their knowledge can rise to no higher a stayre in physick, and authorized ignorance will ever wage battell with the best under­standing; like foolish Gallants on Saint Georges day, who neither having ability to buy, nor credite to borrow a gold chain, scorn at them which wear them, or Mar­tine Marprelatt, that not having learning worthy of a Deacon, found no felicity but in rayling a­gainst divine Fathers.

CHAP. II. The first ordering of the Run­ning-horse according to the seve­rall states of their Bodies.

WHen a horse is matcht (or to bee matcht) for a runing course, you are principally to regard the state of Bodie in which the Horse is atThe three estates of Horses bo­dies. the time of his matching; and this state of Bodie I divide into three severall kindes.

1 The first is if he be very fat, foule, and either newly taken from Grasse or soyle.

2 The second, if he be extream leane and poore, either through over-riding, disorder, or other Infirmitie.

3 And the third; if he be in a good and well-liking estate, having had [Page 12] good usage and moderate ex­ercise.

If your Horse be in the firstTimes for matching. estate of bodie, you shall take longer time for his keeping and bringing into order, as two moneths at the least, or more, as you can conclude your wager.

If he be in the second estate of Bodie, that is, very poore; then you shall also take as long time as you may, yet you need not so much as in the former: Grasse cannot much hurt, and exercise may go hand in hand with fee­ding.

If he be in the third estate of Bodie (which is a meane betwixt the other extreams) then a moneth or six weeks, may be time suffi­cient to dyet him for his match.

Now as you regard these gene­rallParticular estates of Bodies. estates of Bodies, so you must have an eye to certain particular estates of Bodies; As if an Horse [Page 13] be fat and foule, yet of a free and spending Nature, apt quickly to consume and loose his flesh, this Horse must not have so strickt an hand, neither can he endure so violent exercise, as he that is of an hard and keltie disposition, and will feed and be fat upon all meats and all exercises▪

Again, if your Horse be in ex­tream poverty through disorder and misusage, yet is by nature ve­rie hard, and apt both soon to re­cover his flesh, and long to hold it; Then, over this Horse you shall by no means hold so liberall and tender an hand, nor forbear that exercise which otherwise you would do to the Horse which is of a tender nature, a weak stomack and a free spirit; provided alwaies you have regard to his limbs, and the imperfection of lamenesse.

Thus you see how to look into the estates of Horses bodies, and [Page 14] what time to take for your matchings, I will now descend to their severall orderings and die­tings: and because in the fat Horse is contained both the leane Horse, and the Horse in reaso­nable estate of Bodie, I will in him shew all the secrets and ob­servations which are to bee em­ployed in the dyeting and orde­ring of all three, without any o­mission or reservation whatso­ever; for truth, Sir, I have vowed unto you, and truth I will pre­sent you.

CHAP. III. How to dyet an Horse for a match, that is fat, foule, and either newly taken from Grasse, or Soyle, being the first Fortnight.

IF you match an Horse that is foule and fat,Matching of a foule Horse. either by running at Grasse, or standing at Soyle, or by any other means of rest, or too high keeping, you shall for the first fortnight (at least) rise earlie in the Morning before day, or at the spring of day (according to the time of the year) and having put on his bridle washt in Beere, and tyed him to the Rack, take away his dung and other foulnesse of the Stable; then you shall dresse the Horse exceeding well, that isOf dro [...] sing. to say; you shall first currie him [Page 16] all over with the Iron combe, from the head to the tayle, from the top of the shoulder to the knee, and from the top of the B [...]r [...]ock to the hinder Cambrell, then dust him all over, either with a clean dusting cloth, or with an Horse tayle, or such like thing made fast to an handle; Then Currie or [...] him all over with the F [...] Brush, beginning with his Fore­head, temples, and cheeks, so down his neck, shoulders, and fore-leg [...], even to the setting on of the hoof [...], so along his sides, and under his bellie, and lastly all about his but­tocks and hinder leggs even to the ground: Then you shall go over all those parts (which the Brush hath toucht) with your wet hands and not leave (as neer as you can) one loose hair about him, nor one wet hair; for what your hands did wet, your hands must rub drie a­gain: you shall also with your wet [Page 17] hands cleanse his sheath, his yard, his stones, or cod, and his Tuell, and indeed not leave any secret place uncleansed, as ears, nostrills, fore-bowels, and between his hinder thighes; Then you shall take an hayrie-cloath, and with it rubbe the Horse all over in everie part, but especially, his face, eies, cheeks, between the chaps, on the top of the forehead, in the nape of the neck, down his legs, feetlocks, and about his pasterns; Lastly, you shall take a clean woollen­cloath, and with it rub the Horse all over, beginning with his head, and face, and so passing through every part of the Horses bodie or limbs, which hath been before mentioned; then take a wet Main­combe, and combe down his main, and tayle; when this work is finished, take a faire large body­cloath, of thick warm huswives Caresey (if it be in the winter sea­son) [Page 18] or of fine Cotton, or other light stuffe (if it be in the Sommer season) and fold it round about the Horses bodie, then clappe on his Saddle, and girt the formost girt pretty straight, but the other girt somewhat slack, and wisp it on each side the Horses heart, that both the girts may bee of equall straightnesse; Then put before his brest, a warm breast-cloath su­table to the bodie-cloath, and let it cover both his shoulders: when the Horse is thus accoutered and made readie, you shall take a little beere into your mouth, and spirt it into the Horses mouth, and so draw him out of the Stable, and take his back, leaving some ordi­narie Groom behind you to trim up your Stable, to carry forth the dung, and to shake and tosse up your Litter, for you are to under­stand, and it is a generall principle, that your Horse must stand upon [Page 19] good store of fresh, drie litter, con­tinually both night and day; and it must ever be of Wheat straw if possible, or Oat-straw, if forc't by necessity; as for Barlie-straw, and Rye-straw, they are both un­wholsome and dangerous, the one doth heart-burn, the other cau­seth scouring. When you are thus mounted, you shall walke forth your Horse a foot pace (which we call Racking, for you must neither Amble, nor Trott) at least a myle ortwo, or more, upon smooth & sound ground, and as near as you can to the steepest hills you can finde; there gallop your Horse very gently up those steep hills, and Racke, or walke him softly down, that he may coole as much one way, as he warmeth another, and when you have thus exercised him a pretty space, then seeing the Sunne begin to rise, or pre [...]ily risen, you shall walk your Horse [Page 20] either to some River, or cleare Pond that is fed with a sweet Spring, and there let him drinke at his pleasure; After hee hath drunk, walk him gently from the water a pretty space, to avoyd e­vill qualities, which custome will gather, as fearfulnesse to drinke for fear of sodain gallopping, or furious running away, knowing he must gallop (which may indan­ger his winde) then after calme u­sage, you shall gallop and exercise him moderatly as you did before, then walk him a pretty space, and after offer him more water: if he drink, then do as before; if he re­fuse, then gallop him to occasion thirst, and thus alwaies give him exercise, both before and after his water; when he hath drunke (as you think) sufficiently, then bring him home gently, without a wet haire about him; when you are come to the Stable doore (before [Page 21] which your Groome shall ever throw his foule litter continually and from time to time) there a­light from his back, and by whi­stling, stretching the Horse upon the straw, and raising up the straw under him, see if you can make him pisse, which if at first he doe not, yet with a little custome hee will soon be brought unto it, and it is an wholsome action, both for the Horses health, and for the cleanly keeping of your Stable.

When these things are perfor­med, you shall then bring the Horse into his stall, and first tye his head up to the Rack in the bri­dle, then with hard dry wisps rub all his foure leggs downe with as great strength as you can, then unloose his breast cloth, rub his head, neck, and breast exceeding much with a dry cloth, then take off his saddle, and hang it by, after take off his body-cloth, then rub [Page 22] over all his Bodie and limbs, espe­cially his back where the Saddle stood, aad then clothe him up, first with a linnen sheet, then over it a good strong housing-cloth, and above it his woollen bodie­cloth, which in the winter it is not amisse to have it lined with some thin Cotton, or other wool­len stuffe; but in the heate of Som­mer, the Carsey it selfe is suffici­ent: when you have girt these clothes about him, stop his sir­single round with reasonable big, soft, and thicke wisps, for with them he will lie at best ease, be­cause small hard wisps are ever hurtfull.

After your horse is thus clothed up, you shall then picke his feet, and stop them up with Cowdung, and then throw into his Racke a little bundle of Hay, so much as an halfe-penny bottle in a deare Inne, well dusted, chosen, and [Page 23] hard bound together, and this he shall teare out as he standeth on his Bridle.

After the Horse hath stood on his bridle an houre, you shall come to him, and first rubbe his head, face, and the nape of his neck with a clean Rubber made of new rough hempen cloth, for this is excellent for the head, and dis­solveth all grosse and filthy hu­mours; and then you shall draw his Bridle, and with a very clean cloth make the Maunger so cleane as may be, and if he have scattered any Hay therin, gather it up, and throw it back in to his Rack; then you shall take the quantity of a quart or better, of sweet, drie, old and cleane drest Oats, of which the heaviest, and the whitest are the best, or those which we call the Poland Oats, or the cut Oats, for those onely are wholsome, the other which are unsweet, breed in­firmity, [Page 24] those which are moyst cause swelling in the bodie, those which are new breed worms and paine in the belly, and they which are halfe drest deceive the Sto­macke, and bring the Horse to ruine; as for the blacke Oats, though they are tolerable in the time of necessity, yet they make foule dung, and hinder a mans knowledge in the state of the Hor­ses bodie; this quart of Oats you shall put into a Sive that is lesse then a Riddle, and a thought big­ger than a Reeing sive, such an one as will let a light Oat thorow, but keepe a full Oat from scattering; In this Sive you shall Ree, dresse, and tosse your Oats very much, that there may be neither dust, nor any other foule thing in them, and so give them to the Horse to eate, and if he eat them with a good sto­mack, you may then sift and give him as much more, and so let him [Page 25] rest till it be neere eleven a Clock: at eleven, come to the Stable a­gaine, and having rubd the Hor­ses head, neck, and face, you shall then take another quart, or better, of Oats, and (as before) tosse and Ree them through your Sive, and so give them the Horse; then clo­sing up your windows, that the Horse may remaine so darke as is possible, leave him till one a clock: and here you are to understand, that the darker you keepe your Horse in your absence, the better it is, and it will occasion him to feed, lye down, and take his rest, when otherwise he would not; and therefore wee commonly use to arme the stalls wherein these Hor­ses stand, round about, and aloft, and over the Racke with strong Canvase, both for darknesse, warmth, and that no filth may come near the Horse. At one a Clocke or thereabouts, come to [Page 26] the Horse, and sift him another [...] quart of Oats, and give them him▪ after you have rubd well his face, head, and nape of the neck, then putting away his dung, & making the stable cleane and sweet, give him a little knob of Hay, and so leave him till Foure a clock in the evening if it be in the Sommer, o [...] after three, if it be in the winter and short season. At foure a clock, come againe to the stable, and ha­ving made all things cleane, then bridle up the Horse (having we [...] the snaffle with Beere) and tye him up to the Rack, then take off his cloaths, and dresse him in al points and every way, as was shewed you for the morning; after he is drest, then cloath and saddle him, as was also shewed for the morning; then bring him forth, and do your best to make him pisse and dung upon the foule litter before the Stable doore, then mount his back, and [Page 27] ride him forth as you did in the morning, but not to the hills, if possible you can finde any other plain and levell ground, as Mea­dow, pasture, or any other earth, especially if it lie along by the Ri­ver, but in this case you can bee no chooser, but must take the most convenient ground you can find, making a vertue of necessity; here ayre your Horse in all points in the evening, as you did in the morning, galloping him both be­fore, and after his water, then Racking him gently up and down, and in your Racking you must observe, even from the Stable doore, in all your passages, espe­cially when you would have your Horse to empty himselfe (if your Horse be stoned) to let him smell upon every old and new dung you meet withall, for this will make him emptie his bodie, and repaire his stomack; After you have wa­tred [Page 28] your Horse, and spent the e­vening in ayring till within night, (for nothing is more wholsome, or sooner consumeth foulnesse, then early and late ayrings,) you shall then Rack him home to the stable doore, there alight, and whatsoe­ver you did in the morning, either within doors, or without, do the same also now at night, and so leave the horse on his bridle for an hour or more, then come to him a­gain, & as you did in the forenoon so do now, rub him well, draw his bridle, cleanse the Maunger, put up his scattered Hay, sift him a quart and better of Oats, and give them him, and so let him rest till nine a clock at night.

At nine a clock at night, which is bed time both for your horse & your selfe, come unto him, and first rub down his legs hard, with hard wisps, then with a clean cloth rub his face, head, chaps, nape of [Page 29] the neck, and foreparts, then turne up his cloaths, and rub over his Buttocks and hinder parts, then put down his cloaths, and sift him a quart of oats and give them him, then put into his Rack a little bun­dle of Hay, tosse up his litter, and make his bed soft, and so betake both him and your selfe to your rests till the next morning.

The next morning (as the mor­ning before) come to the Horse and doe every thing without the omission of any one particle, as hath been formerly declared; and thus you shall keepe your Horse constantly for the first fortnight, in which, by this double daily ex­ercise, you shall so harden his flesh, and consume his foulnesse, that the next fortnight (if you bee a temperate man) you may adven­ture to give him gentle heats.

CHAP. IIII. Foure principall considerations touching Heats.

NOw touching Heats, which is the violent ex­ercise of an Horse, you are to take to your self these foure considerations,

First, that two heats in the week is a sufficient proportion, for any Horse of what condition, or state of bodie soever.

Secondly, that one heate should ever be given, upon that day in the weeek on which he is to runne his match, as thus, If your match is to be run upon the Monday, then your fittest heating dayes, are Mondaies, and Frydaies, and the Mondaies to be ever the sharpe [...] heat, both because it is the day of his match, and there is three daies [Page 31] respite betwixt it, and the other heate. If the match day be on the Tuesday, then the heating dayes are Tuesdaies, and Saturdaies: if it be on the Wednesday, then the heating dayes are, Wednesdaies, and Saturdaies, by reason of the Sabboth: if on the Thursday, then Thursdaies, and Mondaies, and so of the rest.

Thirdly, you shall give no heat (except in case of extremitie) in very rainy and foule weather, but rather deferre houres, and change times, for it is unwhol­some and dangerous, and there­fore in case of showers and uncer­taine weather, you shall be sure to provide for your Horse a warm lined hood, with lined ears, and the nape of the neck lined, to keep out Raine, for nothing is more dangerous then cold wet, falling into the ears, and upon the nape of the neck, and the E [...]llets.

[Page 32]Lastly, observe to give you [...] heats, the weather being seasona­ble, as early in the morning as you can, that is by the spring of day, but by no means in the dark, for it is to the horse unwholsome and unpleasant, to the man a great testimony of folly, and to both an act of danger and precipitation.

CHAP. V. The second fortnights keeping.

NOw to descend to the se­cond fortnights kee­ping, touching your first approach to the Stable, and other by respects, as cleansing, shaking up of litter, and the like, you shall do all things as in the first fortnight, onely before you put on his bridle, you shall give him a quart or better, of clea [...] fifted Oats, which as soon as h [...] [Page 33] hath eaten, you shall then bridle him up, and dresse him in all points as was declared in the first fort­night; you shall cloath him, sad­dle him, ayre, water, and bring him home as in the first fortnight, onely you shall not put any Hay in his Rack to teare out, but onely draw with your hand as much fine sweet Hay (which you shall tosse and dust well, (as you can gripe, and let him as he standeth on the bridle, teare it out of your hand, which if he do greedily, and ear­nestly, then you may give him a­nother, and another, and so let him stand on the bridle an houre or more after; then come to him and after rubbing, and other cere­monies before declared perfor­med, sift and dust up a quart of Oats, and set them by, then take a [...]oafe of bread that is at least three [...]aies old, made after this manner.

CHAP. VI. The First Bread.

TAke three pecks of clean Beans, and one peck of fine Wheat, and mix them together, and grinde them to pure Meale, then boult it through a reasonable fine Raunge, and knead it up with great store of Barme, and lightning, but with as little water as may be; labour it in the trough with all painfulnesse, tread it, break it, and after cover it warm, and let it [...] a pretty space in the trough [...] swell, then knead it over againe, and mould it up into bigge loaves like twelvepenny houshold loaves and so bake them well, and [...] them soake soundly: after th [...] are drawn from the Oven, tur [...] t [...] [Page 35] bottomes upward, and let them coole; at three daies old you may adventure to give this bread, b [...] hardly sooner, for nothing doth occasion Surfet, or is more dan­gerous then new bread; yet if ne­cessity compell you sooner to give it, or that the bread be dan [...] and clammie, so as the Horse ta­keth distaste thereat, then cut the loafe into thin Shives, and lay it abroad in a Sive to drie, and then crumbling it small amongst his Oats, you may give it without danger.

But to returne to my purpose where I left, when you have ta­ken a loafe of this bread of three dayes old, you shall chip it very well, then cut it into thinne slices, and breake three or foure Shives thereof (which may countervaile the quantity of the Oats) very small, and mix it with the Oats you had before fifted, and so give [Page 36] them to the Horse.

About eleven of the clock you shall come to the Horse, and ha­ving performed your by ceremo­nies before spoke of, you shall give him the same quantity of Bread and Oats, as you did in the morning, and so let him rest till the afternoone.

At one of the clock in the after­noone, or after, if you intend not to give him an heate the next day, you shall feed him with bread and Oats, as you did in the forenoone, and so consequently every meale following, for the day, observing every action and motion as hath been before declared;

But if you intend the next day to give him an heat (to which I now bend mine ayme) you shall then onely give him a quart of Oats carefully sifted, but no Hay, and so let him rest till foure of clock in the evening.

[Page 37]At foure a clock, before you put on his Bridle, give him a quart of clean sifted Oats, and assoone as they are eaten, put on his Bri­dle, and tye up his head, not for­getting all by-ceremonies before declared, then dresse him, cloath him, saddle him, ayre and water him as before shewed; also bring him home, and order him as be­fore shewed, onely give no Hay at all. After hee hath stood an houre on the Bridle, give him (as before) a quart of cleane sifted Oats; when he hath eaten them, you shall then put on his head a sweet clean washt moosell, and so let him rest till nine of the clocke at night.

Now touching the use of this moosell, and which is the best, you shall understand that as they are most usefull, being good and rightly made, so they are dange­rous and hurtfull being abused, or [Page 38] falsly made; The true use of them is to keepe the Horse from eating up his litter, from gnawing upon boords and mud walls, and in­deed to keep him from eating any thing but what he receiveth from your own hands.

These moosells are sometimes made of leather, and stampt full of holes, or else close, but they are unsavoury and unwholsome; for if it be Allomd leather, the Allome is offensive: if it be liquo­red leather, the grease and Tan­ners [...]uze are full as unpleasant, besides they are too close, and too hot, and both make an horse sick, cause him to forbeare rest, and re­taine his dung longer in his bodie then otherwise he would do;

The best Sommer moosell, is the net moosell, made of strong packthred, and knit exceeding thick, and with small mashes in the bottome, and so enlarged wi­der [Page 39] and wider up to the middle of the Horses head, and then bound about the top with strong tape, and upon the neer side a loop, and on the farre side a long string of tape to fasten it unto the Horses head.

The best winter moosell is that which is made of strong double Canvase, with a round bottome, and a square latisse window of small tape before both his nostrils down to the very bottome of the moosell, and upward more then an handfull, this must also have a loop, and a string to fasten it a­bout the horses head.

At nine of the clocke at night, comming to the Horse (after your by-ceremonies before taught are performed) give him a quart of clean sifted Oats, and assoone as hee hath eaten them, put on his moosell, tosse up his litter, and leave him to his rest.

[Page 40]The next day early in the mor­ning before day, come to the horse (if he be standing on his feet, but if he be layd, by no means disturb him) now whilst he is lying, or if he be standing, take a quart of cleane Oats well sifted and rubd betweene your hands, and wash them in a little strong Ale or beer, and let them not be too moyst, for fear of offence, and so give them to the Horse: assoone as he hath eaten them, bridle him up, and hang by his moosell in some sweet place, then uncloath him, & dresse him as hath beene before shewed, after put on his body-cloth and brest-cloth, and saddle him, then being readie to go forth with him▪ take his bridle reine, and draw it over the top of the rack, so as you may raise his head also, then take a new layd egge washt clean, and breaking it in his mouth, make him to swallow it down, then wash [Page 41] his tongue and mouth with a little Beere, and so leade him forth of the Stable: at the doore see if hee will pisse, or dung, then take his back, and Rack him gently to the Course, ever and anon making him smel upon other horses dungs whereby he may emptie himselfe the better; when you are come within a myle or thereabout of the starting-post, you shall alight from the Horses back, and take off his body-cloth, and brest-cloth, and then girt on the saddle againe; then sending away your Groome both with those clothes, and o­ther cleane drie rubbing-clothes, let him stay at the last end of the Race till you come, then yourself Rack your Horse gently up to the starting-post and beyond, making him smell to that post, as you should also doe to the first post (which wee call the waighing post) that he may thereby take no­tice [Page 42] of the beginning and ending of his course, and there start your horse roundly and sharply, at neer a three quarters speed, and accor­ding to his strength of body, abi­lity of mind, and cheerfulnesse of spirit, run him the whole Course through, but by no means do any thing in extremity, or above his winde and strength, but when you finde him a little yeeld, then give him a little ease, so that all he doth may be done with pleasure, and not with anguish, for this manner of trayning will make him take delight in his labour, and so in­crease it, the contrary will breed discomfort, and make exercise irksome. Also during the time you thus course your horse, yet shall with all carefulnesse note up­on what grounds he runneth best▪ as whethe up the hill, or down the hill, whether on the smooth earth, or on the rough, whether on the [Page 43] wet, or on the drie, or whether on the level, or the earth that is some­what rising; and according as you finde his nature and disposition, so maintaine him for your owne advantage.

When you have thus courst the course over strongly & swift­ly, and after a little slightly gal­lopt him up and down the field to [...]ake his winde, and cheare his spi­rits, you shall then (your Groom being ready with your cloaths and other necessaries) ride into some warme place, as under the covert of some Hedge, Bushes, or Trees, into some hollow drie ditch, pit, or other defence from the ayre, and there alight from his back, and first with a Glasing-knife, or a scraping knife as some call it, made either of some broken sword-blade, some old broken Sithe, or for want of them, of a thinne peece of old hard Oaken [Page 44] wood, and fashioned like a broad long knife, with a sharp edge; and using this with both your hands, scrape off all the sweat from your Horse in every part wheresoever you finde any wet, excepting his Buttocks, which must not bee touched; and thus do till you find there will no more sweat arise, and ever an anon move and stirre the horse up and down, and then with dry cloaths rub him all over excee­dingly, his buttocks still excepted, then take off the saddle, and ha­ving glazed, and rubb'd his backe, put on his body-cloth and brest­cloth, and then set on the saddle again, and girt it, then gallop the Horse gently forth againe a little space, ever and anon rubbing his head, neck, and bodie, as you sit on his back, then walk him about the fields, or downs to cool him, and when you finde that he drieth apace, then Racke him gently [Page 45] homeward, sometimes Racking, and sometime gallopping, but by no means bring him to the Stable, [...]ill you finde he have not one wet [...]aire about him: when you have brought him to the Stable doore [...]rie, there dismount, and having [...]ntic'd him to pisse, and emptie himselfe, then lead him into his Stall, and there tye his head gent­ [...]y up to the Racke, with his bri­ [...]le, which done, presently (as having prepared it before) give the Horse this scowring made in his manner.

CHAP. VII. The First Scowring.

TAke a pinte of the best sweet Sac [...] and put the [...] [...] an ounce of the clearest and p [...] rest Rozen [...] sed to a very fine dust, and jumbl [...] and brew them together excee­ding much, then when the Sack [...] and it is incorporated together, put thereto halfe a pinte of the best Sallet-oyle, and brew the [...] also well together: Then lastly▪ take an ounce and an halfe of browne Suger-candie beaten to [...] to powder, and a spoonefull of London Treacle, and put them in also, then mull all upon the fire, and being luke-warme, take [Page 47] of the Syrrop of Roses a pinte, and dissolve into it of Casfi [...], of Agarike, and of Myrrhe, of each a quarter of an ounce; then being onely warmed against the Fire, and the Horse newly come in from his heat, as before I shew­ed you, draw his head up to the Racke, and with an horne give him this Scowring, for it is a strong one, and this taketh away and avoydeth all manner of mol­ten grease, and foulnesse what­soever.

CHAP. VIII. Ordering of the Horse after his scowring.

ASsoone as you have given your Horse this scowring, pre­sently let your Groom fall to rub­bing of his legs, and do your selfe take off his saddle and cloaths▪ and finding his bodie drie, runne slightly over it with your Curry­combe, after with the brush, then dust well, and lastly, rub all his bodie over exceeding well with drie cloaths, especially his head, nape of the neck, and about his heart, then cloath him up warme as at his other ordinary times, and wisp him round with great warm wisps, and if you throw over him [Page 49] a light loose blanket, it will not bee amisse in these extraordi­nary times, especially if the sea­son bee cold; keepe him fasting two hours after the receipt of his scowring, and waking, and stir­ring three or four, for rest is hurt­full to the medicine, and mo­tion a benefit.

After your Horse hath fasted upon the bridle full two houres or more, then you shall take an handful of wheat ears, being your Pollard wheate, that is without Annes or rough beards, and com­ming to the Horse, first handle the roots of his eares, then put your hands under his cloathes against his heart, upon his flanks, and on the nether part of his thighes, and if you finde any nesh sweat to a­rise, or any coldnesse of sweat, or if you see his bodie beate, or his breath move fast, then forbeare to give him any thing, for it is a [Page 50] pregnant signe that there is much foulnesse stirred up, on which the medicine working with a conque­ring qualitie, the Horse is brought to a little heart-sicknesse, there­fore in this case, you shall onely take off his bridle, and put on his collar, then tosse up his litter that he may lye down, and so absent your selfe (having made the stable darke and still) for two houres more, which is the utmost end of that sicknesse. But if you finde no such offence, then you shall pr [...]f­fer him the eares of wheat by three or foure together, and if he [...]e this handfull, then give him an­other.

After he hath eaten the wh [...] ears, you shal then give him a little bundle of Hay, such as hath been before declared, and draw his bri­dle, rubbing his head well.

An houre or better after he hath had his Hay, you shall sift him▪ [Page 51] quart of Oats, and to them you shall put two or three handfulls of Spelted beanes, which you shall cause to be Reed and drest so clean as is possible from all manner of hulls, dust, and filth whatsoever, so as there may be nothing but the clean spelted Beanes themselves▪ to these Oats and Beans, you shall break two or three shives of bread cleane chipt, and give all unto the Horse, and so leave him to his rest, for neare three houres, or there­about.

At evening before you dresse the Horse, give the like quantity of Oats, spelt-beans, and bread, and when hee hath eaten them, then bridle him up and dresse him as before declared, and after hee is drest, then cloath him up, [...]on you shall neither saddle him, nor ride him foorth: for you shall un­derstand that this evening, after his heate, the horse being inward­ly▪ [Page 52] foule, and the scowring yet working in his bodie, he may not receive any water at all.

After the Horse is drest, and hath stood an houre and an halfe upon his bridle, you shall then take three pintes of cleane sifted Oats, and wash them in strong Ale, or Beere, and so give them to the Horse, for this will inwardly coole and refresh him, as if hee had drunke water.

After he hath eaten this washe meat, and rested upon it a little space, you shall then at his feeding times (which have been spoken of before) with Oats and spelt beans, or Oats and bread, or all together, or each severall and simple of it selfe, excepting Beanes (as you shall find the stomack of the horse best adicted to receive it) feed him that night in plentifull manner, and leave a knob of Hay in the Rack when you go to bed.

[Page 53]The next day very early as may be, first feed, then dresse, after cloath and saddle, then ayre him abroad, and water him as hath been before shewed, after bring him home, and feed him with oats, spelt beans, and bread, as was last of all declared, onely very little Hay, and keep your heating daies, and the preparation the day before in such wise as hath been also for­merly declared, without any o­mission or addition.

Thus you shall spend the second fortnight, in which your Horse having received four heats sound­ly given unto him, and four scow­rings, there is no doubt but his body will bee drawne inwardly cleane, you shall then the third fortnight order him according to those rules, which hereafter fol­low.

CHAP. IX. The third Fortnights keeping.
The second Bread.

THis third fortnight you shall make his bread fi­ner then it was former­ly, as thus. You shall take two pecks of cleane Beanes, and two pecks of fine wheate, grinde them on the black stones, searse them through a fine raunge, and knead it up with Barm, and great store of lightning, working it in all points, and baking it in the same sort, as was shewed you in the former bread.

With this Bread (having the crust cut cleane away, and being old as before shewed) with cleane sifted Oats, and with clean drest [Page 55] spelt-beanes you shall feed your Horse this fortnight, as you did the fortnight before, you shall observe his dressings, agreeings, and howers of feeding, as in the former fortnight, also you shall observe his heating dayes, and the day before his heat, as in the for­mer fortnight, onely with these differences;

First you shall not give his heats so violently as before, but with a little more pleasure, that is to say, if the first heate bee of force, and violence, the second heat shall be of pleasure and ease, and indeed none at all to overstrain the horse, or to make his body sore.

Next you shall not after his heat (when hee commeth home) give him any more of the former scow­ring, but instead thereof, you shall instantly upon the end of your heat, after the horse is a little coo­led and clothed up, and in the [Page 56] same place where you rub him, by drawing his head up aloft as you sit in the saddle, or raising it up o­therwise, give him a ball some­what bigger then a French walnut hull and all, of that which is men­tioned in the fourth Chapter of the booke of cures, and goeth by this Title. And thus you shall spend the third Fortnight.

CHAP. VIII. The fourth and last Fortnights keeping.

HAving thus spent the three first Fort­nights, you shall the fourth and last Fortnight, make your Horses Bread much fine [...] then either of the former, as thus

The last Bread.

Take three pecks of fine wheat, and but one peck of cleane Beans, grinde them together on the black stones, and boult them through the finest boulter you can get, then knead it up with very sweet Ale, Barme, and new strong Ale, and the Barme beaten together, and also the whites of at least twenty eggs, but in any wise no water at all, but instead therof, some small quantity of new milke, then work it up, and labour it with all pain­fulnesse that may be, as was shew­ed in the first batch, then bake it and order it as was declared in the other.

With this Bread (having the crust cut cleane away) and with Oats well sunned, beaten and rubb'd over with your hands, then new winnowed, sifted, and most [Page 58] finely drest, that there may bee neither light ones, nor foule ones, nor any false grain amongst them; and with the purest spelted Beans that can be tryed out, feed your Horse at his ordinary feeding times, in such wise as you did in the fortnight last mētioned before▪ You shall keepe his heating daies, the first weeke of this last fort­night, in such wise as you did in the former fortnight, but the last week you shall forbeare one heat, and not give him any heat five daies before his match at the lea [...]t, onely you shall give him long and strong ayerings to keepe him in winde.

You shall not need this Fort­night to give him any scowring at all.

If this fortnight, morning, and evening, you burne (upon a c [...] ­ [...]ingdish and coals) in your Stable of the purest Oliba [...]m, or Fr [...] ­incens [...], [Page 59] mixt with Storax, and Benjamine, to perfume and swee­ten the Roome, you shall finde it exceeding wholsome for the Horse, and he will take wonder­full delight therein.

In this fortnight when you give your horse any washt meat, wash it not in Ale, or Beere, but in the whites of eggs, or muskadine, for that is more wholsome and lesse pursey.

This fortnight give your horse no Hay at all, but what he taketh out of your hand after heats and ayrings, and that must be in little quantity, and cleane dusted and drest, unlesse he be an exceeding evill feeder, marvailous tender, and a great belly-looser.

The last week of this fortnight, if your Horse bee a foule feeder, you must use the muzell continu­ally; but if he be a cleane feeder, and will touch no litter, then three [Page 60] daies before your match, is a con­venient time for the use of the mu­zell.

The morning, the day before your match, feed well both be­fore and after ayring, and water as at other times, before noone, and after noone, scant his propor­tion of meat a little before and af­ter evening ayrings, feed as at noone, water as at other times; but be sure to come home before sunne set. This day you shall cool your Horse, shooe him, and doe all extraordinary things of orna­ment about him, provided there be nothing to give him offence, or to hinder him in resting, in emptying, or any other naturall or beneficiall action.

It is true, I have heard some horsmen say, that when they had put on the muzell, shod their hor­ses with light shooes, and done o­ther actions of ornament about [Page 61] them, the night before the course, that their Horses have taken such speciall notice thereof, that they have refused both to eat, and lye downe; But I feare there is a great mistake in this conceit, for it is not the thing (as the muzell, the shooes, and other trifles) which drawes on these apprehensions, but the abuse, and misuse of them, as when the muzel is too close, un­savoury, or suffocats and over­heats the Horse (which the net­muzell never doth) when the shooes stand uneasie, or any other toy of curiosity that gives offence, then no question but these acci­dents happen; for mine own part, touching the nice and straight pla­ [...]ing up of horses tailes in the man­ner of Sackers, or docks (which is now in generall use) howsoever the ornament may appeare great to the eie, yet I do not much af­fect it, because I know if an igno­rant [Page 62] hand have the workmanship thereof, he may many waies give offence to the Horse, and in avoy­ding cumbersomnesse, breed a great deale more cumber: there­fore I wish every one rather to a­voyd curiosity (which we call ne­cessary ornament) then by these false graces to doe injury to the Horse. Now for the necessary and indifferent things which are to be done to the Horse, I would rather have them done the day before, then on the morning of the course, because I would have the Horse that morning to finde no trouble or vexation.

Late at night you shall feed as you did in the morning. Now I do not set you down exactly what meat to feed withall, because you must bee ruled according to the Horses stomack, and what meat hee best liketh, of that give him most, either of the simple, or with [Page 63] any other compounded, yet ob­serving that the meate which is lightest of digestion, is fittest for this purpose, and the more (at this time) you forbeare Beanes, and bread, the better it is.

The next morning (which is the match day) come to your horse before day, take off his muz­zle, rub his head well, and give him a pretty quantity of Oats washt in muskadine, if he will eat them, or in the whites of eggs, or if hee refuse both, then trie him with fine drest Oats mixt with a little wheat, or with your lightest bread; as for beans forbear them. Of any of these foods give him such a quantity as may keepe life and soule together; then if hee be an evill emptier, and will retaine meat long, you may walke him a­broad and in the places where he used to emptie, there entice him to emptie, which assoone as hee [Page 64] hath done, bring him home, put on his muzzle, let him rest till you have warning to make ready and leade forth, but if hee be a good and free emptying Horse, then you need not stirre him, but let him lie quiet.

When you have warning to pre­pare for leading out, come to your Horse, and having washt his navell in a little Muskadine, take off his muzzle, and bridle him up, but be­fore you bridle, if you think your Horse too emptie, you may give him three or foure mouthes full of the washt meat last spoke of, then bridle him up and dresse him, after having pircht your saddle and girthes with shoomakers waxe, set it on his backe, and girt it as gent­ly as may be, so as he may have a feeling, but no straightnesse; then lay a very white sheet over the sad­dle next his skinne, and over it his ordinary cloathes, then his [Page 65] body-cloth, and brest-cloth, and wispe them round about with soft wisps, then if you have a counte­point or cloth of state for bravery sake, let it bee fastned above all: when this is done, and you are ready to draw out, then take halfe a pinte of the best muskadine, and give it him with an horne, and so lead him away.

In your leading upon the course, use gentle and calme motion, suf­fering the Horse to smell upon e­very dung, that thereby hee may emptie himselfe. And in especiall places of advantage, as where you finde Rushes, long Grasse, Lyng, Heath, or the like, walke your Horse, and entice him to pisse, but if you finde no such help, then in especiall places, up­on the course, and chiefly towards the latter end, and having used the same meanes before, breake some of your wispes under the [Page 66] Horses bellie, and so make him pisse.

Also in your leading, if any white or thick foame, or froth a­rise about the horses mouth, you shall with a cleane handkerchiefe wipe it away, and carrying a small bottle of cleere water about you, wash your horses mouth now and then therewith.

When you come to the place of start, before you turle or uncloath the horse, rub and chafe his legs with hard wisps, then pick his feet, then wash his mouth with water, then uncloath him, mount his Rider; start faire, and then refer all the rest, to Gods good will and pleasure.

CHAP. XI. Certaine necessary observations and advantages, for every Keeper to observe in sundry accidents.

THere is no unreaso­nable creature of pleasure, subject to so many disa­sterous chaunces of fortune, as the Horse; and especially the Runn­ing horse, both by reason of the multiplicity of diseases belonging unto them, as also the violence of their exercise, and the nice tender­nesse of their keeping, and there­fore it behooveth every Keeper to be armed with such observations, as may discerne mischiefes, and those helpes, which may amend them when they happen.

[Page 68]The first observation therefore that I would arm our keeper with­all, is, to discerne sicknesse from health, as thus,

1 Observations for sicknesse and health.

If you finde in your Horses hea­vinesse of countenance, extreame loosnesse, or extream costivenesse, shortnesse of breath, loathing of meate, dull and imperfect eyes, rotten or dry cough, staring haire, or haire unnaturally discolloured, a staggering pace, franticke beha­viour, yellownesse of the eyes and skin, faint or cold sweat, extra­ordinary lying down, or beating or looking backe at the body, al­teration of qualities, and gestures, not casting of his coate, leannesse, hydebound, and the like, all these are apparent signes of distem pera­ture or sicknesse.

2 Observations from the dung.

It is necessary that our Keeper observe his Horses dung, for it is the best tell-troth of a horses in­ward parts, yet he must not judge it by a generall opinion, but by a private discourse with himselfe, how the Horse hath beene fed, be­cause food is the onely thing that breeds alteration, as thus. If the dung becleere, crisp, and of a pale and whitish yellow complexion, hanging together without separa­tion, more then as the waight breaks it in the falling, being nei­ther so thin that it will runne, nor so thick, but it will a little flat on the ground, and indeed both in savour, and substance, somewhat resembling a sound mans ordure; then is the Horse cleane, well fed, and without imperfection; If it be well colloured, yet fall from [Page 70] him in round knots, or pellets, so it be but the first or second dung onely, and the rest good as before­sayd, it matters not much, for it onely shewes that he did eate Hay lately, and that will ever come a­way first of all; but if all his dungs be alike, then it is a signe of foule feeding, and hee hath either too much Hay, or eats too much lit­ter, and too little corne; If his dung bee in round pellets, and blackish, or browne, it shewes in­ward heate in the body; if it bee greasie, it shewes foulnesse, and that grease is molten, but cannot come away; If he do avoyd grease in grosse substance with his dung, if the grease be white, and cleere, then it comes away kindly, and there is no danger, but if it be yel­low or putrified, then the grease hath layne long in his bodie, and sicknesse may follow, if not pre­vented; if his dung bee red and [Page 71] hard, then the Horse hath had too strong heats, and costivenesse will follow; if it be pale and loose, it shewes inward coldnesse of body, or too moyst feeding.

3 Observations from the Vrine.

As the keeper hath thus a prin­cipall respect to the horses dung, so hee shall take some little note from his Vrine also; and though they be not altogether so materi­all as the other, because according to the opinion of Physitians, Vrina est meretrix, Urine is a deceiver, chiefly in the horse, because hee neither eats, drinks, nor labours according to his owne minde, but his Masters pleasure: yet it hath some true faces, as thus: that V­rine which is of a pale yellowish collour, rather thicke then thin, of a strong smell, and a peircing condition, is a healthfull, sound, [Page 72] and good Vrine; but if you finde any note or complexion contrary to these, then in the horse is some imperfection, as thus: If the Vrine be of an high ruddie complexion, either like blood, or inclining to blood, then hath the Horse ei­ther had too sore heats, beene o­ver-ridden, or ridden too earlie after winter grasse; if the Vrine be of an high complexion, cleere and transparent, like old March beere, then the Horse is inflamed in his bodie, and hath taken some surfeit; if the Vrine carry a white cream on the top, it shews a weak backe, and consumption of seed, a greene Vrine shewes a consump­tion of blood, an Urine with bloody streakes, shewes an ulcer in the kidnies, and a blacke thick cloudy Vrine, shewes death and mortality.

[Page 73] 4 Observations in Feeding.

Againe our keeper must observe that if there bee any meate, drink, or other nourishment which hee knoweth good for the Horse, yet the Horse refuseth to take it, in this case, hee shall not violently thrust it upon the Horse, or by force cramme him therewith, but by gentile degrees, and cunning enticements, and by processe of time win him therunto, tempting him when hee is most hungry, or most thirsty, and if hee get but a bit at a time, or a sup at a time, it will soone increase to a greater quantity, and ever let him have lesse than he desireth; and that he may the sooner bee brought unto it, mixe the meat hee loveth best, with that hee loveth worst, the drinke hee loveth best, with that hee loveth worst, till both bee [Page 75] made alike familiar, and so shall the Horse be a stranger to nothing that is good or wholsome.

5 Observations in case of lamenesse.

Againe our keeper must observe if his Horse bee subject to lame­nesse, or stiffenesse of joynts or sinewes, to surbating or tender­nesse of feet, first to give him his heats upon soft and smooth carpet earth, and to forbeare stony ground, hard high-waies, crosse cuts and furrowes, till extremity, or the match day compell him.

6 Observations from the state of the Horses body.

It is good for our keeper to ob­serve, that the strongest estate of body, which I account the high­est and fullest of flesh, so it bee good, hard, and without inward [Page 74] foulenesse, to bee the best and a­blest for the performance of these wagers: yet hee must herein take to himselfe two considerations, the one the shape of the Horses body, the other, his inclination and manner of feeding. For the shape of bodie, there bee some Horses that are round, plump, and close knit together, so that they will appeare fat, and well-shaped, when they are leane and in pover­tie, others are raw-boned, slender and loose knit together, and will appeare leane, deformed, and in poverty when they are fat, foule, and full of grosse humours. So likewise for their inclinations, some Horses (as the first before named) will feed outwardly, and will carry a thick rib, when they are inwardly as leane as may bee, and without all manner of ful­nesse; There bee others (as the latter) that will appeare leane to [Page 76] the eye, and shew nothing but skin and bone, when they are full of inward fatnesse, and have guts as foule as may bee. In this case the keeper hath two helps to advan­tage his knowledge, the one out­ward, the other inward.

The outward helpe, is the out­ward handling and feeling of the Horses body generally all over, all his ribs, but particularly upon his short and hindmost ribbes, if his flesh generally handle soft, and loose, and your fingers sinck into it, as into down, then is the horse foule without question, but if ge­nerally it be hard and firme, onely upon the hindmost rib it handleth soft and downy, then it is a preg­nant signe there is grease, and foule matter within the Horse which must bee avoyded, how leane or poore so ever hee appeare in out­ward speculation.

The inward help is onely sharp [Page 77] exercise, and strong scowring, the first will dissolve and melt the foulenesse, the latter will bring it away in abundance.

If your Horse be fat, and thick, and as it were closed up betweene the chaps, or if his jawes handle fleshie and full, it is a sign of much foulnesse both in the head, and bo­die; But if hee handle thinne, and cleane, onely with some small kir­nells, or lumps between his chaps, then it is only a signe of some cold or pose newly taken.

7 Observations from the privi [...] parts.

It is good for our keeper to ob­serve his Horses stones if hee bee stoned) for if they hang downe side, or long from his body, then is the Horse out of lust, and heart, and is either sicke of grease, or o­ther foule humors, but if they be [Page 78] close couched up, and hid in a small roome, then is the Horse healthfull, and in good plighte, if his yard befoule, stained, rough or skalie, then feare no foule play, but if it be cleere, bright, and as it were new scowred, then looke to your Groome, for he hath co­vered a Mare lately.

8 Observations for the limbes.

It is good for our keeper to ob­serve, ever the night before hee runnes either match, or heate, to bathe his Horses legs well from above the knees, and above the cambrells downward, with either dogsgrease, which is the best, or trotters oyle, which is the second, or the purest clarified hogsgrease that can be got, which is most to­lerable, and to work it in with the labour of his hands, and not with melting at the fire, and what hee [Page 79] gets not in the first night, will be got in the next morning, and what he gets not in the next morning, will be got in, when he comes to uncloath at the end of the course, so that you shall need to use the oyntment but once, but the fri­casse or rubbing, as oft as you finde opportunity.

9 Observations for the giving of water.

Our keeper shall observe, that albeit I give no directions for the watering of his Horse, in the eve­ning after his heate, yet hee may in any of the two latter fortnights (finding his Horse cleer, and that his grease is consumed and come away) somewhat late at night, as about sixe a clocke, give his horse water in reasonable quantity, be­ing luke-warme, and fasting an houre after it; Also if through the [Page 80] unseasonablenesse of the weather, you cannot water abroad, then you shall at your watering hours, water in the house with warme water (as aforesaid) nor need you in this case to heate all your water, but making a little quantity very hot, put it into a greater, and so make all luke-warm, if you throw an handfull of wheate meale, or barm, or oat-meale finly pounded (but Oat-meale is the best) into the water, it is not amisse, but wholsome, and comfortable.

10 Observations in the choise of ground to runne on.

Our keeper shall observe, that if the ground wheron he is to run his match be dangerous, and ap [...] for mischievous accidents, a [...] straines, slips, bearings, over­reaches, and the like, that then he is not bound to give all his hea [...]s [Page 81] therin, but having made his horse acquainted with the nature there­of, then either to take part of the course, as a mile, two or three (according to the goodnesse of the ground,) and so to runne his Horse fourth, and backe againe, which we call turning heats, pro­vided alwaies, that he end his heat at the weighing post, and that he make not his course lesse, but more in quantity, then that hee must runne, but if for some espe­ciall occasions hee liketh no part of the course, then he may many times (but not ever) give his heats upon any other good ground; ei­ther forth right, or turning, or round about any spatious & large field, where the Horse may lay downe his body, and run at plea­sure.

[Page 82] 11 Observations from sweating.

Our keeper shall observe in all his ayrings, heatings, and all man­ner of exercise, and motions what­soever, to the sweating of his Horse, and to the occasions of his sweating, as if an Horse sweat upon little or no occasion, as wal­king footpace, standing still in the stable, or the like, it is then apa­rent that the Horse is faint, foule fed, and wanteth exercise. If up­on good occasion, as strong heats, and the like he sweat, yet his sweat is white, frothy, and like soap [...]s, then is the Horse inwardly foule, and wanteth also exercise, but [...] the sweate bee blacke, and as [...] were onely water throwne upon him, then is the Horse in good lust and good case.

[Page 83] 12 Observations from the Horses haire.

Our keeper shall observe well his Horses haire in generall, but especially his necke, and those parts which are uncovered, and if they lie sleeke, smooth, and close, then is the Horse in good ease, but if they be rough, and staring, or any way unnaturally discoloured, then is the Horse inwardly cold at the heart, and wanteth both cloathes, and warme keeping, or else there is some sicknesse cree­ping upon him. Many other ob­servations there be, but these are most materiall, and I hope suffi­cient for any reasonable under­standing.

CHAP. XII. How to order▪ feed, and keep▪ a­ny Horse for pleasure, hunting, or travell.

T would have our keeper of these ordinary Hor­ses, to rise early in the morning by the spring of day, or before, (according to the season of the yeare) and to sift the horse the quantity of three pintes of good old, and drie Oats, and to put to them an handfull o [...] two of spelted-beanes, hulls and all, and so give them to the horse▪

After hee hath eaten them, [...] him dresse him according to the order of good hors-manship, that is, first currie with the Combe, then dust, then currie with the brush, then dust, then rub with [Page 85] wet hands, after with an hairy cloth, then with a cleane woollen cloth, after with a cleane linnen cloth, then picke all obscure and secret places, lastly combe down the mayne, and tayle, then saddle him and ride him forth to water, warme him both before and after water, very moderately, and so bring him home drie without sweat.

Then cloath him up (after you have rubbed his head, body, and legs,) and let him stand on his bri­dle more than an houre, then give him the former quantity of pro­vender, and the same in kinde.

After he hath eaten his proven­der, give him into his Rack a pret­ty bundle of Hay, and so let him rest till after dinner.

When you have dined, give him the former quantity of provender, and the same in kinde, and so let him rest till evening, onely recei­ving [Page 86] his Hay, if there bee occa­sion.

At evening dresse him well as in the morning, then ride him forth to water, and do as you did in the morning.

When you come home and have cloathed him up, let him stand on his bridle as before, then give him the former quantity of provender, and so let him rest till nine a clock at night, at which time give him the former quantity of provender, and a pretty bundle of Hay, and so let him rest till morning.

Thus you shall doe concerning his ordinary keeping at home, where the Horse hath rest, and that you may dispose of houres as you please; but if you be either in travell, in sport, or other occasion, so that you cannot observe these particular times, then you must divide the maine and whole quan­tity of meate into foure parts, and [Page 87] greater quantities, and so give them at the best coveniency, ever observing, to give the least quanti­tie before exercise, as a third part before mounture, and the two o­ther, after you come to rest: nor would I have you to distract your minde with any doubt or amaze­ment, because I prescribe you five severall times of feeding in one day, as if it should either o­ver-charge you, or over-feed your Horse; questionlesse there is no such matter, when you looke into the true proportion; for it cannot be denied, but whosoever is wor­thy of a good Horse, or good means to keep a good Horse, can­not allow him lesse then one peck a day; nay the Carrier, Carter, Poulter, and Packhorse, will al­low halfe a pecke at a watering, and this allowance which I set downe comes to no more; for fif­teene pintes of Oats, and one pinte [Page 88] ofspelt▪ beanes up-heaped, makes two gallons, and that is one pecke Winchester measure: now to give it at twice, fills the stomack more, makes the digestion worse, and the appetite weake, whereas to give lesse, but more oft, the sto­macke is ever craving, the digesti­on alwaies ready, and the appetite never wanting; so that health (without disorder) can never be a stranger, therefore once againe, thus much for ordinary keeping.

But if you intend to give the Horse an heate, as to hunt, gallop, travell, or the like, which I would wish you to doe once, twice, or thrice a weeke, then observe your former observations, onely the night before, give him little, or no Hay at all.

In the morning before his heate, very early and before his dressing, give him three or foure handfulls of cleane sifted Oats, washt either [Page 89] in strong beere, or Ale, then dresse him, saddle him, and give him his heate, but if it be soddaine, and violent, then let it bee when the Horse hath emptied himselfe very well.

After his heat rub him soundly, and bring him drie into the stable.

Then after hee is cloathed up warme, let him stand on his bri­dle at least two houres, then give him a little bundle of Hay to teare out upon his bridle, and an houre after, feed him as hath beene be­fore shewed; onely with his first Oats, give him an handfull or bet­ter of hempseed well dusted and mixed.

At night, warme him a little water, and give it him luke-warm; then an houre after, give him his provender, and a pretty bundle of Hay, and so let him rest till the next morning.

The next morning do all things [Page 90] as in his ordinary keeping.

Let him stand on litter both night and day, yet change of [...], and keepe the plaunchers clean.

If you intend to travell or jour­ney in the morning, then give no Hay (or but little) in the morning.

In journying ride moderately the first houre or two, but after, according to your occasions.

Water before you come to your Innne (if possible) but if you can­not, then give warme water in the Inne, after the Horse is fully coo­led.

Trotters oyle is an excellent oyntment, being applied very warme, and well chafed in, to keepe your Horses limbes, and [...]i­newes nimble, and to helpe stiffe­nesse, and lamenesse.

Neither wash your Horse, nor walke your horse, for the first en­dangereth foundering in the body or feet, and breedeth all surfeits, [Page 91] the latter is the ground of all strong colds, which turne to glaunders, and rottennesse, but if necessity compell you to either, as foule wayes, or long stayes, then rather wash your horses legs with pales of water at the stable doore, then to endanger him in Pond, or River. And for walk­ing, rather set one on your horses backe to keepe his spirits stirring, then to lead him in his hand, and with dull spirits, to receive all manner of mischiefes.

This I thinke sufficient for clean and ordinary keeping.

CHAP. XIII. Generall observations, helps, and advertisements for any man when hee goeth about to buy an Horse.

THere is nothing more difficult or intricate in all the Art of horsman­ship, then to set downe constant and uncontrolable resolutions, by which to binde every mans minde to an unity of consent, in the buying of an horse: for (ac­cording to the old adage) what is one mans meat, is another mans poyson; what one affects, ano­ther dislikes. But to proceed ac­cording to the rule of reason, the precepts of the ancients, and the moderne practise of our present [Page 93] conceived opinions, I will, as briefly as I can, shew you those observations, and advertisements which may strengthen you in any difficult election.

First therefore you are to ob­serve, that if you will elect an Horse for your hearts content­ment, you are to take to your self this principall consideration, namely, the end and purpose for which you elect him, as whether for the Wars, for running, hunt­ing, travell, draught, or burthen, every one having their severall characters, and their severall fa­ces both of beauty and uncomely­nesse. But because there is but one truth, and one perfection, I will under the description of the perfect and untainted Horse, shew all the imperfections, and attaint­tures, that either nature, or mis­chance can put upon the horse of greatest deformity.

[Page 94]Let me then advise you that in­tend to buy an horse, to acquaine your selfe well, with all the true shapes and excellencies, which belong to an horse, whether it be in his naturall and true propor­tion, or in any accidentall; or out­ward increase or decrease of any limbe or member, and from their contraries, to gather all things that may give dislike, or off [...]h [...].

To begin therfore with the first principles of election, you shall understand, that they are divided into two especiall heads, the one generall, the other particular.

The generall rule of election is, first the end for which you buy, then his breed, or generation, his colour, his pace, and his s [...]atuity and these are sayd to bee generall [...] because the first (which is the end for which you buy) is a thing shut up onely in your owne [...] The other which is breed, you [Page 95] must either take it from faithfull report, your owne knowledge, or from some knowne and certaine characters, by which one strain or one Country is distringuished from another, as the Neapolitan is knowne by his hauk-nose, the Spanyard, by his small limbe, the Barbarie, by his fine head, the Dutch by his rough legs, the Eng­lish, by his generall strong and cleane knittings together, and so forth of divers other.

As for his colour, although there is no colour exempt utterly from goodnesse (for I have seene good of all) yet there are some better reputed then others, as the Dapple-gray for beauty, the brown-bay for service, the black with silver haires for courage, and the Lyard, or true mixt Roan for continuance; as for the Sorrel, the black without white, and the unchangeable Iron-gray, they are [Page 96] reputed cholericke; the bright­bay, the fleabitten, and the black with white marks, are sanguinists; the blankwhite, the yellow dun, the kiteglewed, and the pyebald are flegmatick, and the chesnut, the mousedunne, the redbay, and the blewgray, are melancholy.

Now for his pace, which is ei­ther Trot, Amble, Rack, or Gal­lop, you must referre it to the end also, for which you buy, as if i [...] be for the warres, hunting, run­ning, or your owne private dispo­sition, then the trot is most tole­rable, and this motion you shall know by a crosse moving of the Horses limbes, as when the fa [...] foreleg, and the neere hinde [...]Spand [...] or the neere foreleg, and the far [...] hinder leg move and go forw [...] in one instant, and in this moti [...] the neater the Horse taketh [...] limbs from the ground, the [...]p [...] ­ner, the evener, and the shorter [Page 97] he treadeth, the better is his pace; for to take up his feet slovenly, shewes stumbling, and lamenesse; to tread narrow, or crosse, shewes enterfering, or falling; to step uneven, shewes toyle, and weari­nesse, and to tread long, shewes over-reaching.

Now if you elect for ease, great persons seats, or long travell, then ambling is required, and this mo­tion is contrary to trotting, for now both the feet on one side must move equally together, that is, his far foreleg, and his far hinder­leg, or the neere foreleg, and the neere hinder-leg, and this motion must go just, large, smooth, and nimble, for to tread false takes a­way all ease, to tread short, rids [...]o ground, to tread rough, shewes [...]olling, and to [...]read unnimbly [...]hewes a false pace that never con­ [...]inueth▪ as also lamenesse.

If you elect for buck-hunting, [Page 98] for galloping on the high way, for post, hackney, or the likes, then a racking pace is required, and this motion is the same that Ambling is, onely it is in a swifter time, and a shorter tread, and though it rid not so much ground, yet it is a lit­tle more easie.

Now to all these paces, must be joyned a good gallop, [...] na­turally every trotting and rack­ing horse hath, the ambler is a lit­tle unapt thereunto, because the motions are both one, so that be­ing put to a greater swi [...]nesse of pace then naturally he [...] acquainted with all, hee [...] his legs confusedly, and [...] ­der, but being trayned [...], and made to understand the mo­tion, he will as well undert [...]k [...] in as any trotting horse what [...] Now in a good gallop, you [...] [...] observe these vertues, First [...] the horse which taketh his [...] [Page 99] nimbly from the ground, but doth not raise them high, that neither rolleth nor beateth himselfe, that stretcheth out his forelegs, fol­lows nimbly with his hinder; and neither cutteth under the kn [...] (which is called the swift-cut) nor crosseth, nor claps one foot upon another, and ever leadeth with his farre forefoot, and not with the neere, this horse is sayd ever to gallop most comely, and most true, and is the fittest for speed, or any other like employment. If he gallop round and raise his fore­feet, hee is then sayd to gallop strongly, but not swiftly, and is fittest for the great saddle, the warres, and strong encounters, if he gallop slow, yet sure, hee will serve for the highway, but if hee labour confusedly, and gallop painfully, then is he good for no gallopping service, besides it shews some hidden & obscure lamenesse.

[Page 100]Lastly touching his stature, it must bee referred to your owne judgment, and the end for which you buy him, ever observing that the biggest and strongest, are fit­test for strong occasions, as great burthens, strong draughts, and double carriage, the middle size for pleasure, and generall imploy­ments, the least for ease, street walkes, and Sommer hackney.

Now touching the particular rule of election, it is contained in the discovery of naturall deformi­ties, accidentall outward sorro [...]g­ances, or inward hidden mischieft, which are so many, and so inf [...] that it is a world of worke to [...] ­plaine them, yet for satisfaction sake, I will in as meth [...]dicall man­ner as I can, and the rather because it is a labour I never undertood in this manner before, briefly, and and according to the best concei­ved opinions, shew what you [...] [Page 101] to observe in this occasion.

First therefore, when an horse is brought unto you to buy, be­ing satisfied for his breed, colour, and stature, then see him stand na­ked before you, and placing your selfe before his face, take a strict view of his countenance, and the cheerfulnesse thereof, for it is an excellent glasse wherein to see his goodnesse, as thus.

If his eare be small, thin, sharp, pricked, and moving, or if they be long, yet well set on, and well carried, it is a marke of beauty, goodnesse, and mettall, but if they be thicke, laved, or lolling, wide set on, and unmoving, then are they signes of dulnesse, dogged­nesse, and ill nature.

If his face bee cleane, his fore­head swelling outward, the mark or feather in his face set high, as above his eies, or at the top of his eies, if he have a white starre, or [Page 102] white rache of an indifferent size, and even placed, or a white ship on his nose, all are marks of beau­tie and goodnesse, but if his face be fat, cloudie, or scawling, his forehead flat as a trencher (which we call marefaced) the marke of his forehead stand low, as under his eies, if his starre or rache stand worse or in an evill posture, or in­stead of a ship, his nose bee [...]a [...] and unhairy, or his face generally balld, all are signes of deformity.

If his eies be round, big, black, shining, staring, or starting from his head, if the blacke of the ey [...] fill the pit or outward circum­ference, so that in the moving none of the white appeareth, all are signes of beauty, goodnesse, and metall: but if his eies be une­ven, and of a wrinckled propor­tion, if they be little (which wee call pig-eied) both are uncomely signes of weaknesse: if they be [...] [Page 103] and fiery, take heed of moon eies, which is next doote to blindnesse, if white, and walled, it shewes a weake sight, and unnecessarie star­ting or finding of boggards, if with white specks, take heede of the pearle, pinne and web, if they water or shew bloudy, it shewes bruises, and if they matter, they shew old over-riding, and festered rhumes, or violent straines and colds, if they looke dead or dull, or are hollow and much sunke, take heed of blindnesse, at the best the beast is of an old decrepid ge­neration, if the black fill not the pit, but the white is alwaies ap­pearing, or if in moving the white and black be seene in equall quan­tity, it is a signe of weaknesse, and an aged disposition.

If handling of his cheekes or chaps, you finde the bones leane and thin, the space wide between them, the throppell or winde pipe [Page 104] big as you can gripe, and the void place without knots or kirnells, and generally the jawes so open, that the neck beseemeth to couch within them, they are all excel­lent signs of great winde, courage, and soundnesse of head and body, but if the chaps bee fat and thicke, the space betweene them closed up with grosse substance, and the throppell little, all are signes of short winde, and much inward foulnesse, if the voyd place be full of knots and kernells, take heede of the strangle, or glaunders, at the best, the horse is not without a foule cold, if his jawes bee so straight that his necke swelleth a­bove them, if it bee no more but naturall, it is onely an uncomely signe of straight winde, and pursi­nesse or grossnesse, but if the swel­ling bee long, and close by his chaps like a whetstone, then take heed of the veines, or some other [Page 105] unnaturall impostume.

If his nostrills bee open, drie, wide, and large, so as upon any strayning, the very inward red­nesse is discovered, and if his mu­zle bee small, his mouth deep, and his lips equally meeting, they are all good signes of winde, health, and courage, but if his nostrills be straight, his winde is little, if his muzle bee grosse, his spirit is dull, if his mouth bee shallow hee will never carry a bit well, and if his upper lip wil not reach his nea­ther, old age, or infirmitie hath marked him for carrion, and if his nose bee moyst and dropping; if it bee cleere water, it is a cold, if foule matter, beware the glaun­ders; if both nostrills runne, it is hurtfull, but if one, then most dangerous.

Touching his teeth, and their vertues, they are at large set down in a former chapter touching the [Page 106] horses age, onely remember you never buy an horse that wanteth a­ny, for as good loose all as one.

From his head looke downe to his brest, and see that it be bread, out-swelling, and adorned with many feathers, for that shewes strength, and endurance, the lit­tle brest is uncomely, and shewes weaknesse, the narrow brest, is apt to stumble, fall, and enter­farre before, and the brest that is hidden inward, and wanteth the beauty, and division of many fea­thers, shewes a weak armed heart, and a brest that is unwilling, and unfit for any toyle, or strong la­bour.

Next looke downe from his el­bow, to his knee, and see that th [...] forethighes be rush growne, [...]l horned within, sinowed, [...] & out-swelling, for they are good signes of strength, the [...] shew weaknes, and are unnaturall.

[Page 107]Then looke on his knees that they carry an equall, and an even [...]vall proportion, be lean, sinowie, and close knit, for they are good and comely, if one be bigger, or [...]ounder then another, the Horse hath received mischiefe, if they [...]ee grosse, the horse is gouty, and if they have scarres, or haire bro­ken, it is a true marke of a stumb­ [...]ing jade, and a perpetuall faller.

From his knees, looke downe his legs to his pasterns, and if you [...]inde them cleane, leane, flat, and [...]nowie, and the inward bought of his knee without a seam, or hair broken, then he shewes good shape and soundnesse, but if on the in­ [...]de of the leg you find hard knots, [...]hey are splints, if on the outside, [...]hey are serewes, or excressions, [...]f under his knee bee scabs on the [...]side, it is the swiftcut, and hee will ill endure gallopping, if above [...]is pasterns on the inside you find [Page 108] scabs, it shewes enterfayring, b [...] if the scabs be generally over [...] legs, it is either extreame fo [...] keeping, or a spice of the maun [...] if his legs be fat, round, and flesh [...] hee will never endure labour, a [...] if on the inward bought of [...] knees you finde seames, scabs, [...] haire broken, it shews a malland [...] which is a cankerous ulcer.

Looke then on his pastern jo [...] and on his pasterne, the first [...] be cleane and well knit togeth [...] the other must be short, strong [...] upright standing, for if the fir [...] big or swelled, take heed of [...]in [...] straines, and gurding, if the o [...] be long, weake, or bending, [...] limbes will hardly carry the b [...] without tyering.

For the hoofes in generall th [...] would be black, smooth, toug [...] rather a little long, then ro [...]g [...] they must bee hollow, and [...] sounding, for a white hoo [...] [Page 109] tender, and carries a shooe ill, a [...]oughe, grosse seamed hoof, shews [...]ld age, or over-heating, a brittle [...]oofe will carry no shooe at all, an [...]xtraordinary round hoofe is ill [...]r foule wayes, or deepe hunting, [...] flat hoofe that is pummifsed, [...]ewes foundering, and an hoofe [...]at is emptie and hollow sound­ [...]g, shewes a decayed inward part, [...] reason of some wound, or drie [...]under, as for the crownet of [...]e hoofe, if the hair lie smooth & [...]ose, and the flesh flat and even, [...] is perfect, but if the hair be sta­ [...]g, the skin scabbed, & the flesh [...]ng, then looke for a Ringbone, [...]owne scab, or like mischiefe. [...] After this, stand by the side of [...]horse, and first look to the set­ [...]g on of his head, and see that stand neither too high, nor too [...], but in a direct line, and that [...] necke bee small at the setting [...], and long, growing dee­per, [Page 110] and deeper, till it come to hi [...] shoulders, with an high, strong and thin crest, and his [...] long, soft, and somewhat curling for these are beautifull characte [...] whereas to have the head ill [...] on, is the greatest deformity, [...] have any bignesse, or swelling [...] the nape of the necke, shewes [...] pole▪evill, or beginning of [...], to have a short think necke [...] a bull, to have it falling at the [...] o­thers, to have a low, a weake [...] thicke, or a falling crest, shew [...] want both of strength, and a tall, to have much haire [...] mane, shews intolerable [...] to have it too thinne, she [...] and to have none, or to [...] the worme in the mawe, [...] or else maunginesse.

Looke then to the [...] backe that it bee broad, [...] straight, his ribs well [...] and bending outward, [...] [Page 111] upright, strong, and short, and not above 4 fingers between his last rib and his huckle bone, let his body be well let downe, yet hid­den within his ribs, & let his stones be close trust upto his body, for al these are marks of good perfecti­on, wheras to have his chyne nar­row, he will never carry a saddle without wounding, and to have it bendig nor saddle backed, shewes weakenesse, to have it [...]ammell backed, it may shew strength, but [...]is uncomely, to have his ribs flat, [...]here is no liberty for the winde, [...]o have his filled hanging long, or weake, hee will never climbe an [...]ill well, nor carry burthen, and [...]o have his bellie clung up, and gaunt, or his stones hanging down, [...]oose or side, they are both signes of sicknesse, tendernesse, founde­ [...]ing in the bodie, and unaptnesse [...]or labour.

Then looke upon his bu [...]tocke,

[Page 112]Then looke upon his buttock [...], and see that it bee round, plumpe, full, and in an even levell with his bodie, or if long, that it be [...] well raysed behinde, and spread forth at the setting on of the tayle, for these are comely and beautifull, the narrow prime but­tocke, the hog, or swine ru [...], and the falling or downe▪let but­tocke, are full of deformity, and shew both an injury in nature, and that they are neither fit or bee [...] ming for pad, foot-cloath, [...] pillion.

Then look to his hinder-thigh [...] or gascoynes, that they bee [...]ll let downe even to the midle [...] thick, brawnie, full, and swelling▪ for that is a grea [...] argument [...] o [...] strength and goodnesse, whereof the leane, lanke slender th [...] shewes disability and weak [...]

Then looke upon the [...] joynt behinde, and if it be nothing [Page 113] but skin and bone, veines, sinews, and rather a little bending, then too straight, then it is perfect as it should bee, but if it have chaps or sores on the inward bought or bending, then that is a sellander; if the joynt bee swell'd generally all over, then hee hath got a blow or bruise; if the swelling be parti­cular, as in the pot, or hollow part, or on the inside, and the veine full and proud, if the swel­ling be soft, it is a blood spaven, if hard, it is a bone spaven, but if the swelling be just behinde, be­low the knuckle, then it is a curb.

Then looke to his hinder-legs, and if they bee leane, cleane, flat, and sinowie, then all is well, but if they bee fat they will not endure labour, if they bee swell'd, the the grease is molten into them, if they bee scabbed above the pa­sterne, hee hath the scratches, if he have chaps under his pasternes, [Page 118] he hath the paines, or males, and none of these but are dangerous, and noysome.

Lastly, for the setting on of his tayle, where there is a good but­tocke, the tayle can never stand ill; and where there is an evil buttock, there the tayle can never stand well; for it ought to stand broad, high, flat, and couched a little inward.

Thus I have shewed you [...] shapes, and true deformities; yo [...] may in your choice please your owne fancie.

CHAP. XIIII. An uncontroulable way how to know the age of any Horse.

THere are seven out­ward characters by which to know the age of every Horse.

As namely, his teeth, his hoofes, his tayle, his eies, his skinne, his haire, and the barres in his mouth.

1 If you will know his age by his teeth, you must understand, that an Horse hath in his head just for­ty teeth, that is to say, sixe great wonge teeth above, and sixe be­low on one side, and as many on the other, which makes twenty foure, and are called his grinders, then sixe above, and sixe below in [Page 116] the fore part of his mouth which are called gatherers, and make 36 then foure tushes one above, and one below of one side, and one a­bove, and one below on the other­side, which is just forty: now the first yeare he hath his foales teeth, which are onely grinders and ga­therers, but no tushes, and they be small, white, and bright to look upon.

The second yeare hee changeth the foure foremost teeth in his head, that is, two above, and two below in the midst of the [...]owes, and they will appeare browner, and bigger then the other.

At three yeares old he chan­geth the teeth next unto them, and leaveth no apparent foales teeth before, but two of each side above and below; which are also bright and small.

At foure yeares old he changeth the teeth next unto them, and lea­veth [Page 117] no more foales teeth but one on each side, both above and be­low.

At five yeares old his form ost teeth will be all changed, but then hee hath his tushes on each side compleat, and the last foales teeth which he cast; those which come up in their place, will be hollow, and have a little black speck in the midst, which is called the marke [...]n the horses mouth, and conti­ [...]ueth till he be eight yeares old.

At sixe yeares old he putteth up [...]is new tushes, neere about which [...]ou shall see most apparently growing a little circuit of new and young flesh at the bottome of the [...]oth, besides the tush will bee [...]hite, small, short, and sharpe.

At seven yeares old, all his teeth [...]ill have their perfect growth, [...]d the marke in the horses mouth before spoken of) will be plain­ [...] seene, although decaying.

[Page 114]At eight yeares old, all his teeth will be full, smooth, and plain [...], the blacke speck or marke being hardly to bee discerned, and his tushes will bee more yellow then ordinarily.

At nine yeares old, his formost teeth will shew longer, broader, yellower, and fouler, then a younger yeares, and his tushes will be bluntish.

At ten yeares old, in the inside of his upper tushes will be no holes at all to bee felt with your fingers end, which till that age you shall ever most perfectly feele, besid [...] the temples of his head will begi [...] to be crooked, and hollow.

At eleven yeares old, his teeth will be exceeding long, very [...] low, blacke, and foule, onely [...] will cut even, and his teeth will stand directly opposite one again [...] another.

At twelve yeares old, his [...] [Page 115] will be long, yellow, blacke, and foule, but then his upper teeth will over-reach, and hang over his nea­ther teeth.

At thirteen yeares old, his tu­shes will be worne some what close to his chaps (if he bee a much rid­den horse) otherwise they will be blacke, foule, and long like the tuskes of a Boare.

2 If a horses hoofs be rugged, and as it were seamed, one seame over another, and many; If they bee drie, full, and crusty, it is a signe of very old age, as on the contra­ry part, a smooth, moist, hollow, and well sounding hoofe, is a sign of young yeares.

3 If you take your Horse with your singer and your thumbe by the sterne of the tayle, close at the setting on by his buttock, and fee­ [...]ing there hard, if you feele of each side his tayle a joynt stick out more then any other joynt, by the [Page 120] bignesse of an hazle nut, then you may presume the horse is ten years old or above, but if his joynts be all plaine, and no such thing to be felt, then he is under ten, and may be much younger.

4 If an horses eies be round, full, and staring, or starting from his head, if the pits over them be filled smooth & even with his temples, and no wrinckles either about his brow, or under his eies, then the horse is young; If otherwise you see the contrary characters, it is a signe of old age.

5 If you take up a horses skin on any part of his body, betwixt your finger and your thumb, and pluck it from his flesh, then letting it go againe, if it sodainly returne to the place from whence it came, and be smooth & plain without wrin­ckle, then the horse is young and full of strength, but if being pul­led up, it stand and not returne to [Page 121] his former place, then hee is very old and wasted.

6 If a horse that is of any darke colour shall grow gryssell onely about his eye browes, or under­neath his mayne, or any horse of a whitish collour shall grow mea­nelld, with either blacke or red meanells universally over his bo­die, then both are infallible signs of extreame old age.

7 Lastly, if the bars in his mouth be great, deep, and handle rough, and hard, then is the horse very old, but if they be soft, shallow, and handle gently and tenderly, then is the horse young, and in lust. And thus much of the age of an horse.

THE BOOKE OF CVRES. Containing certain in­fallible helps and cures, for those infirmities which are most dangerous, and doe commonly attend all Horses, especially, the Running-Horse.

CHAP. I. Of sicknesse in generall.

WHensoever upon any occasion you shall finde your horse to droope in counte­nance, to forsake his meate, or to shew any other [Page 124] apparent signe of sicknesse; if they be not great, you may forbeare to let blood, because where blood is spent, the spirits are spent also, and they are not easily recovered. But if the signes be great and dan­gerous, then by al means let blood instantly, and for three mornings together (the horse being fasting) give him halfe an ounce of the powder called Diahexaple, brew­ed either in a pinte of muskadine, or malmsey, or a pinte of the syr­rope of sugar, being two degrees above the ordinary mollosses, or for want thereof, Mollosses will serve the turne, or where all are wanting, you may take a pinte either of carduus water, or dragon water, or a quart of the sweetest, and strongest Alewort, or in ex­tremity, take a quart of strong ale or beere, but then warme it a little on the fire, and this must be given with an horne; and if the Horse [Page 125] have ability of body, ride him in some warme place after it, and let him fast neere two houres after ri­ding.

At noone give him a sweet mash, cloath warme, and let him touch no cold water.

Now for the exact and true ma­king of this rare powder, which I call Diahexaple, because no man [...]hat I know, either Apothecary or other, doth at this day make it truely, partly because it is an ex­periment lately come to my knowledge by conference with learned Physitians, and partly be­cause our medicine-makers are in horse physicke lesse curious then they should bee; through which errors, there is produced to the world an abundance of false mix­tures, which both deceiveth the honest horse-master, kills the harmlesse horse, and disgraceth the well meaning Farrier:

[Page 126]To repayre all which, I will here set downe at large, the true manner of making this admirable powder; together with the vertue [...] and operations thereof.

CHAP. II. The manner of making the true Diahexaple.

TAke the roots of round Aris [...] ­gia, and the r [...] of Gentian, [...] them, scrape th [...] and purifie the [...] as cleane as may be, then take [...] niper-berries unexcorticated, [...] Bay-berries excorticated, take the purest and best drops of Myrthe and the finest shavings of [...]ri [...] of each an equall quantity, I [...]ea [...] all but the Myrrhe together in [...] [Page 127] morter, and searce them through a fine searce, lastly bear the mirrhe, and searce it also, then mixe and incorporate all together, presse it hard into a gally-pot, and keepe it, and use it as you have occasion.

CHAP. III. The vertues of this rare powder Diahexaple.

THis powder (or indeed Methridate) called Diahexaple, is most excellent and sove­raigne against all manner of poy­son, either inward or outward, cureth the biting of venemous beasts, and helpeth short winde, and pursicknesse. Dodoneus.

It mundifieth, and cleanseth, [...]uppleth, and maketh thinne all grosse humours, it healeth all dis­eases [Page 128] of the Liver, and stomacke, helps digestion, and being given in a pinte of sacke, it cureth all manner of colds, is good against consumptions, breakes [...]leame, helps the staggers, and all diseases in the head. Garrets Herb.

It recovers tyering and weari­nesse, takes away cramps, and con­vulsions, dries up the skirvie, breaks the stone, opens all inward obstructions, and helps the yel­lowes, the Gargill, and the Dro [...] sie. Dioscorides.

It cures all diseases of the [...] as Glaunders, and Rotten [...] gives ease to all gripings, and [...]Spam [...] dinesse of the belly, provoketh [...] rine, takes away infection, and [...] wormes. Gallen.

CHAP. IIII. The true manner of making these Cordiall balls, which cure any vio­lent cold, or glaunders, which pre­vent heart-sicknesse, which purge away all molten grease, which reco­ver a lost stomacke, which keepe the herat from fainting with exercise, and make a leane horse fat sodainly. [...]ide Chap. 9 or 4 in the cures.

TAke of Anniseeds, of Commin-seedes, of Fenegreeke-seeds, of Carthamus-seeds, of Ely campane roots, and of Colts­foot, of each two ounces beaten­and feare't to a very fine dust, then [...]dde to them two ounces of the lower of Brimstone, then take an [...]unce of the juyce of Liqu [...]rice, [...]nd dissolve it▪ on the fire in halfe [Page 130] a pinte of white wine, which done, take an ounce of the Chimicall oyle of Anniseeds, then of sallet­oyle, of life honie, and of the syr­rop of sugar, or for want thereof, then of mollosses, of each halfe a pinte, then mixe all this with the former powders, and with as much fine wheate flower, as will binde and knit them altogether▪ worke them into a stiffe paste, an [...] make thereof balls somewhat big­ger then French walnuts, huls and all, and so keepe them in a close gally-pot, for they will last [...] the yeare.

Yet I doe not meane [...] shall keep them in the pot in balls, for so, because they cannot [...] close, the ayre may get in and [...] hurt, as also the strength of the oyles will sweate outward, and weaken the substance, therefore knead the whole [...]mp of paste in to the gally-pot, and make [...] [Page 131] balls, as you have occasion to use them.

Now for the use of these balls, because they are cordial, and have divers excellent vertues, you shall understand that if you use them to prevent sicknesse, then you shall take one of these balls, and anoynt it over with sweet butter, and so give it the horse in the morning, in the manner of a pill, then ride him a little after it if you please, otherwise you may chuse, and feed and water him at home or abroad, according to your usuall custome, and thus doe three or foure mornings together.

If you use them to cure either cold, or glaunders, then use them in the same manner for a weeke to­gether. If you use them to fatten an horse, then give them for a fortnight together.

But if you use them in the nature of a scowring, to take away mol­ten [Page 132] grease or foulenesse (of which I spake in a former chapter). then instantly after his heate, and in his heate to use (as I shewed before also.)

Againe, if you finde your horse at any time hath taken a little cold▪ as you shal perceive by his inward ratlings, if then you take one of these balls, and dissolve it in a pinte of sacke, and so give it the horse, it is a present remedy. Also to dis­solve the ball in his ordinary wa­ter, being made milke warme, it worketh the like effect, and fatneth exceedingly.

To give one of these balls before travell, it prevents tyering, to give it in the height of travel, it re [...]t [...] ­eth wearinesse, and to give it after, it saves an horse from all su [...]fens and inward sicknesse. And thu [...] you shall spend this third [...]o [...] ­night.

CHAP. V. An approved cure for the Botts, and all manner of wormes of what nature soever.

TAke a quart of new milke, and as much cla­rified honey as wil make it extraordinary sweet, then being luke-warm, give it the horse early in the morning, he ha­ving fasted all the night before; which done, bridle him up, and let him stand tyed to the emptie racke for more then two houres, then take halfe a pinte of white­wine, and dissolve into it a good spoonfull or more of black soape, then the horse having stood two houres as aforesaid, give it him to drinke, then ride and chafe him a little, and let him fast other two [Page 134] houres, and the wormes will a­voyd in great abundance.

CHAP. VI. Another most excellent receipt for the Botts, or any wormes, which is most easie, most safe, and mo [...] cer­taine.

TAke the soft downy hair which growes in the ear of an horse, and which you clip away when you coule him, and the little short [...] which growes on the top of his forehead, underneath his [...]oretop, and having a pretty quantity of them, mixe them well with a pot­tle of sweet oats, and so give the [...] to the horse, and there is not any thing will kill wormes more [...] ­redly.

CHAP. VII. An excellent purgation when a Horse is dangerously sicke of his grease, or of costivenesse.

TAke a pinte of old white wine, and set it on the fire, then dissolve into it a lump, halfe as much as an Hens-egge, of castle-soape, and stirre them well together, then take it off, and put into it two good spoonfulls of hemp-seed beaten, and an ounce and an halfe of sugar­candie beaten to powder, and brew all well together, then ha­ving warmed the horse to stirre up his grease, and other foule hu­mours, give him this to drinke, and walke him up and downe a lit­tle after it, to make the potion worke, then set him up warme, [Page 136] & after a little stirring up & down in his stall, if he grow sickish, give him liberty to lye downe. After two or three houres fasting, give him a sweet mash, then feed as at other times.

CHAP. VIII. For laxativenesse, or extreame loosenesse.

TAke a quart of red­wine, and set it on the fire, then put into it [...] ounce and an halfe of Bolearmonie in powder, and two ounces and an halfe of the Con­serve of sloes, then stirre and [...] them well together, after take it▪ from the fire, and put to it a spoon­full or two of the powder of Ci­namon, and brewing all well to­gether, give it the horse.

[Page 137]Let him fast two houres after it, and let him eat no washt meat: Hay is wholsome, so is bread and oats, if they bee well mixt with beanes, or wheat, but not other­wise.

CHAP. IX. An infallible helpe for the stone or paine of urine by winde, causing sicknesse.

MAke a strong [...]eco­ction (that is to say boyle your first quantity of water, to an halfe part 3-times over) of keene onions clean [...]ill'd, and chopt, and parcelie; then take a quart thereof, and put [...]o it a great spoonfull of London­ [...]reackle, as much of the powder of egge-shells, and give it the [Page 138] horse to drinke, and thus doe di­vers mornings, if the in fir mitie be great, otherwise when you see the horse offended.

CHAP. X. An approved medicine to cure and breake any old festered cold, and to drie up a foule running glaunders.

TAke a pinte of verjuyce, and put to it so much strong mustard [...] with wine vineger, [...] will make the verjuyce strong and keene thereof, then take an ounce and more of roach-allome, and beate it to powder, then when you give this to the horse, as y [...] fill your horne, so with a knife or spoone, put some of the allome in­to the horne, and so give it the horse, part at the mouth, and part [Page 139] at both his nostrills, but especi­ally at the nostrill which run­neth most, then ride and chafe him a little after it, then set up warme; at noone give him a warme mash, and at all times give no cold wa­ter, but when hee may have exer­cise after it. And thus drench the horse three daies together, and it will be sufficient.

CHAP. XI. Another for a violent cold.

TAke of white wine vine­gar halfe a pinte, and as much sallet-oyle, brew them well together, and then put to it an ounce and a halfe of sugar-candie in powder, and so give it the horse, and stir him a lit­tle after it; This is exceeding good but it will occasion sicknesse for a small time.

CHAP. XII. An excellent Cordiall powder for any ordinary cold, and to prepare an Horse before travell, to refresh him in travell, and to preserve him from mischiefe after travell.

TAke of English liquo­rice, and of elicampane­roots of each one ounce, of sugar-candy an ounce and an halfe, beate them to fine powder, and searce them, keepe the powder in a boxe, and when you have occasion to use it, if it be for a cold, then give it in sweet wine, or strong ale, but if in ale, then take a quart, and so give it both before travell, at your haire in travell, and in your Inne, or at home, immediately after travell.

CHAP. XIII. An excellent scowring, when o­ther scowrings will not worke.

TAke of sweet butter a quarter of a pound, half so much Castle-soape, beate them well toge­ther, then ad to them two spoon­fulls of hempseed bruised, of An­niseed, a spoonfull bruised, of su­gar-candie an ounce, of Rozzen bruise halfe a spoonfull, worke all these into a paste, and give it the horse in the manner of pills, im­mediately after his heate, or when you have warmed him and stirred up the grease and foulenesse with­in him.


CHAP. XIIII. An admirable water for any sore eye, or to cleare any dimme sight, at moone-eies, and the like.

TAke the stone Lap [...] laminarius, and [...] red hot in the fire, th [...] quench it in a pinte [...] white wine, and thus doe [...] times together, then adde [...] the quantity of wine, half so much of the juyce of housleeke, and with this water bathe the eie twice or thrice a day, and it is excellent against any imperfection therein

CHAP. XV. Another water for any sore eye, no lesse precious then the former.

TAke a pinte of Snow-water, and dissolve into it 3 or foure drams of white Vitrioll, and with it wash the Horses eyes three or foure times a day, and the effect is great.

CHAP. XVI. For any extreme blow or bruiseon the eye, for any pearle, pinne, web, or unnaturall filme, or foulenesse.

TAke of womans [...] (if it can be got) o [...] f [...] want of it, new [...] from the Cow, [...] three spoonfulls, and halfe [...] much of the juyce of Sella [...], mix them well together, and with a quill drop it into the eye; t [...] take the whites of a couple of [...] and beat them to an oyle, and mi [...] with it halfe so much of the juyc [...] of housleeke, and the like quantity of Rose-water, and beat all toge­ther, then make round plediants of flaxe, and dip them therein, and lay it over the eye, and binde [...] thereon, then as you finde it dries, so renew it.

CHAP. XVII. The master medicine of all medi­cines for a back-sinew straine, or any grease, straightnesse, shrinking, or numbnesse of sinewes.

TAke a fat sucking [...] whelpe, slay it, and boyle it, then stop the bodie as full as it can hold of gray snayles, and blacke snayles, then rost it at a reasonable fire, when it begins to warme, baste it with six ounces of the oyle of spike made yellow with saffron, and six ounces of the oyle of wax; then save the drippings, and what moysture so ever falls from it, whilst any drop will fall, and keep it in a gally-pot, with this oynt­ment anoint the grieved part, and work it in very hot, holding an hot [...]ar of Iron before it, and thus doe [Page 146] both morning and evening, till the cure be finished.

CHAP. XVIII. Saint Anthony, his onely excel­lent cure, for any strain, or swelling▪

TAke Commin-seede and bruise it grosse, and boyle it with the oyle of camomile, then adde to it so much yellow waxe as will bring it to the bodie of a Cer­rot or plaster, and spread it on ei­ther cloth or leather, and very hot apply it to the griefe.

It is a wonderfull soveraigne for any man also.

CHAP. XIX. Another, for any desperate old strain, whether it be in the shoulder, joynts, hips, or back-sinewes.

TAke of Aquavitae a pinte, of oyle-de-bay, of oyle of swal­lowes, and of black soap, of each halfe a pinte, work and labour all these together, till they come to a thin oyntment, then take of camo­mile, and of red sage an handfull, of rew, and of misseldine an hand­full, dry them and bring them to a fine powder, then mixe it with the former oyntment, and bring all to a gentle salve; with some of this salve made as hot as the horse can suffer it, anoynt the strain, and hold an hot barre of Iron before it, chafing it with your hand as much as may bee, and thus doe [Page 148] once a day, and in nine daies the cure hath been effected.

CHAP. XX. An excellent charge for any new straine or offence on the sinewes, or any griefe proceeding from heate.

TAke the whites of half a do­zen of egges, and beate them well with a pinte of wine-vinegar▪ and an ounce of the oyle of Roses▪ and as much of the oyle of Myr­tills, then take foure ounces of Bolearmonie, and as much San­guis draconis, and with as much beane floure, or wheat floure (but beane flour is the best) as will thic­ken it, bring it to a stiffe salve, the [...] spreading it upon hurds, lap it a­bout the grieved place, and renew it as it drieth.

CHAP. XXI. A perfect cure for a new sinew­straine.

TAke a live Cat ei­ther wilde or tame, and cut off her head and tail, then cleave her downe the chine, and clap her hot the bowells and all to the strayne, and remove it not for forty eight houres▪ and the [...]ffect is great.

CHAP. XXII. Markhams one Balm, which hath never failed him for any strain in the shoulder, or other part, hid or appa­rent, or for any windgall, paine or swelling whatsoever.

TAke ten ounces of the [...] and purest peece-grease, a [...] melt it upon the fire, then [...] off, and put into it foure ounces of the oyle of spike, one ounce of the oyle of Origanum, and an ounce and an half of the oyle of Exceter, stir them well together, then put [...] up into a gally-pot.

With this oyntment (or indeed precious Balme) anoynt the grie­ved part, the oyntment being made exceeding hot, and rub an [...] chafe it in with all painfulness [...] holding an hot barre of Iron be­fore it. And thus anoynt it one [Page 151] in two daies, but rub and chafe it in twice or thrice a day at the least, and give the horse moderate exer­cise.

This is approved and infallible.

CHAP. XXIII. For synewes that are extended, over-strained, and so weakened, that the member is uselesse.

TAke of Cantharides, of mer­curie, and of Euforbium, of each a like quantity, and of oyle­de-bay double as much as of all the rest, bring the hard simples to powder, and beate all together to a salve, apply this to the griefe, so there be no scab or wound, and it will give strength and straight­nesse to the sinewes.

CHAP. XXIIII. For a sinew-straine newly done, to help it in twenty foure houres.

TAke of the grounds of Ale or Beere a quart, and put into it as much parsley chopt grosse, as you can hold in your hand, boyle them till the hearb be soft, then put to it a quarter of a pound of sweet butter, and when it is mol­ten, take it from the fire, and put into it a pinte of wine-vineger, and if it be too thin, thicken it with a little wheat-bran, then lay it upon hurds, and poultus-wise apply it to the griefe, as hot as the Horse can suffer it.

CHAP. XXV. An admirable unguent to take away all aches, and hid pains, strains and sinew straines.

TAke of Deere-suet, or for want of it, sweete butter halfe a pound, of Aquavitae a gill, of saf­fron halfe a dram, of pepper fine­ly beaten and searc't three drams, of Garlicke bruised three heads, mixe all together, and let them stew on the fire, and not boyle, till it come to a salve;

With this very warme chafe the griefe, then anoynt a brown pa­per therewith, and hot, apply it to the place also, and so roule it up: do thus morning and evening.

CHAP. XXVI. For swell'd or gourded legs, whe­ther it be by reason of grease falling into them, or other accident, as scratches, paines, mules, &c.

IF your Horses legs be [...]ell'd onely because the gr [...]se is fallen into them, and that there is no other outward [...]l­cer, neither will the bathing with cold fountaine water, and other ordinay helps asswage them, then you shall take a peece of strong course woollen cloth, and ther [...]ot make him an hose, a pretty deale larger then his leg, to reach fro [...] the lower part of his pastern, up [...] the Cambrell, or the knee, an [...] make it close and straight at th [...] pasterne, and wide above. The [...] take a pottle of wine lees (if yo [...] can get them) or else the ground [...] [Page 155] or lees of strong ale or beere, and set them on the fire, and boyle them well, then put to it a pound of hogsgrease, and when it is mol­ten and stirred well together, take as much wheat-bran as will thic­ken it, and bring it to the body of a poultus.

With this poultus (as hot as the horse can suffer it, onely you must not scald) fill the hose, or hoses, and then close the hose at the top.

With this poultus let the Horse stand two daies, then the third day open the hose at the top, but stirre not the poultus, onely take molten hogsgrease, hot as the Horse can suffer it, and with a spoone lade it unto the poultus on every side, till it will receive no more, for this wil renew the strength of the poultus, then close up the top of the hose, and so let the horse stand other 2. daies, or 3. then you may open the leg, and rub it downe, and if [Page 156] strong occasion, you may apply another new poultus, if not, your cure is wrought.

Now if besides the swelling of his legs, your horse hath ulcers, and chaps, as scratches, paines, mules, or the like, then you shall first apply the former poultus in al respects as aforesayd, then after five or six daies application (when you take the poultus away) you shall take a quart of old urine, and put to it an handful of salt, as m [...]ch Allome, halfe an ounce of whi [...] copporice, and boyle all well t [...] gether, then with this water (very hot) wash the sores once or twice a day, and after a little drying▪ [...] ­noint them with the ointment cal­led Aegyptiacum, and is made o [...]wi [...] neger, 8 ounces; of honey, 12 oun­ces, of verdigrease, two ounce [...] of Allome one ounce and an halfe boyled to that height, till it come to a red salve. And it will both [Page 157] kill the malignant humours, and also heale and dry up the sores.

CHAP. XXVII. For gourdings, swellings, and paine in the joynts.

MAke a very strong brine of water and salt, and to a quart thereof, put two or three handfulls of Rew, and boyle it till the hearb be soft, then with this water very hot, bathe the grieved part well; Then take a flat bagge filled with salt, and he ated hot at the fire, and lap it about the griefe also, then roule it up, and thus doe once or twice a day, and it is a good cure.

CHAP. XXVIII. Another approved cure for the scratches, or any disease of that na­ture, as Mallander, sellander, &c.

TAke of hogsgrease, and blacke-soape, of [...] eight ounces, of [...] stone, of lime, of [...]Spand [...] powder, of each three ounces; [...] of soote, as much as will suffic [...] to bring the rest to a salve; boyle the hogsgrease and soap together, and bring the other hard simples to a fine powder, and so mixe all together, and make a blacke oynt­ment, with this anoynt the so [...] once a day, after they are clea [...]ed and made raw.

CHAP. XXIX. For any splente, spaven, curbe, [...]ing-bone, or any hard knot, or ex­ [...]rescion.

FIrst having taken viewe of the excrescion, clip away the haire as far as the excrescion go­ [...]th, and a little thought more, then [...]ake a peece of Allomd-leather, [...]ade as bigge just as the place you [...]ave bared, and fitted to the same [...]roportion, then take a little shoo­ [...]akers waxe, and spread it round [...]bout the very edge, or verge of [...]he same, leaving all the inward or [...]iddle part empty, and not toucht▪ with the waxe, according to this [...]igure. O Then take of the hearb

Spear-grasse, which hath the ver­ [...]ue to raise blisters, and bruising [Page 160] it in a morter, lay some thereof upon the leather, in the voyd and emptie place, which ought to con­taine the just quantity, of the kne [...] or excression, and binde it fa [...] thereon, suffering it to lie (if i [...] [...] in the spring or summer time whe [...] the hearbe hath its full strength and vertue) about halfe a [...] if it bee in the winter, [...] hearb hath lesse vertue; [...] if to renew the strength of t [...] hearb, you ad to it a drop or t [...] of the oyle of Origanum, and [...] it lie halfe a day fully. And [...] sure to tye up the horses head tw [...] or three houres, for feare of [...] ting it away.

When you have taken off t [...] plaster, anoynt the place wi [...] Trayn-oyle warme, and you sh [...] finde no excression.

CHAP. XXX. Another cure for splent, spaven, &c. and to drie up windgalls, or swellings.

FIrst hea [...]e the Sarrance with an hot pressing I­ron, then vent it in se­verall places with your [...]leame, then take a spoonfull of [...]alt, halfe a spoonfull of Nerve­ [...]yle, a penny waight of verdi­ [...]rease, and the white of an egge, [...]eate all to a salve, and dipping [...]ax hurds therein, apply it to the [...]riefe, and it helpeth.

CHAP. XXXI. An approved cure for the swift. cut, or any hewing on the leg, and [...] heale any wound.

TAke a pinte of [...] wine, and put [...] or three [...] honey, and stirre the [...] well together, then boy [...] till they come to the body of an oyntment, then take it from the fire, and put to it halfe so [...] turpentine as there was honey; and stirre all well together, then [...]tra [...] it, and with this salve [...] hot, anoynt the sores twice or thrice a day, and it is a most speedy healer.

CHAP. XXXII. To heal saddle bruises, hard swel­lings, and all sorts of Impostuma­tions.

FInst [...]ipen it with rotten Litter, or wet Hay, then when it is soft, open it to let out the corruption, then fill the hollownesse with the powder of Rozen, and lay a pla­ster of shooemakers waxe over it, and thus doe once in twenty foure houres, till it be whole.

If it be slow in skinning or dry­ing up, take a spoonfull or two of thick creame, and mix it with soot till it be a salve, and anoynt it ther­with, and it will drie and skinne presently.

CHAP. XXXIII. For any maunge, scab, or [...]pr [...]sie wheresoever.

FIrst let blood; then take a quart of old urine, o [...]i­neger, and breake [...] it a quarter of a pound or better of the best Tobacco, then set it on a fire of embers, where it may simmer, and not boyle, and so let it stew all an whole night▪ then with this water wash the in­fected places wheresoever they be, and it is a certaine remedy.

CHAP. XXXIIII. For the foulest and most desperate Farcie that may be.

TAke hearb of grace, and the hearbe Cley-Cleys which is a weed grow­ing by the water-side, having a great broad, round leafe, and is green on the upper side, and white on the nether; of each of them take an equall quantity, beat them in a morter, and strain them, then to a pinte of this juyce, put halfe a pinte of the juyce of hous­leek, and half a pinte of Aquavitae, and two good spoonfulls of pep­per beaten and finely searc't, of this liquor take a pinte, and give it the horse to drink, then with round plediants of flax dipt in the same, stop both his eares, then with the strained bruisings of all the hearbs, [Page 166] rub the sores, and stop the holes if there bee any hollownesse, doe thus twice at the least, and oftner if you finde occasion.

CHAP. XXXV. For any founder, f [...]eltize, su [...]ait, or any imperfection in the feet

FIrst pare thin, open the heels wide, and take good st [...]r [...] of blood from the toes, then [...] on a shooe somewhat hollow, after take of the best frankincen [...]e, and rouling it in a little fine cotten wooll, or bumbast, with an hot I­ron melt it into the foot, betwin the shooe and the toe, till the o [...] ­fice where the blood was taken be filled up; then take halfe a pound of hogsgrease, and melt it on the fire, then mix it with wheat- [...] ▪ till it be as thick as a poultus, then boyling it hot as is possible, stop [Page 167] up the horse foot there with, then cover it with a peece of an ould shooe, and splent it up, and so let the horse stand for three or foure dayes, then if occasion serve you may renew it, otherwise the cure is wrought.

CHAP. XXXVI. To make hoofes grow quickly, and to be tough and strong.

TAke of Allome beaten, and of the juyce of gar­lick, of each seven oun­ces, of hearbe of grace three handfulls, of old hogsgrease two pound, of Asses dung, or for want of it, Cow dung an handfull; mingle them, and boyle them all well together, then with this both stop the horses feeet, and anoynt the crownets of the hoofes, the [Page 168] medicine being hot, and the effect is great.

CHAP. XXXVII. A generall salve for any s [...]re or swelling, prick, cloynige, or treade.

TAke Turpentine, black­soape, hogsgrease, green Treate, and Pitch, of each like quantity, mix and boyle them all well together, and apply it warme to the griefe, either plaster wise, or tent wise.

The best of Secrets. CHAP. XXXVIII. For decayed, rotten, or over strai­ned lungs, which wee call broken­winded, or for any old drie cough, of long continuance.

TAke halfe a pinte of the water of Colts-foot, and put unto it ten drops or, at the utmost, not a­bove a dram of Balsamum sulphu­ris, and give it the horse in the morning fasting, then ride him a little gently after it; bee sure to keepe warme, and give no cold water without exercise; Do thus every other morning till you find amendment.

CHAP. XXXIX. How to make Balsamum sulphu­ris.

TAke an ounce of the oyl of Turpentine, and an ounce of the flower of brimstone, and put them into a violl, then set it on a fire of embers or hot ashes, and th [...]e let it stew till the brimstone be dissol­ved, and incorporate with the oyl, and become a red unguent▪ Of this take a full dramme at the least.

CHAP. XL. Another of Saint Anthonies cures for any straine or swelling.

TAke Commin-seede and bruise it grosse, and boyle it with the oyle of camomile, then adde to it so much yellow waxe as will bring it to the bodie of a Cer­ [...]ot or gentle plaster, and spread it on either cloth or leather, and very hot apply it to the griefe, and renew it not above once in two or three dayes.

It is a wonderfull soveraigne for any straine in a man also.

CHAP. XLI. An approved cure for the swiftcut, or any hewing on the legs.

TAke a pinte of white­wine, and put to it two or three spoonfulls of honey, and boylethem till they bee well incorporated to­gether, then straine it, and with this water some what hot, bathe the sores twice or thrice a day, and it is a most speedy heale [...]


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