A Learned and True Assertion of the original, Life, Actes, and death of the most Noble, Valiant, and Renoumed Prince Arthure, King of great Brittaine.

Who succeeding his father Vther Pendragon, and right nobly gouerning this Land sixe and twentie yeares, then dyed of a mortall wounde receyued in battell, together with victory ouer his enemies. As appeareth Cap. 9. And was buried at [...]laste [...]bury. Cap. 1 [...]. An. 543.

Collected and written of late yeares in lattin, by the learned English Antiquarie of worthy memory Iohn Leyland.

Newly translated into English by Richard Robins [...] Citizen of London. Anno Domini. 1582.

LONDON Imprinted by Iohn Wolfe, dwelling in Distaffe Lane, ouer against the Sign [...] of the Castell. 1582.

Insignia Illustrium Patronorum, huius opusculi selectorum.


Gray, de VVilton.

D. HENRICVS SIDNEY, Illustrissimi Or­dinis Garterij Miles, vnus Consiliario­rum D. Reg. & in Principa­tu Walliae Praesid.

Magister Thomas Smith D. Reginae Custumarius Principalis, in Portu London.

To the Right Honorable Lord ARTHVRE GRAY, Baron of Wilton, Lord Deputie & Liefetenant Generall for the Queenes Ma [...]estie in Ireland: To the Right Honorable Sir HENRY SIDNEY, Knight of the Honorable Order of the Garter, & President for her Maiestie in the [...] of Wales: To the Right worshipfull. M. THOMAS SMITH, Esquire, & Chiefe, Customer for her Maiestie in the Porte of London: & to the Wor­shipfull Societie of Archers, in London yearely celebrating the renou­med memorie of the Magnificent Prince ARTHVR [...] & his Knightly Order of the Round Table:

Grace, mercy, & Peace in the Lord Euerlastinge.

HAVING in mindefull memorie (Right Honourable, and Worshipp­full) that mercifull couenaunt of peace, by our omnipotent Crea­tor towardes all flesh thus mani­fested (I do set my Raine Bowe in the cloudes, Gen. 9. & it shall be as a tokē betwene me & the earth) promising hereby neuer to destroy the same any more by waters: how much ought mākind specially, en­ioying by this peaceable pact, from Heauē, Earth, & the Sea aboundance of benefittes: feare God in his holines, loue one an other in righteousnesse, and vse these bene­fittes with thankfulnesse to the aduauncement of his glory. For this Bowe, this Rainebowe I say of his coue­nant,Arist met [...] liber 3. Cap. 1. and pledge of his peace, left vnto vs frō the deluge (as Aristotle affirmeth) Naturally appeareth by reflection or giuing backe of the light of the Sunne, Trac. 2. from a cloude opposite, or against the same. So our heauēly God, the Father of light, and giuer of grace, departeth with the light of his manifolde mercies vnto mankinde, from the opposite cloude of his displeasure. Againe, this Bowe of his co­uenant [Page] and pledge of his peace, (as it is saide by Alber­tus) To be so much lesse in appearance, as by how much the Sunne is higher in the Heauens, and contrarie wise so much greater, as the Sunne is lower to the earth: So much lesse be the mercies of God minded of man, as his mightie power appeareth out of our sight, and againe so much greater seeme his mercies vnto vs, as his mightie power is nere vs in sight. Thirdly according to Aristotle, this Rainebow of his co­uenant & pledge of his peace, As it appeareth in the Spring time, in Sommer, in Autume & in Winter, euening & morning, but specially in Autumne: So is the performance of his mercifull couenant, and peaceable pacte at all times ap­parant, but specially in Autumne, that is when man­kinde laboureth most to leaue sinne, and bring­forth fruites of good life as I saide, fearing God in his holinesse, louing one an other in righteousnesse, and v­sing his benefittes with thankfulnesse. Thus and to this end graunting his couenant, our omnipotent Creator and gratiouse God ordayning Man ruler ouer his Crea­tures in earth, yet vnder his protection in heauen, hath not onely bounde vnto him all humaine societie, but hath also substituted euen his liuetenauntes godly rulers ouer the same to the foresaide effect for the aduaunce­ment of his glory, confirming the same couenant with the aucthoritie of his holie worde on this manner. [...] Reg. 7 I will ordaine a place for my people of Israell. I. And I will plant him, and I will dwell with him. II. And he shall be no more troubled. III. And the children of iniquitie shall not vexe or afflict him any more. IIII. By his word here he promised that which by his deede he performed to our forefathers▪ Adam in Paradise, Gen. 1. Noah & his children, Gen. 9. Abraham & his seede Gen. 12. But louing his [...]lect, and hating their e­nemies, he performed his promise vnto Iacob in his prouidence, and vnto Laban in his iudgments, Gen. 30. So did he in like manner vnto Ioseph, and his vnnaturall brethren, Gen. 37. Yea in his prouidence laying his right hand vpon Ephraim, and in his iudgement his left hand vpon Manasses. Gen. 48. Whereby as he prospered and [Page] protected his holy ones in peace and warres against their enemies, we reade also in the deuine histories from time to time how and by what ordenarie meanes of power, force, and defence, he reached vnto his feeble flocke his mightie arme to the discomforture of the enemie & vt­ter subuertion both of their power & pollicie, according to his promises aforesaide. Heere then memorable and praiseworthie is the prouidence of this most mightie God, who promising helpe vnto the Iewes against the Gentiles, vsed no kinde of speach so much as this,Deut 32. That he would bend his Bow and dye his shaftes in bloud. As who say, God wil [...] make the Iewes shoote strong shootes to ouer­throw their enemies: or at the least, that shooting is a wonderful mightie thing, whereunto the high power of God is likened. This bow a weapon of defence, the Raine Boe a token of truce: This Bow in peace a plea­sure, the Raine Bowe a signe of serenitie: this Bow in warres a paine to the enemie, the Raine Bow at al times and to all people Gods toaken betwene him and the earth. The one an instrment of mercy, the other of destruction: the godly haue both as their comfort and sauegarde by Gods protection, the vngodly either wanting the one or hauing both, haue them to their confusion and subuertion by his reiection.Reg. 3 [...]. As we reade of King Saul, that he was slaine of the Philistians being mightie bow men: and with him also his Sonne [...]onathas who as the scripture saith neuer shot shaft in vaine. And that the kingdome of Israell after Sauls death came vnto King Dauid: who after he was King, decreed by the first sta­tute which he enacted.2. Reg. [...] That all the children of Israell should learne to shoote in the bowe, according to a law made many a day before vt patet in libro iustorum, a booke not now in vse to be [...]ounde. In his booke of Psalmes as hee saide He was at peace with them that hated peace. So named hee the bow and arrowes in diuers manners & meaninges▪ as in his Psal. 7. vers 13. & 14. Psal. 11. vers. 2. Psal. 18. vers. 13. Psal. 21. vers. 12. Psal. 45. vers. 6. Psal. 49. vers. 9. 64. vers. 3. & 4. 76. vers. 3. 91. vers. 5. 127. vers. 4. & 5. [Page] Finally in his 147. Psal. vers. 6. Praying to God for de­liuerance from his enemies and for their destruction. He saith, shoot thine arrowes and consume them: So yet that He neither trusted in bowe nor sworde, but in the power of God. Hee affirmeth it Psalme 44. vers. 6. And to conclude that he had rather liue in a godly peace thē to warre against the wicked, he saith in the 119. Psal. vers. 15. As at a marke he will ayme to walke in the wayes of the Lord. Of this minde was not King [...]osias, who though leading a godly life at home in Iuda, yet going vniustly to fight against Nichao King of Egipt, [...] Reg. 23. was rather friendly dehorted by him frō his purpose then otherwise, saying: Leaue off to worke a­gaynst the Lord which is with mee least he do [...]tay thee, which admonition Iosias not regarding as spoken from God, tasted in deed of Gods iust iudgment: for being shot thorow with arrowes he was woūded to the death incontinently. I could at large here call to minde the commendation of this peaceable practise of shooting which once I as a rawe scholler reade ouer in Toxophilus, and at times by tasked lessons interpreted in latine here and there: but for breuitie, I refer your ho­nours, and worshipes vnto the Histories there, of the E­thiopian king, and Cambyses king of Persia. Of Sesostris and his archers. Of the Messagetanes which neuer went without their bowe and quiuer neyther in peace nor in warres. Of Policrates and his one thowsand archers. Of the Scithians (whose whole substance and riches of a man being a yoake of Oxen and a plow, a Nagge and his dogge, his bowe and his quiuer) were inuincible a­gainst Darius and other Monarckes. To be short, the Grecians, Persians, Athenians, and the Romanes, whose shooting in peace and warres was worthie of praise and fame. Neyther here ought I nor will I omit with silence the deserued fame of our Ancestors in fauouringe this exercise in this our litle England long ago [...]e liuing and of latter time, though breefly, referring your honours & worshippes vnto the histories at large, as of Brute and his Troianes the first Brittaines, before and after the a­riuall of Iulius Caesar, Claudius, & Vespasian Emperoures [Page] and they Romanes: after them the Saxons vntill the time of Vortiger, the vsurping murtherer, who (Gods prouidence so working for them, and his iudgement vpon him) by the two Brethern and valiant Brittaines Aurelius sirnamed Ambrose, & Vther Pendragon, be­ing burned in his Castell in Wales, was occasion of the Brittaines more happier estate afterwardes. But here yet by the way (Right honourable and worshipfull) as I applaude in this their well doing, so it had beene a thing of Brit­taine most worthelie to be wished, for that Prince him selfe lesse opprobrius of all mē more praise worthie, and most pretiouse in the sight of God: if the serpent Ty­rus had wanted here his vennime vncurable, though his flesh proued medicinable against all other poysons (as saith Cardanus in his booke of Comfort.) I meane if Vther Pendragon had wanted that serpentine poyson of adulterie, Nigromancie & murther (things odible to God and good men:) when that most incomperable King Arthure of great Brittaine for his princely pro­wesse, valiant vertues, and triumphant victories yet prooued more Royally renoumed throughoute all the worlde in his time and to his posteritie. The He­brwes with greate and not vndeserued titles extolled their Iudas Maccabeus. Homer the glory of all Greeke Poets left Hector and Achilles most commendable vn­to the worlde. Neyther by lesse diligence did the Gre­cians adorne with praise Alexander the most mightie conquerour. And the Romanes aduanced the noble actes of their Caesar to the Skyes not enough. The Bur­gonians profoundly praised Godfrey of Bulloyn (for his noble valiancy) as the scourge of the Sarazens in his dayes. And as euery one of those are commended with due desert: so in like māner there were neuer Brittaines wanting of excellent learning and exquisite knowledge to leaue with carefull diligence and credible commen­dation, the progenie, life, prowesse prosperitie, and tri­umphant victories of our said auncient Arthure wor­thely published vnto the worlde. And as Alexander [Page] would haue none to purtract him but Apelles, nor a­ny but Lysippus to engraue him in bras [...]e, nor any but Pyrgotiles to worke him in pretiouse stone: So where in not three, but many Artizans as learned Gildas, William of Malmsbury, Nennius, Diuionenses, Graius, Iosephus, Geoffrey of Munmuth, Siluester Giraldus. &c. performed their worthie workmanshippes in our Ar­thure Maur (to vse the Brittaine phrase:) euen one En­glish Leyland for his learned laboure laudable, hath per­fectly polished him in all poyntes. Chusing a cheefe & most perspicuouse, a valiant & most victoriouse, a cou­ragiouse and most conquerouse, a religiouse and most redoubted Royall soueraigne King Henry the eight, as sole supreme Patron and protector thereof against the cankered currish kinde of caueling carpers. Bycause his elder brother being named Arthure, he him selfe a most christian King for all heroicall vertues commendable, the rather seemed to fauour and further the aduance­ment of the fame of his most renoumed auncestor this same our ancient Arthure and the knightly traine of his rounde table. Hereupon by patent of his princely pre­rogatiue ordayned, graunted, and confirmed hee vnto this honorable Citie of London, free electiō of a Chief­taine and of Citizens representing the memory of that magnificent King Arthure, and the Knightes of the same order, which should for the mayntenance of shooting onely, meete together once a yeare, with so­lemne and friendly celebration therof. So much in his noble minde preuayled all prouident care of princely prowesse,2 Reg. 1. valiancie, cheualrie, and actiuitie, that he not onely herein imitated the examplers of godly K. Dauid for his Israelites as before,A [...]o [...]30 and of that noble Emperour Leo in ouerthrowing idolatrie, and exalting archerie maugre the mallice of that Romane Antichrist, and all his members: but also inuincibly maintayned the praiseworthie practize of this shooting in peace & wars by the examples of his princly progenitors. As after t [...]e [Page] conquest, of K. Henry II. alîas Beauclerck so sirnamed, the first furtherer of K. Arthures benificencie, valiāt Ed­ward sirnamed long & first vizitor of the saide Kinges tombe, valiant and victorius Edward III▪ & IIII. bounti­ous and liberall Richard II. good and gratiouse Henry the V. wise, po [...]itique, iust, temperate, and graue King Henry the V [...]I. his father. Neither hath this ceased in the branch, that flourished in the bole: but by the milde, religiouse, and gratiouse King Edwarde the VI. and now last of all by the Phenix of feminine sex, our most re­doubted Hester and gratiouse soueraigne Ladie Queene Elizabeth laudably lasteth in force and effect:Hest. Cap. [...] whose highnesse so many yeares humbling, not exalting her selfe the more by reason of her power, wholy setteth her subiectes in peace, preferring the same. Now therefore (Right honourable and worshipfull) as duetie bindeth euery degree to further the welfare of this blessed peace, and the profit of this excellent practise: proceede I humbly beseech you with noble Nehemias and those godly su­peruisors with dutifull diligence,2. Esd. 4, with the one hand holding your boes, and with the other hand as good la­borers for your Prince & publique wealth, to beare the burdens of your vocation, towards the buylding of this earthly Ierusalem, euen from the morning spring till the Starres come forth. Continually I say accustome your selues to seeke this peace of the gospell and to ensue the same, ryde on I say with renoume vpō that White Horse whose sitter hauing a boe and a croune giuen him hath promisse from the mightie power of God, Reuel. [...]. that he shall go forth conquering and shall ouercome. That Christ our King of the v [...]iuersall Church with his croune and septer, and with the shaf [...]es of his mouth or worde and gospell of peace may pearce throughout the worlde to the aduauncement of his glo­ry which shal sit on the raineboe in his maiestie to iudge all Nations, (as the feare of his holynesse, mutuall loue in righteousnesse, and thankfulnesse for his benefites may moue all men) I haue trauieled in the translation of this booke out of Latin into English, with all humble & [Page] true harted reuerence, beseeching God to assist you right honourable Lord Deputie with his omnipotent power, that as an inuincible Iosua you may continually bring in the people to the due knowledge of God, Deut. 31. and obedience of our Prince: & as a notable Nehemias in true feare of God without feare of foe buylde vp this earthly Ierusalem to the perfection of that perpetuall peace, promised in the heauenly Ierusalem. Finally that you right honourable Lord President, and you right worshipfull Master Tho­mas Smith with your worshipfull associates,Psal. 121. Dayly pray­ing for the peace of this Ierusalem, as the amitie thereof is sweete by the vnitie of your mindes:Psal. 132. So that, Hoc sit lon­gissime vt periucundum sic cohabitare fratres in vnum, I accor­ding to my humble duty hartely do pray vnto God, cra­uing pardon of your honours and worshippes generally for this my bold dedication. And beseeching you fauou­rably to accept the same in furderance of my poore stu­dy of dutifull well wishing towardes my Prince & coun­trie: I humbly and hartely beseech the eternall & om­nipotent God to multiply his manifolde mercies vpon your honours & worships, that being all of one dutifull minde in God towardes the maiestie of our most sacred soueraigne lady (vnder her long liuing in peaceable pro­speritie) we may after this life attaine vnto that peace­able and perpetuall kingdome of Heauen to raigne as coheires with Christ our Lord in the glory of his Father. AMEN.

Your Honourable Lordships, and worthie Worships most humble and faithfull poore Orator, RICHARD ROBINSON, Citizen of London.

I. L. Ad Candidos Lectores.

Delituit certé multis Arturius annis,
Vera Brittannorum, Gloria, Lumen, Honos:
Dispulit obscuras alacer Lelandius vmbras,
Sydereum mundo restituit (que) iubar.
Plaudite Lectores studiosa caterua diserti,
Prestitit officium candidus ille suum:
Hinc procul at fugiant Codrino felle tumentes,
Ne proprio crepitent ilia rupta malo.

I. L. To the Syncere Readers.

Many yeeres surely Arthure hidden lay,
Of Brittons, the Glory, Light & Honor true:
Cheerely hath Leyland driuē darke shadowes away,
And yeelds the world bright shining Sun to view.
Of Learned Readers, reioyce yee studious Crew,
He sincere did his Duetie bounden fulfill:
Farre hence flee those their spyte which spew,
Least their Intestines burst with their owne ill.

The Table of the names of those Authors, whose testimonies this present Booke vseth.

Foraine writers.
  • Poets.
    • Lucanus.
    • Iuuenall.
    • Martiall.
  • Historiographers
    • Cornelius Tacitus.
    • Paulus Diaconus.
    • Claudius Gallus.
    • Iohānes Anneuillanus.
    • Valerius.
    • Boccace.
    • Diuionensis.
    • Ponticus Virunnius.
Brittaine writers.
  • Theliesinus.
  • Ambrosius Maridunensis.
  • Merlinus Caledonius.
  • Melchinus.
  • Patricius Glessoburgensis.
  • Gildas Bannochorensis.
  • Anonymu [...].
  • Nennius.
  • Samuell.
  • Beda Girouicanus.
Brittaine writers.
  • Asserius Meneuensis.
  • Gulielmus Meildunensis.
  • Galfridus Monemuthensis.
  • Aluredus Fibroleganus.
  • Henricus Venantodunensis.
  • Iosephus Iscanus.
  • Siluester Giraldus.
  • Matheus Parisius.
  • Iohannes Chysistoriographu [...].
  • Gulielmus Paruus.
  • Iohannes Fiberius.
  • Thomas Vicanus.
  • Ranulphus Higedenus.
  • Mattheus Florilegus.
  • Iohannes Burgensis.
  • Thomas Melorius.
  • Scalechronica.
  • Chronica Durensia.
  • Chronica Glessoburgensia.
  • Chronica Persorana.
2. Cor. 13. Nihil contra veritatem a­gere possumus, sed pro Veri­tate.
Prou. 12.Labium Veritatis firmum in perpetuum.
Prou. 21. Testis autem mendax peribit.
Esdra. [...]. 9. Super omnia autem vincit Veritas.

Certaine memorable Notes inserted into this As­sertion since the Translation thereof. By Ric. Ro.

AS Pliny saith, Ingenui pudoris est fateri per quos proseceris: So I must freely confesse the friendly helps of those which profited me in this purpose.

First by conference with Master Steuen Batman, a lear­ned Preacher and friendlie fauourer of vertue and learning, (touching the praise worthie progenie of this K. Arthure) he gaue me this assured knowledge on this maner taken out of his Auncient records written at Aualonia.

Uerses found in certaine Cronicles, wherein were dis­courses had of Aruiragus king of Brittaine 45. yeeres after the natiuitie of Christe.

Twelue men in number entered the Vale of Aualon:
Ioseph of Aramathia was the chiefest flowre of them.
Ioseph the sonne of Ioseph, his father did attend,
With other tenne: and Glaston did possesse.

There al [...] ▪, this writing did witnesse, that K. Arthure of greate Brittaine descēded of the stocke of y saide Ioseph viz. Helarius the Nephewe of Ioseph begate Iosue, Iosue be­gate Aminadab, Aminadab begate Castellors, Castellors begate Manaell, Manaell begate Lambord and Vrlard, and Lambord begate a sonne that begate Igerna of which wo­man, king Vther Pendragon begate the noble and renou­med King Arthure. Whereby it plainely appeareth, that K. Arthure descended of the stocke of Ioseph.

Againe, like wise of the same kindred (whereof K. Arthure came) proceeded these auncient Brittaines also.

Peter the Cosē of Ioseph of Aramathia, king of Arcadia, begate Erlan, Erlan begate Melianus, Melianus begate Arguthe, Arguthe begate Edor, Edor begate Lotho which maried to wife the sister of K. Arthure, of whom Lotho be­gate 4 sonnes, to wit, Walwanus Agranaius, Guerelies, and Garelies: all which were noble men of authoritie in Brittaine where they dwelt.

[Page] Moreouer he shewed me [...]ut of his auncient records the interchaunges of king Arthures armes which hee gaue in three chiefes, from the first to the third: viz.

His first armes he bare in a shield Gules, (red) three Ser­pentes, Or. gold

His second hee bare in a shield Vert, (greene) a plaine Crossargent: in chiefe the figure of the Virgin Marie with Christe in her armes.

His third and last in a shield Azure, (blew) three [...]ownes. Or. (gold.)

But after knowledge of these seuerall armes, I had intelli­gence of a certaine. French booke, wherein he is reported to aue giuen a shielde Azure (blew) 13. Crownes. Or. gold

This booke beeing in an English mans handes, I was not so desirous to see it, but he as willingly shewed it & lent it me. There was in it portracted both the seuerall names, shieldes, and seuerall armes in colours also depainted of all K. Arthures knights and vnder euery one the commenda­tion due vnto him by his cheualrie. Which because the en­grauing of their armes was very chargeable, & the circum­stance of matter more then I could in so shorte time publish in the English tongue: I was enforced to content me with this briefe collection concerning K. Arthure. and with the names of 16. kinges, one Duke, and 149. knightes, so ma­ny as were therin printed. viz.

Of King Arthure himselfe it saith Directly vnder his shield thus.

King Arthure did beare in his shield Azure (blew) 13. Crownes of golde. He was a greate conquerour, and of noble and valiant prowesse, hee instituted the order of the rounde Table in the kingdome of greate Brittaine: Unto the which he appointed all his chosen knightes at Whitsontide yeere­ly to come, and holde their Homage of him by the same or­der.

Now [...]oweth the names of those knightes, and first hovv many kinges

  • 1 Le Roy Meliadus.
  • 2 Le Roy Ban de Benock.
  • 3 Le Roy Boort de Gauues.
  • 4 Le Roy Karados.
  • 5 Le Roy Lac.
  • 6 Le Roy de Clare [...].
  • 7 Le Roy Vrien.
  • 8 Le Roy Lo [...]tho de Orchany.
  • 9 Le Roy Ryon.
  • 10 Le Roy Pelinor.
  • 11 Le Roy Baude magu [...], de Gorre.
  • 12 Le Roy Pharam ondo.
  • 13 Le Roy Galganoys de Nor­galles.
  • 14 Le Roy Aguisant d' Escosse
  • 15 Le Roy Malaquin d' outre les marches de Gallounne.
  • 16 Le Roy Claudas.
  • I [...]Le Duke de Clarence.
  • 1 Messier Lancelot du Lac.
  • 2 Boort de gauues.
  • 3 Gawain d' Orchany.
  • 4 Messier Tristran de Lyon­noys.
  • 5 Lyonet de Gauues.
  • 6 Helias le Blanc.
  • 7 Hector des Mares.
  • 8 Bliomberis de Gauues.
  • 9 Gaherriet.
  • 10 Keux le Seneschall.
  • 11 Messier Yuaine.
  • 12 Bruor le Noir.
  • 13 Baudoyer le Conestable.
  • 14 Agruall de Galles.
  • 15 Segurades.
  • 16 Patris le Hardy.
  • 17 Esclabor le Messoniez.
  • 18 Saphar le méscognieu.
  • 19 Sagremor le desree.
  • 20 Gyron le Curtoys.
  • 21 Seguram le Brun.
  • 22 Galehault le Bla [...]c.
  • 23 Le Morholt de Ireland.
  • 24 Danayn le Roux.
  • 25 Amilan de Sessougn [...].
  • 26 Brallain.
  • 27 Brallain que lon disoit le Cheualier an duex espees.
  • 28 Gallehaulte.
  • 29 Lamorat de Lysth enoys.
  • 30 Brunor de Gauues.
  • 31 Le bon Cheualier de Nor­galles.
  • 32 Henry de Ryuell.
  • 33 Messier Gullat.
  • 34 Gueherres.
  • 35 Aggrauaine le Orguilleux.
  • 36 Mordrec de Orchany.
  • 37 Gyrfflet.
  • 38 Dodvnel le Sauaige.
  • 39 Yuain le Auoutre.
  • 40 Ozement Coeur hardy.
  • 41 Gualegantine le Galloys.
  • 42 Gaherriet de Lemball.
  • 43 Mador de la porte.
  • 44 Bamers le forcene.
  • 45 Dynadam de Estrangor▪
  • 46 Herret le filz de lac.
  • 47 Artus le petit.
  • 48 Cinglant Rochmont.
  • 49 Artus lesbloy.
  • 50 Guallogrenant de Winde­zores.
  • 51 Kandelis.
  • 52 Merangis des portz.
  • 52 Gauuaine le franc.
  • 53 Gnades le fort.
  • 54 Pharas le Noir.
  • 55 Pharas le Roux.
  • 56 Iambegues le Garruloys.
  • 57 Taulas de la mountaine.
  • 58 Abandam le fortune.
  • 59 Damatha de folim [...]t.
  • 60 Amand le bel Iousteur.
  • 61 Ganesmor le Noir.
  • 62 Arphin le Dire.
  • 63 Arconstant le adures.
  • 64 Le Beau couranr.
  • 65 Le laid hardy.
  • 66 Andelis le Roux serr [...]e.
  • 67 Bruyant des Isles
  • 68 Ozenall de Essra [...].
  • 69 Le Cheualier de Esther.
  • 70 Le Varlet de Glayn.
  • 71 Heroys le ioveux.
  • 72 Fergas du [...].
  • 73 Lot le Cou [...]enr.
  • 74 Meliadus del Espinov.
  • 75 Meliadus an no [...]r aeil.
  • 76 Avglius des vaux.
  • 77 Iamburg du Chastell,
  • 78 Messire Clamorat.
  • 79 Surados des sept fontanes.
  • 80 Le Varletan Circle.
  • 81 Kaedins de Lonizein.
  • 82 Lucane le Boutellier.
  • 83 Brumer de la fountaine.
  • 84 Lenfant du plessies.
  • 85 Persides legent.
  • 86 Sibilias aux dures maius.
  • 87 Sinados le Esile.
  • 88 Arphazat le groz coeur.
  • 89 Le blonde Amoreux.
  • 90 Argahac le Beau.
  • 91 Normaine le Pelerin.
  • 92 Harmaine le felon.
  • 93 Toscane le Romane▪
  • 94 Landone le Leger.
  • 95 Le fort troue.
  • 96 Le Noir Perdu.
  • 97 Le fortune de lisle.
  • 98 Le see des Dames.
  • 99 Le Forester de Dēnewich,
  • 100 Le Chasseur de on [...]re les marches.
  • 101 Ieyr & Landoys de Rufe.
  • 102 Geoffroy le Lancoys.
  • 103 Randowin le persien.
  • 104 Froyadus le Gay.
  • 105 Rousse lin de la autre mōd [...]
  • 106 Gurrant le Roche dure.
  • 107 Arm. on. ouuerd serpent.
  • 108 Ferrand du tertre.
  • 109 Thor le filz de Arez.
  • 110 Iupin des croix.
  • 111 Ydeux le fort Tyrane.
  • 112 Bolinian du Boys.
  • 113 Le bon Cheualier sās paou [...]
  • 114 Brouadas le Espaignoll.
  • 115 Brechus sans Pitye.
  • 116 Malignain.
  • 117 Le Cheualeur de Scallo [...]
  • [Page] 118 Melias de l' Espi [...].
  • 119 Agr [...]erle [...]el Patride [...] [...] Circle d' Or.
  • 120 Mandius le noir.
  • 121 Perceuall de Gallis.
  • 122 Aeuxdestraux.
  • 123 Lamant du Boys.
  • 124 Melianderis de Sansen.
  • 125 Mandrin le Sage.
  • 126 Kalahart le petite.
  • 127 Sadocde Vencon.
  • 128 [...]
  • 129 Verrant de la Roche.
  • 130 Le Brunsans ioy,
  • 131 L [...]sterin le grand.
  • 132 Le Cheualier des sept voyes
  • 133 Gryngaloys le fort.
  • 134 Malaquin le Galoys
  • 135 Agricole Beaugrand.
  • 136 Gualiandres du Tettre.
  • 137 Margondes le Rongo.
  • 138 Kacerdius de la Vallce.
  • 139 [...]
  • 140 Tal [...]mor le Volan [...]
  • 141 Alibel de Logres.
  • 142 Dalides de la Ryuier.
  • 143 Arain du pinē.
  • 144 Arganor l [...] riche.
  • 145 M [...]has le Beau Cheuali [...]
  • 146 Mehadus le Blanc.
  • 147 Malaquin le gros.
  • 148 Me [...]er Palamides.
  • 149 Alexander le Orpheli [...].

Summa totalis 166. Knightes.


  • Kinges 16.
  • Dukes 1.
  • Knightes 149.

Besides notice of these I vsed in my translation from time to time, the helpe (of Master Iohn Stow, & M [...]ster Camb [...] diligēt sear­chers in antiquities▪) for the interpretation of those hard brittish and Welch [...]ownes or names of places, which neither Master Leyland the Collector of this Assertion had expounded per­fectlie, neither I my felfe the translator c [...]ld other­wise of my selfe haue perfourmed. For the which I am to gratifie them as the others also before re­cyted.

The Assertion of K. Arthure.

EVIDENT It is, by the speciall agreement of Greeke and Latine writers, that Hercules was borne of Alcmena, by the adultery of Iupiter. But what manner of person, or how mightie in times past hee was, I sup­pose is euen of the meanely learned better knowne, then that at this presēt needeth any further Insinuatiō. And very many others there were borne in adultery, (as by the Auncient History largely appeareth) whose prowesse at home, and in warres, notably excelled. Amongest whome also our Arthure, the chiefest ornament of Brittayne, and the onely myracle of his time, florished famously. May I therefore bee so bolde by good leaue of Gulielmus Paruus, William Par­uus & Polido­rus Virgilius, two aduersa­ries of K. Ar­thures fame. yea and so of his most mightie successour in place, Polido­rus, euen with condigne praises to commend my country­man Arthure: and with the same dilligence to leane vnto the Brittish history interpreted by Geoffrey of Munmouth a man not altogether vnlearned, (what soeuer otherwise per­sōs ignorant of antiquitie, which thinke themselues to haue knowledge, shall say) as vnto a firme defence, rather then vnto the fond fables or base stuffe of forraine writers. Truly, in fables which haue crept into the history of Arthure, I doe not more delite, then Polidorus, the Iudge. But to bee a­fraide of any man by reason of his greate age, or eloquence, or authoritie, finally as like a foolish forsaker of the truth, I shoulde so leaue her partes vndefended: that certainely will I neuer doe:The Authours good purpose in this worke. An other way, do equity, honesty, the rule of fame, and heerehence a iust loue to my country, yea truth it selfe (thē which one thing, nothing more deare I loue) fully moue me. But yet neither thinke I to wage battaile with yt Learned: In meane time, yet by good reason it shall be free for me, to make most famous the state of my coūtrie, and spe­cially [Page] the partes of truth, euen with singuler dilligence expedyte industry, cheerefull labour, prompt counsell, quicke iudgment, yea, and finally by all meanes. Therefore, trust­ing in the good will, humanitie, and courteous fauour of the honest readers, I will now attempt somewhat more, circum­spectly to finde out Prince Arthures Originall, euen from the very egge,

Est locus Abrini sinuoso littore ponti,
Rupe situs media, refluus quem circuit aestus,
Fulminat hic laté, turrito vertice Castrum,
Nomine Tindagium, veteres dixere Corini.
A place there is ith' winding shoare of th' Abryne Sea by name,
Scituate in middest of a rocke, wheare ebbing ryde the same
Enuironeth. A Castle here with towery top shines bright,
(By auncient Cornish mē so called) which Tintagill tho hight.

A Constant same is there giuen out by the voyce of ma­nie, and also confirmed with the wrytinges of Lear­ned men, that Gorloys the Gouernour of Cornewale had heere his habytation for him, and his. He had to wife Igerna, a woman no doubt of most louely Feature, but of an Improbate or vitious Chastitie. Hether somewhat oftener for recreation of his minde,Vther Pendra­gon, king Art. father. repayred Vther, kinge of the Brittaines, and surnamed Pendragon: So called for his Serpentine or subtile wisedome, (as I suppose) whose friendlie wellwiller Gorloys also was.

Architrenius in his fifth booke (if I count aright) writes these verses.

Hoc trifido mundum, Corinei postera sole,
Irradiat Pubes, quarti (que) puerpera Phoebi,
Pullulat Arturum, facie dum falso adulter
Tintagoll irrumpit, nec amoris Pendragon aestum,
Vincit, & omnificas Merlini consulit artes.
Mentitur (que) Ducis habitus & Rege latenti,
Induit absentis presenti Gorloys ora.
The after coming youth, lightens the world of Coriney
With his three clouē sonne: & she that brought forth at that day
The fourth Phoebus, broght forth Arthur, whilst the adulterer he
[Page 2] Euen Tintagol so false of face brake in most wickedly.
Neither Pendragon vanquished the flaming fire of Loue,
But Merlins artes so manifold by counsel seekes to proue:
And counterfeites the Dukes attyre (as while the King did gles [...]
Thus) He put on the present face of absent Duke Gorloys.

CUstome, acquaintance, and companying together, doe sette loue one sire.Ouid. Epist. [...] And because as a certaine Poet sayth (Lis est cum forma magna Pudicitiae: that is, Twixt Comelinesse and Chastitie, greate Debate there seemes to bee.) Lust gotte the mastery ouer Igernaes Chastitie: Where­vppon also afterwardes Arthure was begotten of her, to­gether with a beautifull virgin,Vther Pendra­gon begat Ar­thur of Igerna the wife of Gorloys, Go­uernour of Cornwale, and also a Virgin named Anna. named Anna. It must not heere bee omitted whereof Hector Boetius makes relation: namelie that Vther at length slue Gorloys, as hee was fighting in the behalfe of Nothaleos Gouernour, agaynst the Saxonnes, and forsaken of him, that euen the rather hee might more freely obtayne his will of Igerna. But the name of Arthures is knowne to bee noble with the Romaynes, yea and also familyer amongest them: that from hence Iuuenall the Poet in his third Satyre writeth these. Cedamus Patria, Viuant Arturius istic, & Catulus. Frō our Countrie depart let vs: Originall of Arth. name. There Arthure liue & Catulus. Samuell the Brittish writer describeth the starre Arcturus so called Per Cappa ad vrsam, alluding, that hee taketh his name or significatiō thereof from the Greeke Originall. But here it ought not to redounde vnto Arthures preiudice or re­proch, that the father being an adulterer did leaue after him a sonne borne to valiant courage, prosperitie, & triumphant victories: seeing he was not in fault, that he the lesse proceeded frō lawfull matrimony, seeing that he afterwardes proued both a valiant and honest person.

Nam genus & Proauos,
Ouid. 13. lib. Metam. Fibis.
& quae non fecimus ipsi, Vix ea nostra puto.
For kindred & forefathers, eke which we
Haue not begun, I scarce thinke ours to be.

How greatly also the childe prospered in vertue, it then ap­peared, what time his father (who had florished in strength, Counsell and Judgemente also not without Glorie) de­departed [Page] out of this life at Verolamium, Iohn Stowe. hauing ordayned beefore,Then an anci­ent Cittie, which was neere saint Al­bones, the foū dations where of are yet apparant. the dignitie Royall vnto his base gotten sonne, be­cause he had none borne in lawfull matrimony.

K. Arthures Coronation.

THe history of Brittaine affirmeth that Arthure began his Raigne ouer the Islandes of this kingdome in the xv. yeere of his age, and was crowned of Dubritius Bishop of the City of Caerlegion vpon Vske in Wales. Iohn Stow. Jo­hanues,What time Arthur was crow­ned. A. D. 316. Graius a writer his testimony. Iohn Stow. y writer of the goldē history seemeth to accounte vpō xviii. yeeres when Arthure ascended vp to the Roayll seate. Scalaecronica, of which booke (as I am moued by coniecture) one Gray, was Authour, doe say, that Arthure receaued the dignitie of his crowne at Venta alîas Caerguent now called Winchester. The two rulers of the Pictes and Scots viz. Lotho, vnto whome Anne the sister of Aurelius Ambrosi­us, king of Brittaines was maried, and Conranus, vnto whome Ada the sister of Anne was espoused, began to enuy at the same so ioyfull prosperitie of Arthure: for both of them, but especially Lotho aspyred vnto the Dominion of Brit­taine. Two Rulers of the Pictes aspire vnto Ar­thures king­dome. Heereuppon followed afterwardes, that hee ioy­ning vnto him Osca, otherwise Occa, a most filthye per­son, made warre against Arthure. At length the matter came to hande stroakes, and the Pict beeing ouercome, had the worse successe, partly by the helpe or furtherance of the most inuincible Hoel, who plaied the Captaines parte there. The little booke of the Empyre of the Brittaynes and English men vpon the Scottes their friendly wellwil­lers,Battle and vic­tory ouer Ar­thur his ene­mies by Hoel his friend. affirmeth this victory to bee obtayned at Yorke by the saide Hoel. And that (the Scottes beeing vanquished) Arthure left the auncyent Dominions (by petitions beeing so moued) vnder the rule of his friende Augusellus, whom hee made Gouernour ouer them. Neither did better for­tune happen vnto the Saxonnes: when as Colgrino the Duke was slaine, and Baldricus with Childricke fledde away. After victorie ensewed Concord. Lotho [Page 3] yeelded him selfe vnto the Brittaynes. Mordred and Gal­loambieuinus the Sonnes of Lothon by Anne, be­sought Arthure of fauour & pardon by wonderfull meanes, and at length were made friendes. In the meane season had Arthure married Guenhera daughter vnto Cadorus the Duke of Cornwale,Arthure mar­ried Guenhera the daughter of Cadorus Duke of Cornwaile. a woman of rare beawtie. Afterwards also he subdued vnto him the Saxones with most bloudy bat­tels.

The XII. Battelles fought by Arthure.

NEnnius the Brittaine a writer of good and auncient credit, amongst many others maketh most lightsome mention of his battels: whose wordes although by the neg­ligence of Printers and iniurie of time, they be somewhat displaced, yet notwithstandinge because they make much for our present matter, and bring with them a certaine reue­rent antiquitie, I will here set them downe, and in their order. Arthure fought in deed against those Saxones, with the gouernours of the Britaines, but he himselfe was gene­rall. The first battell was at the entraunce of the floude 1 called Gleyn, alias Gledy. The second, third, fourth, and 2 3 4 5 fift, was vpon an other floud called Dugles, which is in the Countrie of Lynieux. The sixt was vpon the floud which 6 is called Bassas. The seauenth was in the wood Caledon, 7 that is, Catcoit Celidon. The eight in the Castle of Gwy­nyon. 8 The nynth was fought in the Cittie of Caerlegion 9 vpō Vske. Iohn Stow The tenth on the Sea shore, which is called Trai­theurith, 10 otherwise Rhydrwyd. The eleauenth in the hill 11 Which is called Agned Cathregonion. The twelfth in the 12 Mount Badonis, Some iudge this to be Bathe▪ wherein many were slaine by one assault of Arthure. Thus farre witnesseth Nennius.

Iohannes the wryter of the golden historie ratifyeth the selfe same truth touching the twelue battels fought against those Saxones. Iohn the wri­ter of the gol­den history.

Aluredus Fibroleganus the historeographer also decla­reth the like.

And so these are the wordes of Henry sirnamed of Hun­tington Henry of Huntington. [Page] in the second booke of his history. Arthure the war­rier, in those dayes the Captaine generall of soldiours, and of the rulers in Brittaine, King Art [...]ure Xij times Ge­neral, and Xij. times Cōque­rour. fought most valiantly against the Saxons. Twelue times was he generall of the battell, and twelue times got he the victory, And there also. But the battles and places wherein they were fought a certaine histo­riographer declareth.

Henry of Huntington seemeth here to haue hitte vpon the bréefe history of Nennius, the name of whose exemplar (as it seemeth) was not set downe. Herehence came that si­lence. Neyther was that booke common in mens handes at that time, and in this our age is surely most rare: onely three exemplars do I remember that I haue seene.Iohn Rhes [...]s a louer of Anti­quitie. Iohn Rhesus a louer of Antiquitie, & the same a diligent setter forth there­of, hath a little booke entituled Gilde, which booke (so farre as I gather by his speach) had not to Authour Gildas, but Nennius.

The Elenchus or Registred Table of the librarie at Batle Abbey, Iohn Stow. accounteth the historie of Gildas among there trea­sures, I haue diligently enquyred for the booke: but as yet haue I not found it. The Reporte is, that the exemplar was translated or carried to Brecknocke there to be kept.

Now must we report the Battels.

THe writer of the life of the reuerent Dubritius, Arche­bishop of the Cittie Caerlegion vpon Vsk, Iohn Stow. not vnele­gantly, doth cōmemorate such like matters. When at length Aurelius the King was made away by poyson, (and that V­ther, What time Arthure succe­ded Vther his Father. his brother ruled a few yeares) Arthure his Sonne by the helpe of Dubritius succeded in gouernement, who with bold courage set vpon the Saxones in many battles, and yet could he not vtterly roote them out of his Kingdome, For the Saxones had subdued vnto them selues the whole com­passe of the Island which stretcheth from the water of Hum­ber vnto the Sea Cattenessinum or Scottish Sea.Arthure could not cleane roote all the Saxones out of Brittaine. For that cause the Peares of the Realme being called together, he de­termined by their counsell what he might best do, against the [Page 4] irruption of the Pagane Saxones, At length by comm [...]n counsell he sendeth into Armorica, (that is to say, the letter Brittaine, H [...]el King of Brittaine aides him with a powe of 15000. men.) vnto King Hoel his Ambassadors, which aduer­tised him at full, touching the calamitie of the Brittaines, who comming with fiftene thousand of armed men into Brittaine was honorably entertayned of Arthure, and D. Dubritius: going vnto the Cittie of Lincolne beseeged of the Saxones, Lincolne be­seeged by the Saxones. hauing fought ye battell, there were six thousand of Saxones which eyther being drowned or wounded with weapons, dyed.Their slaugh­ter & fight. But the others flying away vnto the wood of Cale­don, being beseeged by the Brittaines, were constrayned to yeeld themselues: and pledges being taken for tribute yeare­ly to be paied, he gaue them leaue with their shippes onely to returne into their Countrie. Afterwardes within a short time the Saxones were ashamed of the league made: and hauing recouered their strength, they made their league as voyde, and beseeged the Cittie Badon rounde about,Bath beseeged by the Saxons. which now is called Bathe: this when Arthure hearde of, hauinge gathered his hoast together, and beholding the Tentes of his enemies, he spake thus vnto them.

Because the most vngodly Saxones, K. Arthure seekes to be aduēged of the Saxones. disdaine to keepe pro­mise with me, I keping faith with my God, will endeuoure to be aduenged of them for the bloud and slaughter of my Ci­tizens:His wordes. Let vs therefore manfully set vpon those Traytours whom by the Mediation of Christ out of all doubt we shall ouercome with a wished triumphe. And hee rushing vpon the ranckes of the Saxones, beinge helped by the prayers of Dubritius in ouerthrowing many thousandes,His victorie o­uer them. obtay­ned the victorie: and the few which fled this garboyle, he cau­sed them to yeelde to his mercy.

Boccace in his booke of Lakes and Marishes, thus wryteth. Murais that Lake so called famous is, by the victory of Arthure, King of Brittaine: for men say that the Scottes, Pictes and Irishmen being by him beseeged, were compelled to yeelde themselues there.Boccace men­tioneth of Arthure. The same Authour in his viii. booke of Famouse Personages maketh a notable mention of Arthure being moued with a certaine [Page] Godly zeale, to the end he would not with vnthankfull si­lence ouerpasse, so mightie a personage, and so worthie a man.M. Camden. Neyther here are those thinges which appeare in the Cronicles of a certaine writer of Digion differing from our purpose.Cerdicius the Saxon helde warre with Arthure. Cerdicius hauing more often conflict with Arthure, if he were one moneth vanquished, he more sharp­ly assaulted in another moneth. At length Arthure, with irksome toyle so being awearied, after the Xii yeare of Cerdi­cius his comming (by fealtie to him sworne) gaue him the Country Auonia Southwarde,Arth. friendly to his foo. and Somaria: which part Cerdicius called West saxony.

Gulielmus a Medulphi curia both a gallant writer,William of Malmsbury and also a learned, and which thing first in his history (he as most faithfull) in his first booke of the Kinges of Britaine men­cioneth,Arthure sore distressed had it not bene for Ambrose a Romaine. bringeth in by the way these testimonies, of Arthure. And now truly had it come to an euill passe with the Brit­taines (as he vnderstoode) had not Ambrose onely of the Romans bene left aliue, (who after Vortigerus, was Mo­narke or King, with the surpassing exployt of warlike Ar­thure, repressed the outragiouse barbarouse enemines of the Kingdome.

Moreouer hetherunto seeme these things to pertaine, which in the fragmentes of Gildas the Brittaine are reade after this manner.Gildas. The Brittaines like conquerours take cou­rage to them, prouocating their enemies to fight, vnto whom by the Lordes good pleasure the victorie fell euen to their de­sire. From that time, otherwhiles the Citizens, otherwhiles the enemies got the vpper hand, that in this people it might be approued, how the Lord after his accustomed māner, dealt with this present Israell, and whether he loued the same, yea, or no, euen vnto the yeare of the seege of the mount Badon, and lastly almost of the petty spoylers there, in no litle hurly­burly, whereas euen I my selfe was borne. These saith Gildas. Behold the slaunderer is now present, and as one cruell of eye sight, requyreth a reason of me, why Gildas remembreth not Arthure, Aduersaries quarrel against Arthure. if he were then liuing. To these I answere, that I will hereafter speake of Gildas. In means time the aduersarie calleth to minde, that Gildas when the [Page 5] battaile was fought at Bathe, was but an Infant: By rea­son whereof euen his Actes done or not done of him, some­what slenderly are vnderstood by the aduersarie.

Gulielmus a Medulphi Curia, William of Malmesbune a friendly wri­ter. a little before, beareth so honourable a testimonie of Arthure, that smally it shall dif­fer, whether, if not superiour, yet as equall hee reputed him with Ambrose. But Nennius an Authour of no bad cre­dite,Nennius an­other. so much perfourmed in fauour of Aurelius Ambrosius, as Gildas in the fauour of Arthure: Uiz. that leauing out the name of the one, hee might attribute vprightly by iust cause vnto the other all honour, concerning the battle fought at Bathe. But neither doe these alone performe this: There are a number of good authours, which cōfirme the selfe same matter with a certaine iust Authority. Except in meane time, he be so vniust a Judge, that he allowe of nothing, bee it ne­uer so credible, which smelleth not of Tullie or Liuy, when he him selfe in meane time smelleth I knowe not what of Ae­milius: Which thing shall not displease me, when I shall vn­derstand, that hee franckely confesseth this matter. In the meane while I wil recyte the testimony of that Iohn which concerning Arthure write the golden historie. This yeere beeing the tenth of Cerdicius, king of the West Saxones, did arise Arthure amōg ye Brittaines, a most valiāt warrier.

K. Arthures expedition towardes the French.

THe sixte booke of the History of Brittaine speaketh co­piously touching things done by Arthure in Fraunce: vnto which countrie he went not, before hee had fore­seene (as it seemed then in deede) with aduised counsell, the immunitie or disburdenance of Brittaines troubles.Mordred Ar­thure his Ne­phewe, put in great trust. He had to Nephewe one Mordred by name, sonne of Lotho, king of the Pictes & of Anna sister of Aurelius Ambrosius king of Brittaine. Unto this man, because hee was most nea­rest in bloodde, and familiar in acquaintance, did hee com­mitte all his kingdome, together with Guenhera his most louing wife. For Mordred, in respect of forti­tude [Page] or magnanimitie, was most commendable, and besides this for his quicke and prompt witte, in accom­plishing his affayres:His vertues mixt with vi­ces. which vertues, had hee not obscu­red with most ardent lust of ruling, and offence of adultery, (but in meane time at first kept close for feare) hee had in deede beene worthie to haue beene accompted amongst the most famous personages. Nowe had Arthure entered into Fraunce, and the Gouernors being subdued, hee had left a notable testimony of his prowesse there.Hoels neece, viz. Helen, stolne out of Armorica. Behold, now com­meth a sauage Tyraunt, cruell and fierce, who had raui­shed Helen the neece of Hoel of Armorica, or the lesse Brit­taine (stolen away and brought out of Brittaine) at the coaste of Fraunce, and where vpon she died. Arthure could not take well this so heynous a repreach done vnto Helen, and straight way gotte the Tyraunte by the throate,Arthure reuengeth that iniury. that hee vtterly destroyed this greate and horrible Monster. And not longe after did Hoel cause to bee erected a sacred Tombe for Helen in the Islande where she died, and a name fitly giuen vnto the place where Helens Tombe was made, which serueth euen till this daye. The Cro­nicles of the writer of Digion in Burgonie, Diuionensis. doe with greate commendation extolle Arthure warring in Fraunce, by these like wordes.

Arthure for nine yeeres space,Arth. subdu­ing Fraunce, his Nephewe Mordred in meane time betrayeth him cōfederating with Cerdici­us subdued Fraunce vnto him, hauing betaken his kingdome and Queene vnto Mordred his Nephew. But he desiring ambitiously to raigne (yet fea­ring only Cerdicius) gaue him, to the end hee should fauour his doinges, seauen other prouinces. viz. Sudo Saxony or Southsex, Sudorheiā or Southery, Berrochiam or Barcke­shyre: Vilugiam or Wiltshier: Duriam or Dorcetshire: Deuoniam or Deuonshier: and Corineam Cornwale. And Cerdicius cōsenting vnto these (sēding for ye englishmē) restored his prouinces,Anno. 516. Mordred crowned. and was crowned after the manner of the countrie at Wintchester. But Mordred was crow­ned ouer the Brittaines at London. And so Cerdicius, whē he had raigned three yeeres, died, while Arthure yet remay­ned amongest the French: vnto whome Kinrichus suc­ceeded. In the Seauenth yeere of whose Raigne Ar­thure, [Page 6] returned into Englande.Arth returned into England. Thus farre out of the Cronicles. These which I haue nowe recited, haue not onely their antiquitie, but also credite, and with a certaine circumstance are consonant to the History.

And that I may somwhat more friendly speake in fauour of Athures Tryumphes ouer the French, there are (be­sides these) many thinges, which I with a certaine zeale doe omitte altogether. But yet, that must I as it were touch by passing ouer the rest: viz. that it is manifest by the inscription of Arthures greate Seale (concerning which wee will in place conuenient speake circumspectly) that he was made famous by the sirname of a French men. And neither was this donne without manyfest oc­casion, at any time. For, as touching the Antiquytie and euen most sure knowledge of the Seale, so euident­ly, I doubt not, but that I may assuredly beleeue (so their appeare vpright Judges heerein, and which are skil­full in auncient monumentes) that I shall proue by nota­ble reasons, the same was proper, peculier and naturall, and proceeding from the workemaster. But these thinges more rightly appeare in there place. I will at this instant onely heereto adioyne one Valerius, Valerius reporting that K. Arthure vanquished 30. king­domes. which remem­breth vs of thirtie kingdomes vanquished by Arthure. For in those dayes a greate company of Gouernoures helde vn­der their Jurisdictiō the Islands together with Fraunce and Germany.

K. Arthures Familier Cheualyers, or knightes.

SOme man woulde peraduenture heere looke for, that I shoulde also with a mightie praise blaze on the victo­ryes of Arthure, touching which the historie of Brittaine reporteth. Historiographers doe contend in this behalfe, and the controuersie, as yet resteth vnder the Judge. But I will declare nothing rashly: For so much as it ap­peareth most euidently, that both obscure and absurde re­portes haue crept into the historie of Arthure: which thing is [Page] of the curious sorte easily sound faulte with. But this in deede is not a cause sufficient iust, why any man should neglect, [...]abiect, or deface the Historie otherwise of it selfe, lightsome and true. Howe much better is it (cast­ing awaye trifles, cutting off olde wiues tales, and su­perfluous fables, in deede of stately porte in outwarde shew, but nothing auayleable vnto credite, beeing taken away) to reade, scanne vpon, and preserue in memo­rie those thinges which are consonant by Authorytie. For, that which nowe a long time is embraced of Learned men with greate consent: ought not in what soeuer moment of time barcking against it, together with faith or credite there­of, to be quite taken away.

Otherwise the History had not hetherto remained in so greate reputation. Therefore, because it is a worke of greater importaunce, then wee presentlie are in hande with,K. Arthures knights of his round Table. exquisitely, curiously and perfectlie to displaye all the deedes of Arthure: let vs for this season omitte the Romaines, and let vs aduaunce with penne his famy­lier friendes.Hoel the first knight. Hoelus Gouernour of Armorica, or the lesse Brittaine in this famous company of Nobles, by a certaine right of his, requyreth the next place from the first: Concerning whose comming into Brittaine, and war­like prowesse, we haue formerly written in the chapter of the warres accomplished by Arthure.

Hetherunto ensewe Mordred and Gallouinus, Bre­thren Germaynes vnto Arthure by bloodde and famili­arity alyed.Gallouinus the second knight Of which two, this first at length, like a per­iured persō and the same a Reuoulter neuer enough discom­mendable (that I speake nothing of the crime of his adulte­ry) was slayne in battle. One Hector Abrinus beeing thereof scarce a true witnesse, and as I gather with iudge­ment, more rightly sirnamed Alaunicus. But the second, be­ing alwaies a man constant, perfourmed most faithfull di­ligence both in all forraine warres, and also specially in that conflict at Dorcester, aboute the returne of Arthure out of Fraunce into Brittaine, who was chiefe next vnto him against Mordred. Melchinus the Brittish Poet [Page 7] blazseth the fame of Gallouinus. [...] The same doth Iohannes Anneuillanus in his booke intituled Architrenio a worke not vnelegant, namely by these verses.

Et Walganus ego qui nil reminiscor auara
Illoculasse manu: non haec mea fulgurat auro,
Sed gladio dextra: recipit, quo spargat, & enses;
Non loculos stringit, nec opes: in carcere miles
Degener & cupide, tumulato rusticus aere,
Et me bella vocant Et tua forsitan vrget
Solicitudo: vale.
And Walgan I with couetous hand nought distribute which haue
This my right hād shines not with gold but with the sword so braue
It takes that it may distribute, euen swordes not bagges it bendes.
Nor wealth, though I a Knight distrest, yet not vntrue to friendes,
Ne yet in countrie liued I like a couetouse muck [...]scrape:
But now the warres away call me vnto my wonted state,
And thine affaires also,
Perhappes vrge the thereto: Farewell.

ALso that History of Arthure, in deede Fabulus (which commonly is carried about written in the mother tongue) affirmeth that Gallouinus was buried in a certaine Chappell at Dorcester. Gallouinus buried at Dor­cester. In which poynt what manner booke soeuer it be, it misseth not the marke altogether, as the booke entituled Scalaecronicon makes manifest relation:His bones Gi­an [...]like. and ye inhabitantes of ye Castle do now repute his bones al­most Gyanllike in stead of a miracle.According [...] to the record of Glastenbury the name, are Fugatius and D [...]mianus. This Lucius being created the first Chri­stian King in England liued about the yere after Christ 182 William of Malmesbury his iudgment of Gallouinus. And that long since in the time of Lucius Magnus there was a Chappell founded in the Castle of Dorcester and dedicated vnto our Lord and Sauiour Christ: what time Fugatius and Damianus Brit­taines preached the Gospell as by the Annales or yearly recordes of the same Cittie (hearing a reuerēt figure & resem­blance of Antiquitie) it doth plainely appeare. That it may be most acceptable, and besides that most true which I haue aboue inferred, touching both the death and buriall of Galo­uinus: it shall not through me stand, that the iudgement of William de Medulphi Curia as touching the death and buriall of this Gallouinus (by reason of his fortitude neuer [Page] enough commended) should eyther weare out of memory or vtterly perish. Wherefore, I esteeme it worthie the labour here to sette downe his wordes out of the third booke of the Kinges of England that herehence the discreete Reader might euen fully try as it were at a tutchstone the sincere brightnesse of true gold, from that which is counterfeite.

Then in the Prouince of Wales which is called Rossia was founde the Sepulchre or Tombe of Gallouinus or Walwine, H [...]s wordes of reporte. which was the Nephewe not degenerate of Ar­thure, by his sister. He gouerned (in that Coast of Brittaine which to this day is called Waluuthia) as a Knight most fa­mous in prowesse: but being (of his brother, and the Nephew to Hengistus concerning whom I haue spoken in the first booke) driuen out of his Kingdome, did first to their great detriment recompēce his banishment, iustly pertaking praise with his Unckle, for that he put off or auoyded the downe­fall from his Country then ruinouse. But Arthures Tombe was at no time seene, whereupon Antiquitie of foolish dreames and fables, did vainely surmise that he would yet come againe. But the burying place of the other (as before I set down in the time of William the first King of Englād) was found fourtéene foote long vpon the Sea coast,The manner of Galouinu [...] his death, after the reporte of W. Malm [...]b. where (as some men affirme) he was wounded of his enemies and cast out of shipwrake: certaine persones haue saide, hee was slaine by the Citizens at publique banquet. So saith the Authour Gulielmus Meildunensis, Wi [...]liam of Malmsbury. as concerning Gallo­uinus. But I (if it might bee lawfull for me as a puny) would make tryall of my strength wt these weapons,Iohn Leylands opinion to the contrarie. against this authour Meildunensis so olde and most beaten Souldi­er, to bestow & beare of the blowes. viz. It is not like to be true, that men of Gyantlike height (as I gather by y graue 14. foote long) were then liuing in the dayes of Gallouinus. Wherefore vndoubtedly in mine opinion it is more credible that it was the graue of some Gyant inhabitinge the coun­trie. For that first such did inhabit Albion, it appeareth both by auctoritie of forraine and of our owns writers.His proofe out of a brittish Poet named Ioseph [...]. The one of which two his credit I folowing, namely Iosephus of Deuonshire a Brittish Poet, most absolutly elegante by all [Page 8] meanes, (hauing taken out of his Antiocheides a work im­mortall, these few verses) I will vse them as testimony for breuitie sake.

His Brutus auito
Sanguine Troianus, Latijs egressus ab oris
Post varios casus consedit finibus, orbem
Fatalem nactus, debellatorque Gigantum,
Et terrae Victor nomen dedit.
A Troian Brute by auncient bloude, ariued frō Romane roade
After sundry hazardes, and, here in these coastes aboade
And hauing got his destned land, subdued the Gyants fell
As Conquerour he left his fame vpon the earth to dwell.

Architrenius in his sixt booke of Gyantes inhabiting Albi­on recyteth these.

Hos auidum belli Corinei robor auerno
Praecipites misit: cubitis ter quatuor altum.
Gogmagog Herculea suspendit in aere lucta,
Antheumque suum scopulo, detrusit in aequor.
These Corineus his puysant strength (of eager moode to fight)
To hell sent headlong: Gogmagog of twelue cubites height,
By him (like Hercules wrastling) into the aire was throwne
His Antheus eke and from the rocke in seaes was cast adowne.

NEyther am I ignorant that in times past there was on ye sea shoare a Castle called Galouine, touching which the Authour M [...]ildunensis as aboue hath written: whose footesteppes are as yet apparant. But that was not the ha­bitation of the Gyant, as neyther perhappes of that Galo­uine of Arthures, but of some latter vycegerent bearing the same name. But y which he mētioneth of Arthures Tombe at that time, is most true.William of Malmsbury a most curious and painful searcher of Antiquitie. No one man more curiously sear­ched forth, at any time all the treasures of the library at Gla­stenbury. This onely was here wanting in him towardes knowledge, that he dying about the first yeare of the Raigne of Henry y second King of England, knew nothing of Ar­thurs tombe. For so much as y same tombe was found after­wards in ye beginning of y raigne of K. Richard coeurde ly­on. William of Malmsbury. But I returne wt William Meildunensis into fau [...]ur, [Page] out of the which as yet I haue not openly fallen: By whome a man as in his age most learned in all kind of Good letters, and of singuler wit, diligence and care in searching forth An­tiquitie, I confesse and in deede that franckly must a [...]irme my selfe to haue beene oftentimes helped in the knowledge of Antiquitie. Undoubtedly it is a poynte of honestie to ac­knowledge by whom a man profiteth. It liketh me well, here, vnto the conclusion to adde the notation which I my selfe gather of the name of Gallouinus out of the Brittish language.The interpre­tation of Gal­louinus his name. Walle signifieth straungers or walsh. Guin, Al­bum, or white. Like as if a man by this phrase would de­describe a comely, elegant and beawtifull personage: except a man more rightly thinke that he tooke his originall from the Saxonish rude language, as Walwine signifieth Gallus A­micus, Leoflwyn Charus Amicus, and Aldwyne Vetus Amicus.

Now approcheth Augusellus, Augusellus the th [...]d knight. of whom we haue aboue spo­ken a fewe wordes. Who was in so feruent fauour with Ar­thure, that hee was deseruingly made a beneficiall Gouer­nour ouer the Scottes. This man [...]endered like for like.

Being sent for amongst many other Princes to the end he might performe him selfe a companion with Arthure in his expedition towardes Fraunce, Iohn Stow. so [...]arre refused hee not his enioyned charge,An auncient Cittie in Kent nere Sandwich the ruins of it yet remaine▪ The Prowesse and valiant ad­uenture of him, one Grai­us a wri [...]er witnesseth. that with greate example of valiancie there manifested, and retorning home on the Coast of Rich­borow with much more prowesse, (Mordred beinge ouer­come in ciuil wars and there put to flight) he falling amōgst the Hoastes with bloud & lyfe endaungered, valiantly beha­ued himselfe: as y Authour of those bookes Schalechronica (one Grayius as I suppose) is none euil witnesse at al there­of. And because touching the chusing out, or election of those Princes (vnto Arthure being obedient) we haue formerly made promise: it auaileth here to signifie that there were ma­ny & notable elections, not spoken of by him. But that was most notable of all,Iohn Stowe. which appeared in Isca or Exceter other­wise in the Cittie of Caerlegion, or Chester vpon Vske. What time it was proclamed vnto wars against ye French. But what haue the Muses to do with Mars? vndoubtedly▪ [Page 9] either little or nothing. And yet if there were a iust famili­aritie betweene them, they shoulde rather wish well vnto Mars, that for his sake they might deseruingly giue Arthure greate thankes, who either restored or instituted a Lear­ned Quier of Ecclesiasticall persons in the saide cittie of Ca­erlegion: Wryters. Geoffrey of Mūmouth. Iohn of [...]o­row. if Geoffrey of Munmouth, Iohn Burgensis, and Rossus Verouicensis declare the trueth. This in meane time appeareth plaine by the historie of Anonimus the wri­ter, that Amphibalus, Rossus of Warwicke. Anonimus a writer. Iulius, & Aarona martyres did wor­ship Christ, and also had learning in estimation, in the saide cittie of Caerlegion or Chester vpon Vske. From whome agayne credible it is that others receiued the same letters frō hand to hande. There is also (if we may beleeue credible reporte) in the treasuries at Cambridge at this daye, a Ta­ble of the priuiledge by Arthure sometime confirmed to the furderāce of studēts. But as yet haue I not searched out the credite of this deede.

Iderus sometime a speciall fauourer of K. Arthures court comes nowe to the number of those Cheualyers. Iderus the 4. knight, neare of blood vnto Arthure. This man beeing neare alyed in blood vnto Arthure, performed many valyant examples of prowesse, and continually did cleaue to his Princes side. And at length, by what hap I knowe not, (hee dying,) left a speciall welwishing vnto Arthure: who also carefully accomplished his funerall at Aualonia. I haue reade at Glastenburie a little booke of the antiquitie thereof, gathered very dilligently by a certaine Moncke of that place: In which booke he declareth many thinges of Arthures good will towardes this man departed: and of y liberalitie or beneficiall goodnesse (for y same his cosens sake) bestowed vpon religious persons there inhabiting.His benefice [...] towardes the Church at Glastenbury. Of late there did hang a Table at a pillor within y Church of Glas­tenburie, which accoūted Iderus amongst the Benefactors and restorers of the Church at Glastenburie. Lancelot th [...] fifth knight. Lancelot a man most famous requireth place euen amongest y most ex­cellent Cheualyers to be giuen him. Unto which desire I easilie graunt as one readie to speake this in his commenda­tion: that hee was a certaine vpright and faithfull friende of Arthures. His valiancy appeared largely at y battle which [Page] was fought betweene Mordred the traytor and Arthure. A faithfull friend and valiant aduenger of iniury done by Mordred vnto Arthure. He liued in deede after the battle, & as I reade once or twice, conueyed vnto Guenhera (mourning at Arthures death) the bodie from Ambersburie vnto Glastenburie. But Gy­raldus seemeth sincerely to attribute his buriall in one place or other at Glast̄bury, Syluester Giraldus his testi­m [...]nie of his buriall at Glas­tenburie. as in his Speculo Ecclesiastico: & in his worke De Institutione Principis, appeareth. Although it rather seemeth to me in mine opinion y he tooke his firste tombe at Ambersburie, Carodocus [...] sixte knight Whose fame the Cronicles at Dorcester [...]toll. Caradocus a name of noble prowesse martiall, followed Arthure in his expedition towardes Fraunce. And returning homewarde was slaine, as it see­meth on the coast of Richborowe, in the ciuill battle. The Cronicles of the porte of Dorcester, a worke sauouring of antiquitie makes mention of Caradocus. The inhabitants of the Castle there euen at this day after a sorte renewe the memorie of Caradocus, affirming that they haue in their Custodie I knowe not what Lyneamentes of his. And not so contented, they sette foorth Arthures Courte, and Guenheras lodging. Nowe ruffleth in the number and traine of Arthures noble warriours. But I▪ (so y it be done without offence to them, because I haue onely taken vpon me to name the most excellentest of them and to praise them) haue purposed to ouerpasse the residue,Cadorus the 7. Knight, of the most noble proge [...]ie of the kinges of England. yet otherwise praise worthie, and last of all to adioyne that Cadorus of Corne­wale. Hee was of the most noble progeny of the kinges of Brittaine, and gouerned the people in the Mountayny soyles of Cornewale. A stoute defē ­der & preferrer of his princes dignitie. Undoubtedly he was a stoute defender of his princes dignitie and had perpetuall familiaritie with the Brittaines. At length when hee dyed, hee left af­ter him a sonne named Constantine: (who after the Death of Arthure) was made Ruler ouer Brittaine. Constantine his sonne suc­ceeded Arth. [...] ldas his testimony of Constantine a de­generate child a murtherer of Innocentes. Hee, (to the ende they following their fathers example in times pas [...]e shoulde not aspyre vnto the kingedome) caused the sonnes and Supporters of Mordred the traytor and Nephewes of Gallouinus to be slaine with the sworde. But either this fact or the like doth Gildas the Brittaine shewe in these wordes. Of which so wicked a mischiefe, Constantine the Tyrants vncleane whelpe of Damonia [Page 10] was not ignorant, who this yeere after y horrible oth made, from which he againe swarued (that he would not worke a­ny iniuries vnto the Citizens, swearing first by God, then by the mother of Christ, and therwith taking all the companies of holy ones to witnesse) did notwithstanding by blooddie sword and speare rush into the tender brests of two mothers and cruelly perced the bowelles or intrayles of two princelie youthes, vnder y same religious Amphibalus & of so many ouerseers euen standing at y very Alt [...]r, whose armes (being without armour which no one man at y time more valiātlier vsed then they) hee cruelly cut off euen standing at the Al­ter, and with his Speare violently teare them in peeces. But they shall crie for reuenge vnto God, before the high throne of his Maiestie in the day of iudgement and at the Gates of thy city (Oh Christ) shall they hange vp their reue­rend banners of pacience and of faith. He [...]herto haue wee spoken of his Knightes or Cheualyers.

CHAP. V [...].
[...]. Arthures Rounde Table.

NOwe is there very conuenient place to bringe in a­mongest other thinges, a fewe, but chosen, excel­lent, finally magnificent testimonies of Arthures round ta­ble and of his good cheare. Unto these had not all noble men accesse: But onelie they. viz

Lucida quos ardens euexit ad aethera Virtus,
Virtus sola virens nullis moritura diebus,

Whom Vertue cleere aduanced to the skies,
Euen Vertue alone which florishing neuer dies.

THis stately sturre (as they say) he somewhat more of­ten solemnized.Iohn Stow. But specially in the cittie of Caerlegi­on, Vsuall places where K. Art [...], kept his [...] table. or Chester vpō Vske which place he notably esteemed of. The same did he at Vēta Simenorū alîas Winchester, & at Camalet in Somersetshire. The common vnlearned sorte of writers supposeth, that Venta to bee called by an­other name, that is to saye, Camelet. But I passe not vpon the iudgement of the common sorte. The publike [Page] reporte of them which dwelt at the lowermost parte of the hill Cancaletum, On this side Somertō neare vnto Glasten­bury is the vil­lage Surton & Camelet an old forte. or an olde forte, is, that Murotrigum or the Towne now called Somerton, spreadeth, aduaun­ceth, and solemnely settes foorth the fame of Arthure some­time inhabiting the Castle. Which Castle of olde time was both most statelie and also most strongly buylded, and in a most high or loftie prospect.K. Arthure in­habited a ca­stle at Somertō Good Lorde, what and howe many most deepe Ditches are there heere? How many vallyes are there heere out of the earth delued? Againe what daungerous steepenesse? And to end in fewe words, truly me seemeth it is a mirackle, both in Arte and nature.

At seges est vbi Troia fuit stabulantur in vrbe,
Et fossis pecudes altis, vallo (que) tumenti
Taxus, & astutae posuere Cubilia vulpes,

But corne there is where Troy did stand, & cattle there abound,
Stalled in towne with ditches deepe, in trēch mounting frō groūd,
There Yew trees grow, & subtile Foxes made their cabbins roūd.

ANd in deede this is the interchaunge of humane af­fayres. Heerehence had Ilcester that auncient Towne this calamitie. Heereupon doth the customary traffique there beholde the cleere welspring with heauie eyes, and weepe their fill. There the inhabitants plow the ground, and euery yeere finde by seeking for them, Golden, Siluer, and Brasen peeces of money, expressing the images not very liuely of the Romanes. Whereof euen I my selfe haue had a few giuē mee of those inhabitants. Fraūcis Lord Hastings Earle of Hū ­tington an excellēt ornamēt of those noble youthes about the king of Englād, & sometimes my benefactor in good learning, as heire of y Piperells, Bottrells, & of the Hūgerfordes, hath in his possession the ruined old cotages of Camelet, together with ye large groūds adiacēt.Iohannes An­neuillanus, a writer, extol­leth K. Arth. round table. Iohānes Anneuillanus ye wri­ter in his Architrenio extolleth Arthures rounde table for ye excellēcy therof. The same doth Volateranus in his thirde booke of Geography, in these wordes. He also being plen­tiful at home, vsed amōgest his nobles a roūde table that there should be no cōtētiō, through ambitiō for seates. At Vēta Symeno alîas Winchester in ye castle most famously [Page 11] knowne,K. Arthures round table where it stan­deth. stādeth fixed ye table at the walle side of ye kinges Hal, which (for ye maiesty of Arthure) they cal ye round table. And wherefore? Because neyther the memorie nor felowship of the rounde Trowpe of Knightes as yet falles out of Noble mens mindes, in the latter age of the world. King Edward sirnamed the longe,K. Edward the first made much of that round order of Knightes in his time. as fame telleth, made much of that rounde order of Knightes. To those vses was the round table instituted and framed, (if it be worthie of credit) and that it was with three feete made of perfect gold. There bee which write that one Mortimar by name, spent and consu­med away those treasures. That thing yet by the way is most certaine out of the historie of Thomas Vicanius, that Roger Mortimer helde a very great feast or banquette at Kenelworth, Roger Morti­mer, solem­nished the same order at Kenelworth. whether as he of noble minde sent for most ex­cellentest Cheualiers, or Knightes, as it had beene vnto Ar­thures round table of Knightes: Hereupon were very many tokens of knightly prowesse set foorth in deede: which the di­ligent posteritis shal with great desire reade expressed in wry­tinges. But now so long a while, from this Cheualris of Arthure and his trayne, I passe ouer to his godly disposition.

King Arthures Godly Disposition.

WIth how greate and how sincere deuotion hee was enclyned towards the Christian Common wealth, it appeareth plainly by the aucthoritie of auncient writers. He vsed the familiaritie of Dubritius Bishoppe of the Cittie of Caerlegion or Chester vpon Vske, Two Bishops religiouse fa­uourers of K. Arthures wel­fare. a man both of singu­ler learning and also of continencie in life: so farre forth that he throwly felt as victor in the battel at Bathe, his prayers a­uaylable. Furthermore Dauid Meneuensis a man no doubt of exquisite holynesse, as then felt both the fauour and libe­rallitie of Arthure: Of S. Dauid. so farre forth that the people Me­neuenses, Iltutus a God­ly and learned father an other religiouse fa­uourer of Ar. report the Bishoppes sea to haue bene by them re­ceyued as by Arthures meanes translated from the Cittie of Caerlegion or Chester vpon Vske vnto them. Iltutus a man of incomperable lyfe being companion of these two, [Page] hearing of that singuler magnificence of his, & zeale towardes God, was bolde (as the setter forth of his life writeth) not onely face to face to goe see Arthure, but also to salute him and haue communication with him. Through which (in deede boldnesse) much lesse offended he the Prince seeing that he both gaue him very greate thankes and also an ho­nest rewarde. Arthure (if auncient writers and constant same de reporte the truth) had depainted in his Martiall tar­get, the stimlitude of the virgin Mary: which target he vsed in many battels, and specially in that battell at Bathe. In such tryfling matters I do not much force to write. But by the way, that is not a thing vnworthie to be heard of the god­ly, which Samuel the writer of Brittaine, and Disciple of Elbodus the Bishoppe, (who flourished about nyne hun­dreth yeares agoe) thus maketh mention of, concerning Ar­thures expedition or rather peregrenation. Arthure went vnto Ierusalem when as he tooke with him the signe of the Crosse of wood in memory of his Sauiour,K. Arthure his iourney to Ie­rusalem. whereof the frag­mentes are at this day reserued in Wedale a towne of Lodo­neia, six miles from Mailros. Finally he exceedingly estée­med of those Church men at Glastenbury, His zeale & speciall good will towardes the Church men of Glastenbury as partly I haue aboue saide in Idero, and as I will here more largely shewe. Siluester Gyraldus in his booke De Institutione Principis thus wryteth. For aboue all the Churches in his Kinge­dome he fauoured and beare best good will vnto the Church of our Lady S. Mary at Glastenbury, and with greater de­uotion aduaunced the same before other Churches. Poli­dorus (according to his equitie and iudgment, and so farre as his aucthoritie serueth him) declareth there was no Mo­nasterie at Glastenbury, in Arthures time: So exquisite a iudge is he of Antiquitie and specially concerning Brit­taine. He also contendeth that euen all the whole worlde by this rule (but in deeds a most vniust rule) is constrayned to embrace, maintaine, and beleeue that which is spoken of him touching Antiquitie, as that which is pronounced for an Oracle.Iohn Layland a bearer with Polidorus. To that he saith and writeth in truth, will I as Vir­gill saith. Ense leuis nudo parmaque inglorius alba. That is, (With naked sword and sclender bright sheelde without boa­sting [Page 12] easely defend his aucthoritie and iudgment so auncient.So farre as he bringes forth the truth, and other wise his enemy. But what he falsly or vntruly declareth, (which thing he doth somewhat oftener through all partes of his History) I may not beare with all, I can not abide it, neyther will I suffer it, but the truth, (so much as it shall stand me vpon) will I restore to her comelynesse, fame, and glory, as one cheerefull and nothing fearefull in so doing, though the enemies of truth burst them selues with inwarde mallice. For, vnto this most honest opinion that I should couragiously clea [...]e in this behalfe,Alias [...]ganus and Dami­anus. the thing done by those two Apostles of the Brittaines, namely Fugatius and Damianus, and the E­pistle of Patritius the great which I haue in my custody con­firming the same (to omit for breuitie sake the testimonies of many others) do will me,This was king Henry the 2. Sonne of Ge­offrey planta­genet, brother to king Henry the first succe­ding him. An. 1154. raigned 3. yeares. 9. monethes. & 12. dayes, and was buried of Founteuerard in Fraunce. or rather commaund me. Hen­ry Plātagenet (the Nephew of Henry Beauclarcke King of England by the daughter of Mathilda) affirmeth, by pre­script and manifest wordes in a certaine deede of gift, that he saw, (and that it should not want vpright credit) that hee read the couenants and articles concerning a certaine bene­uolence of Arthures, extended towardes the religiouse per­sons inhabiting Aualonia. But I will hereunto annexe the very wordes of King Henries gift, out of the originall deede.

Moreouer what thinges so euer haue beene giuen me from my Predecessors.Wordes con­tayned in king Henry the 2. his deede of gift proceding from king Arthures be­neuolence to­wardes the Church men at Aualonia. William the first, William the se­cond, and Henry my Vnckle. Yea of their Ancestors, namely of Eadgar the father of Sir Edwarde of Edmond, and of his father Edward, and of Ealfred the Grandsire of the same, of Brinwalchius Kenwinus, Baldredus, Ina, Cuthre­dus, and of Arthure, and many other Christian Kinges. And also of Kenwalchius the Pagan King, whose priuile­ges and writings I haue diligently caused to be searched and to be presēted & read in my presence. Thus far the deed of gift. If these witnesses of sure credit make not sufficiēt for most apparant knowledge of the truth, surely there can nothing at any time auaylably serue. For not to be satisfied with these being receyued and knowen at full, is neyther the parte of a wise head, no nor yet of a good iudgment.

King Atthures Seale.

ANd because I haue againe entred into the Misteries of sacred Antiquitie and am descended a curious searcher into the bowels thereof, it liketh me to bring forth to light an other matter, namely Arthures Seale, a monumēt most cunningly engrauen, auncient, and reuerent. Concerninge which,He meaneth Robert Caxtō who translated the history of K. Arthure. Caxodunus maketh mention, yet breefly and sclen­derly in his preface to the history of Arthure: which the com­mon people readeth printed in the English tongue. Being moued with the testimony of Caxodunus whatsoeuer it were, I went vnto Westminster, to the end that what so as an eare witnesse I had heard,K. Arthures Seale kept at Westminster in Iohn Ley­landes dayes. I might at length also as an eye witnesse beholde the same. Pondering well that sayinge of Plautus, in my minde. Pluris valet oculatus testis vnus quam Auriti decem.

Of more force standes eye witnesse one,
Then ten eare witnesses among.

The keeper of those secretes being requested of mee to shew me this monument, by and by delyuered it both to bee seene and handled.His reporte in praise thereof, describing the properties The sight of the Antiquitie pleased me at full, and for a long time the Maiestie thereof not onely drewe a­way but also detayned myne eyes from me to the beholding thereof. Of such force it is for a man aptly to chaunce vp­on a thing with greate care desired. The substance which tooke the most lyuelyest figure of Arthure imprinted vpon the Seale, (and which as yet doth firmely keepe the same still) is ware of redde coloure, which by some mishape, or in­iury of long time perished, is crazed here & there into peeces. But so yet notwithstanding as no part of it is altogether lac­king. For the fragmentes or litle peeces thereof being be­fore time by some mischaunce crazed, are so closed vp toge­ther with siluer plates which is of rounde forme, such as is the vtter side of the Seale, that no parte of them may fall off. For vpon the vtterside of this seale it is thus engraued with these breefe, but in very deede most excellent, most hauty, and most magnificent tytles. That is to say.

[Page 13] PATRICIVS ARTVRIVS BRITTANNIAE, The Insculp­ture of K. Arth. Seale and the Inscriptiō therof, GALLIAE, GERMANIAE, DACIAE IMPERA­TOR. And of trueth this inscription circleth the outermost compasse of the Seale. The former parte thereof is most bright shining by a circle of christall, which being taken off, streightway may any man touch the war, which by reason of the Antiquitie is most harde. But the Portracture of Ar­thure printed thereupon,K. Arthures maiestie represented on the seale. resembleth I wotte neare what Heroyicall Maiestie. For the Prince as it were inuested with purple, royally sitteth vpon a halfe circle, such one as we see the raine boe is.Nota. Hauing a crowne vpon his heade he shineth like the sunne. In his right hand riseth vp a scepter wrought with a Flowerdeluce at the toppe: And his left hand holdeth a globe adorned with a crosse. His bearde al­so groweth comely, large, and at length, and euen that is a maiestie. The other side of the Seale is altogether couered ouer with a thinne plate of Siluer. By meanes wherof also it is vncertaine of what fashion it is. There hangeth downe at the same a string chainefashionlike twisted of Sil­uer. Certes Reader, I pray God I be deade but thou woul­dest desire to see the same, such and so greate is both the anti­quitie and also the maiesty of the thing. At length the keeper of those secretes was there requested by me to signifie vnto me, if he had learned any thing ouer and besides this, as touching the seale hanging thereat. For, amongest very ma­ny ornaments which glittering with Gold & precious stones did adorne the tombe of Edwarde the Simple, The seale, one of the orna­ments which were about [...] tombe of K. Edwarde the simple. King of Eng­land, euen this also was worthie of memorie. But he coulde say nothing to these demaundes sauing onely this, that hee thought the same was by ye king laid in ye place to ye perpetu­all memorie of the most high and mighty prince Arthure. Surely if a man might lawefully by any coniectures gather and set downe the trueth in writing, I would not thinke that such a seale had benee translated from Glastenburie: It was transla­ted from Glas­tenbury to Westminster. vppon which monastery (by misfortune of fire most filthily debased) the most bountifull prince bestowed such rewardes, as hee for his excellent godlines might more easily giue, then those mōckes might hope for. K. Henrie himselfe as I haue aboue [Page] mentioned, made testimony of Arthures free gift, and so farre forth as he both sawe and read the same. By meanes whereof also it might come to passe, that the parchment beeing eaten out with little wormes, and meathes by long tract of time, so famous a monument of antiquitie be­ing founde, he deliuered the same to the Monasterie of first fame, there to be kept safe, and to be seene for euer of the no­bylitie in all posterities. Certes (except my coniecture faileth me) the expences or charge is small in deede, yea, none at all. This yet in the meane time pleaseth me, that while we in­treate of Arthure and of things done by him, Glastenbury is alwaies at hand and most friendly promiseth his endeuour towardes assured knowledge of things. From whence in deede all ye fruite of our labour at this presēt is to be fetcht,He meaneth either ye recordes there, as Chro­nica Glessobur gensia, either els Patricius [...]lesioburgen­sis. as it were from a most plentifull running fountaine. Neither surely is there any thing apparant, (that I doe knowe of) which more euidently approueth that Arthure was liuing, thē the same Seale doth. Which thing, if God so would, some persons (leaning rather to their opinion, selfe will, and final­ly rashnesse, then vnto any vpright reason) doubt not to deny. But after this we will chuse a place, wherein by full & whole aboundance of argumentes, wee may ouerthrowe the vio­lent rabble of slaunderers. In the meane season wee must more subtilely discusse the inscription of the Seale. For, this hath her misteries, which when they shall receiue light, shall both with greater pleasure, and also apter grace fill ye eares of honest readers, and being filled shal wonderfully delight thē: which thing is worth the trauell, & that in deede largely.

The name PATRICIVS, Patricius whēce it hath originall. is taken as from the maiestie of the Romans. The noble men of Rome are called by that name. viz. such as are come of the firste Senatours: That seemeth Tacitus to signifie by these wordes. In those dayes Caesar tooke into the number of Noble men, euery one most auncient of the Senate, or which were of noble personage. Liuius makes this mētiō. Romulus created 100. Senators, which were called Patres or Fathers, Patres & Patricij why so cal­led. by reasō of honor done to thē & also Patricij or noble mē by reason of their progeny. Therefore it is euident that Arthure receiued that same no­table [Page 14] same of his name from his parentes and Auncesters.From whence the name of Arthure was first deriued. Whereupon also it appeareth that as yet, the glory of Ro­mane Maiestie (translated or applyed vnto the Brit­taines, in their titles) waxed not cold in those dayes. I haue also beleeued that the name of Arthure tooke his beginning from the Romane Arthures. For Iuuenall the Poet in his thirde Satyre writeth thus.

Cedamus Patria, Viuant Arturins istie, & Catulus.

From our countrie departe let vs:
There Arthure liue and Catulus.

ALthough Brittaine was by Claudius brought into one only countrie,Anno Chri­sto nato. 44. it was yet a thing most familier a­mongst ye noble men of Brittaine, partly to take vnto thē ye names of the Romans, & to giue them most often vnto their children, by this persuation (as I veryly beleeue not foo­lish) so moued, that herehence they would procure honour vnto them & theirs, & gaine thēselues fauour of the Romans. Lucius whome the Brittaines sirnamed the great, Constan­tine and he also the great, Aurelius Ambrosius, & Arthure vnto these not inferior, doe mightely ratifie this mine opiniō. The same thing also is performed in ye attribution of names vnto noble women. For example, such were Claudia Ruf­fina a woman sincerelie learned,Pero [...]s in Cor [...]ucopia nameth her a Nimph, & one of Iupiters noces. as Martiall the Poet wit­nesseth. Helena the most holy matron, and Vrsula that Cy­nosura or glittering Starre so called. And where as the in­scription of ye Seale by a certaine circumstance of words cal­leth him Emperor of Brittaine, Fraūce, Germany & finally of Dēmarcke. This also cōmeth to passe through ye custome of the Romans & their dilligēce, yt together with their triūphes the titles also of natiōs conquered might accrewe or encrease vnto the cōqueror.Bowes vsed for triumphes at Rome. For a token hereof the Bowes were vsed in triumphes at Rome, and the Coynes of Caesar with their figures were with like care stamped. But the name of the Emperor, as by Auncientie, Arthure aptly called Em­perour. (after the testimony of Cae­sar, Cicero, and Liuius apparant) pertained vnto the gouer­nors of y legions: wherupon Arthure is called Emperor by [Page] dest seruant of all vnderstood before, the comming of his gra­cious Lord,Mordred meetes him. and with a full appoynted Hoast not without counsell and helpe of Pictes, Scottes, & West Saxones, most boldly meetes him, returning home. The Coast of Kent ratled with all manner noyse of weapons: and now the Cap­taines stood orderly before their ensignes: the troupe of Che­ualliers also conquerours of the world wt chearefull assaulte tossed their weapons,The armies of them both en­samped. parte of them drew out their si [...]e sla­shing blades, and part shaked their shiuering sp [...]ares with strong handes. They had all one voyce. The battells were warrelike fightes. Arthure most [...]eund with this prompt alacritie and stoute courages of his Souldiours, as the miracle both of all manhood, and also of ripe wisdome by ex­perience, made such a like Oration vnto them by lifting vp his eyes from the earth vnto heauen, and with cherefulnesse of countenance together with a certaine maiestie mixed, say­ing on this manner.

Yee Cheualiers the most noble lightes of martiall pro­wesse,K. Arthures noble Oration vnto his soul­diours & sub­iectes going to fight a­gainst Mor­dred and his company. and you the other multitude of most approued valiancie, do see whither our fortune and associate of so great victories hath brought vs, as what we haue with most strong hand gotten abroade, wee may not onely keepe vpright, but also get vs more greater booties with some straunge and large increase: the which thing that it may at this instant be brought to passe and more ease­ly, such occasion is now offered vs, as all good happes could not in deede, if they would, more plentifully, nor more prosperously offer themselues to fauour vs frend­ly. Let vs therefore go to this geare with most manly courages, whither as Fortune, Valiancie, and finally victory calleth vs. Now is the most impudent Mordred at hand, yet one most nearest to me in bloude, whome I haue brought vp and loued in hope of greate fame, and so far forth made much of, and that in very many booties be­stowed vpon him in deede, and those no lesse beneficiall as whē I should passe into France to aduenge me of mine enemies, he so seeming to be then vndoubtedly of pro­found counsell, vnto him I did both commit my wife & [Page 16] state, (and that which is much more) my natiue country to keepe, and to gouerne our affaires as our deputie, fi­nally to defend the same most valiantly from the dayly assault of Saxones, Scottes, & Pictes. But he in meane time forgetfull of my most bountiful liberallity towards him, & of our familiaritie, (which for most part in humaine affaires, hath vndoubtedly cheefest importance) and not remembring the solēne oath of warelike order, wherby he is to me most deeply bounden,Nota. like a false periured and mightie contemner of God and man,Their first [...] in Kent. yea an adulter also, (as Fame reporteth) now entertayneth me, a King and Conquerour of Nations, and his Liege soueraigne Lord returning into mine owne Countrie (if God so would permit him) euen with opē hostilitie, hauing rea­dy for his cōplices the Pictes his kinsmen, the Scottes their neighbours, & last of all the Saxones to helpe him.

And neither doth this so notable mischeefe only touch me, but in deede it toucheth you all. Wherfore you most inuincible Champiōs, my only care, & you most valiant fellow souldiers, with present prowesse, handle your co­mune cause, and let vertue now shine forth in you, which I haue hetherunto perceiued to be ready, valiant & won­derful alwayes. Sir Gallouinus you the most praise worthy garland of warlike prowesse,Sir Gallouinu [...] his charge. whose glory for manie cau­ses, and cheefly this, is most commendable vnto the world (in that you haue set at nought, Mordred our cō ­mune enemie, and in respect of equitie & oath of your a­legeance to vs made, haue despised him your brother in Law.) Stād you here on your right hand, as the most apt furnished horne with strēgth of Souldiours. For the first shares of hand stroakes and of renome shal light in this troupe of yours.Sir Augus [...]llus his charge. Sir Augus [...]llus as the bulwarke of most approued valiancie shall cast himselfe to encounter with our enemies at the left wing. I my selfe (& God to friēd) will in the middest of you fight it out continually and will be present as your onely safegard, but to the ene­mies will I be a terrour, a scourge, and a deserued de­struction.

[Page] But what neede many wordes, which neyther in deede adde nor take away valiant courage. Your valiancy is enlarged by custome, exercise, and sustayning of labour, watchinges and penury, yea finallie by shedding of the enemies bloud, and spoyling the same enemies: For the which considerations both I to you, and you to me againe (God fauouring so iust a cause) do promise assu­red victory. Go to, make immortall tryall of your man­hoodes, and slay down right those traytours at a pinch. When he had thus saide,The apparant promptitude of king Arth. his souldiours. they altogether at their Gouer­nours commaundement showted aloude, and with a chere­full onsette, bestowing in order their ensignes, far and wide shewed forth the valiant tokens of warlike attempt. So at the length partly their enemies being slaine, and partly put to flight,His victory. Arthure obtayned the victory with an horrible ouerthrow of his enemies. But there were slaine in that battell fought at the hauen of Dorcester, Two of his Cheualiers, or knightes shine. both Gallouinus and Augusellus the two thunderbolts of the battell, as Gra­ius maketh mention in his booke called Scalecronica, and as other Authours of fame not to be despysed, do witnesse. Mordred blaming Fortunes vntowardnesse, with a Nauy recouered, & the remnant of his Hoast therein, got him with shame enough to the hauen of Tāmeroth on the Sea coaste of Cornwaile. The noble coarse of Gallouinus was en­tombed in a certaine Chappell within the Castle of Dorce­ster. But Arthure; (the death of two so excellent famouse men being fully knowne to him) sore bewailed the same: and with oftē prayer, as also with very deepe greefe of heart, suppressing sorrow from their handes, (nobly minded and of Godly disposition as he was) fatherly tooke care ouer them. And then in deed hauing a fresh prepared with incredible ex­pedition a full Hoast and army, he determined with long ior­neyes to pursue his lewde enemie, and as it were vpon the snappe to ouerthrowe the fugetiue.Mordredes preparation against king Arthure, the second time. Mordred yet was more craftie, then of power able to withstand: hereupon found he out a meane for vnacustomed inuentions. He had ma­nifest knowledge giuen him by espyals, that Arthure most absolutly furnished for the battell, was comming at hand. [Page 17] Wherefore he commanded euery souldier wearied vpon ye lād, & againe wt toile vpō ye sea, as also penury of corne, to de­parte for a season, & hauing refreshed their industrie, labour, & dilligence, as also furnishing them with munitiō, so well as he could through ye moūtayny soiles of Cornwale, by ye way yt leadeth to the banckes of Seuerne, not farre thence distāt cō ­ducteth he his hoast with easie iornies: and in a place which of ye cōmon sorte of writers is called Camblā (where as are waste groūds & partly a natural moist plaine, & a little hill ri­sing vp to yt vse of a watch or prospect) did he pitch his tents. Here am I cōpelled to interpose or set downe by the way my iudgment cōcerning the place where it was fought by both parts: and for yt cause yt I should not thinke to bring hether any thing amōgst ye rest, as if it were out of Iupiters braine, but that with ye good leaue of ye learned sort I might explane my cōiecture, without all bitternes or disdaine as it were tou­ching it by the way. In which behalfe I freely cōfes my selfe hardly to hold opiniō with Hector Boetus the Scot, which (as his maner is) applieth all most famous facts of antiqui­ty in Brittaine to yt cōmendatiō of his owne coūtry, beyond all meane & measure. And here he boldly affirmeth ye Arthure (with his last ensignes) fought it out not far frō ye great flow­ing riuer of Seuerne, which he barbarously calleth Hūbar not knowing the circūstance of the phrase.Nota. But the history of Brittaine beleeueth otherwise,Arthures secōd battle with Mordred, and the place where, Graius a writer in the fauour of Arthure. & affirmeth that he scourged his enemies in his last battle in Cornwale: so yet notwith­standing as he mētioneth how Mordred was ye second time vāquished and put to flight by Arthure at Winchester.

Graius vndoubtedly an excellent chāpion in behalfe ot ye truth & a stoute assertor of Arthures glory, holdes ye same opi­nion. Neither singeth the sound censured society of learned witnesses any other Song. But truely our coniecture is not of the places, but of the name of the place. Sure­lie I am almost brought to that poynte, to beleeue that the Riuer Alaune is easily chaunged by the faulte of vn­learned Lybraryes into Camblan. M. Cambden. This Riuer ryseth in Cornewale a fewe Myles aboue the Towne Athels­towe otherwise Padstowe, a fisher Towne not so farre [Page] scituate from the Salte water of Seuerne: by meanes wherof, (but yet mixed with salte waters) it runneth downe lower into the countrie. Aboute the heade springes of that Origi­nall in Champion grounde, and a certaine waste plaine, there is a famous place, somewhat more fruitfull of grasse thē of corne. The reporte (amongest the inhabitants so many ages preserued) declareth that of olde time, there was made a notable garboile by fighting in yt place, but in meane time the truth of the historie is vnknowne vnto ye commō sorte. Many things no doubt euen in this our age are founde out of ye same place by ploughmen & those that delue at the Riuer: such as are these quoynes which shewe the gouernments of auncient personages, ringes, fragments of harnesse & brasen ornamēts for Bridles vnguilte, for trappers & also Saddles for Horses. This is my coniecture, both by reason of the scituation of the place, & also for ye name of ye riuer of Alaune, rūning hard by, yet not far dissonant (if a man behold it more throughly) frō Camblan. Arthure now draweth neare, & passing ouer ye ri­uer of Tamermouth, M. Cambden. by knowne passages, yet otherwise a streame most violent in many places & most deepe (the enimy fugitiue not being regarded) he pitcheth tents against tents. Behold, desperation (as oft times it hapneth) restoreth vn­wonted boldnes to the ouercōmed part. And wherupon both partes prouoke battle, burning with hope of spoyle & of victo­ry, as also fearing nothing lesse then death.

Quis cladem illius pugnae, quis funera fando
Explicet? aut possit lachrymis aequare labores?
Who shall that bloodie broyle expresse or the dead corpses name?
Or who can iustly tell the toyles with iust teares for the same?

MOrdred the first forman of all mischiefe (this battle be­ing attempted) and he thrust through with y sword, re­ceiued a iust rewarde for his breach of faith or periury.Mordred sl [...]ne outright. Let him be an example, & that for euer, to such as for desire of go­uernment infringe and violate their faith. There was slaine together with ye tyrant a great nūber of noble personages & of old beaten souldiers: But neither was the victorie without bloodsheddebefallen vnto Arthure. For in that broyle and [Page 18] fierce fight,K. Arthure re­ceiued his deaths wound, & yet had the victorie. himselfe was either slaine outright, or wounded past recouery, so that a little while after with publike lamēta­tiō of all Brittaine (but specially of his heauie hearted cheua­lyers for the mischance of so noble a Prince) he was caried a­way frō thence. And this in deede was the end or death of the most puissant Prince Arthure.

K. Arthures Commendation.

ARthure is nowe deade (if so hee may bee sayde to haue dyed well) whose fame, memory, and prayse fully and wholly liue, and shine forth in the worlde.

Our ancestors,Auncient Ar­thors, as Poets, & Historiographers, writing in commendation of K. Ar­thure. both Poets and also historiographers were so friendly, honest, and thankefull towardes Arthure, that they both enobled his fame and factes, and also adorned them with eternall memorie and commendation. Theliesinus Melchinus, who is also called Meuinus, Ambrosius Mari­dunēsis, & Merlinus Caledonius the most excellent starres of Brittaines antiquitie haue performed this effect. Nennius and Samuell, historiographers of Brittaine haue performed no lesse memorie bestowing their statelie st [...]les of commenda­tions accordingly. Touching whome and others also wee haue before fitly spoken in their places,Chrisistoriographus. affying in the autho­ryty of Galfredus, Aluredus, Hēry of Huntington, Iohn termed the Golden Historiographer, William of Malmes­burie. Graius, and Boccace.

But if it now auayle any man to knowe anything as yet more in matter and larger discourse: I will not refuse (in the best dilligēce that I can) to restore to light a fe [...]e wordes taken out of the most approued Authors.Is [...]. Iosephus the wri­ter brought vp at Exceter in Deuonshire, and the Golden floud of Greeke and Latine eloquence in his dayes, extolleth Arthure to the very cloudes, not onely for his excellent prowesse, as in his Antiochides appeareth by these verses, conten­ding for the victorie with the Romane antiquitie.

Hinc caelebri fato faelici claruit ortu,
Flos Regum Arthurus: Cuius cum facta stupori
[Page] Non micuere minus, quòd totus in aure voluptas,
Et populo narrante fauus, Quaecun (que) priorum,
Inspice: Pelleum [...]omemndat fama Tyrannum.
Pagina Caesareos loquitur Romana tryumphos,
Alciden domitis attollit gloria monstris.
Sed nec Pinetum Coryli, nec sydera solem
Aequant, Annales Latios, Graios (que) reuolue.
Prisca parem nescit, aequalem Postera nullum
Exhibitura dies. Reges supereminet omnes.
Solus, praeteritis melior, maior (que) futuris.
Hence florished by famous fate, and origin prosperous
Arthure the flowre of kinges, whose deedes shined no lesse mer­ueilous
Thē that both peoples eares & tongues did in his praise delite:
As. If thou view of former wights, what euer bookes recite.
Fame doth Pelleus tyrant blaze: and Romane histories
Extoll their Caesars tryumphes greate, after their Victories.
Renoume aduanceth Hercules subduing Monsters greate:
But not Coryli, Pinetus, nor Stars the Sune his heate.
Coequate▪ Search the Cronicles of Greekes & Latines both:
Ancient age knoweth not his like, ne yet posteritie doth
His match declare. All kinges, alone in deede surmounteth he,
Better then those are deade & gone, Greater then any shall be.

THere hath beene seene latelie at Giastenburie a little Booke of matters touching Antiquitie, gathered by a certaine most studious Moncke of ye same Cloyster: who by exercise of Rethoricall coulour as it were handling an o­ther matter▪ doth famously mētiō of Arthure in these wordes. I passe ouer with silence also to speake of Arthure the no­ble king of Brittaine buried with his wife betweene two Pyramedes within the churchyard of those Mōckes, & many princes also of ye Brittaines. Siluester Giraldus Meneuēsis, a chiefe fauoueer of Antiquitie in his booke entituled the Institution of a Prince, enobleth Arthures fame with this maner speach.Siluester Giral­dus his testi­mony of K. Arthure.

The memorie also of Arthure y noble king of Brittaine ought not to be buried or vtterly trodē vnder foote, whom y histories of ye monastery of Glastēbury (whose chiefe patron, [Page 19] factor and mightie supporter he also was in his dayes) do much aduaunce. [...] no doubt a [...] the Poet of his time, [...] and no lesse elegant, [...] Ar­thures praise in these verses, which euen at this day [...] in his booke Architrenio.

Alter Achilles
Arthurius, teretis mensae genitina venustas,
A Ramo Phrygius, dandi non vnda led aequor.
An other Achilles
Arthure was, whose first growne grace, through out his table rounde
Him Phrigius made as of a Branch with fruites which doth a boūd
For liberall hand, not Riuer he, but a maine sea [...] foūd.

BUt here if ouer & besides this I should endeuour large­ly, to adorne Arthure with praise as the multitude of Authours do most truly write and agree vpon him: sooner should copy of eloquence faile me, then magnificencie of light­some testimony howsoeuer. Be it sufficient then that we vse at this present the most famouse commendations,Trittem [...]us his testimony▪ who was fa­mouse Anno. 1484. though of fewe writers. I pray you, what is the cause that Tritte­meus in in his breefe Crounicle maketh so excellent mention of Arthure. Ddoubtlesse the cause is plaine enough. For by reason he learned the same of others in plaine trouth, there­fore did he as thankfull commit it vnto posteritie: which thing doubtlesse he would neuer haue done, had he doubted of the veritie of the cause,Trittemius his wordes in cō ­mendation of king Arthure. But now let Trittemius him selfe in presence speake. Which Arthure excelling in great huma­nitie, wisdome, clemencie and manhood, studied by all endeuour to shew him selfe beloued and reuerenced of all, and to excell all: because also he abounded in vali­ancie of minde with wonderfull liberalitie towardes all men, and specially towardes Church men, vnto whome for zeale to Godwardes, he gaue very many benefittes, yea and also rewardes. He droue out of Brittaine both Saxons and Pictes. He mightely subdued, the Scottes, Irish­men, and Orcades vnto his kingdome.

Volateranus Volateranus. in his third booke of Geography honoureth the fame of Arthure & diligently celebrateth his valiant actes.

[Page] Furthermore also Iacobus Philippus of Bergoma in his 9. booke of Cronicles, Iacobus Phi­lippus Bergo­mas. aduanceth Arthures valiancie e­uen with most condigne commendations.

And neither doth Nauclerus, in his history make any lesse relation of him.Nauclerus his testimony These testimonies doubtlesse (men both most learned & most exercised in Antiquitie would neuer haue set downe) if they had not first beene fully perswaded, that Ar­thure in times past was aboundantly notable by all orna­mentès of valiancie. But such is the lewdnesse of many men, and their disdainefull minde, that they altogether being se­duced with ignorance, (and that in deede very rude) do not manifestly see at full, but blindly neglect, contemne, and alto­gether reiect the truth. Such Censors or Judges in auncient histories let them go a Godes name, and let them enioy their foolishnesse at full, I will not say their madnesse. What if I should bring forth am [...]ngst the rest, that notable testimony of Hector Boaetius, Hector Boaeti­us a Scottish writer. a writer in our time, touching ye immortall glory of Arthure? Surely by this accompt nothing shal fall from his dignitie, but very much shall be added therto for this cause, that y Scots in old time (I know not by what instinct of nature) hated the Brittaines as y Prouerbe sayeth. Odio Vatiniano. Whereupon, to be praysed of an aduersarie, e­nemie and euen a deadly foe, standeth in place of a rewarde for victory.Hector Boae­nus his com­mendation of K. Arthure. These are then his words. King Arthure was no lesse famouse in glory for notable exploytes, & for maie­stie, then the Kinges of Brittaine, which liued before his dayes: whereupon the Brittaines during his raigne very much encreased in riches & power. Thus far saith Boaetiꝰ. What iust occasion wish I here to be giuen me of Polidorus the Italian, Polidorus Vir­gillius a cor­rupt witnesse of King Arthures worthi­nesse. that euē by some memorable testimony of his, I might also aduaunce Arthures countinance, & make him looke aloft? He handleth Arthures cause in deed, but by the way, he yet is so fainte harted, luke warme & so negligent y he makes me not onely to laugh, but also to be angry (as while he is contrary to truth, and filled wt Italian bitternesse) I know not whether he smile or be angry. For he wresteth him selfe wretchedly in the aptnesse of the history, which yet that he might frame after a sort, he is compelled, will hee [Page 20] nill he, to come in fau [...]ur wt Geoffry of Monmouth: whom before (as it seemed vnto him) he had in many words (pro­ceeding mightely rather of bitter stomacke, then of good dis­gestion) corrected also at his owne controlemēt. Whom for y as an interpreter I haue once or twise only defēded in a cause as no doubte most iust. (A danger in deed great might red [...]ūd vpon my heade) if I should passe beyond ye boundes of equity. I will take heede therefore, and trusting onely in ye ver [...]tie of the cause, I will continually beare the same aboute wt me for a bulwarcke & sure defence. Though Polidore hold his peace it is not needfull by and by for the whole worlde to be mute: And although Italy in times past so esteemed of Arthure, and yet still doth, when bookes printed both of his prowesse, & victories (as I haue learned) are read in the Italian tongue yea in y Spanish, Bookes prin­ted of Arthure in forraine language [...]. and also in the French tongue: whereupon also the English collection of Thomas Mailerius his trauaile, is published abroade. The aduersarie I know will say, that many lyes haue crept into those bookes. Wherefore this is nothing els, but to Teach him which is fully taught. As I contemne fables, so I reuerence & imbrace ye truth of the histo­ry: neyther will I suffer this to be taken away from mee at any time, but with losse of life. Unthankfull persons I vtter­ly eschew and I betake me vnto those Rockes & monumēts, the true witnesses of Arthures renoume and maiestie. And in this behalfe,Siluester Gi [...]al­dus in his I­tenerario tou­ching Breck­nocke. Siluester Geraldus Meneuensis, entertay­neth me comming to him wt these wordes taken out of that worke of his called Itenerariū. He vnderstandes conclusiue­ly that Brecania or Brecknock rounde about is the Land so called as it were by reason of the lostis blastes from ye North winde. From Zephirus or the Westerly winde, it hath the mountaine places of Canter Vehā, alias ye lesse Vehany, frō Auster or the sontherly winde, it hath hilles southwarde, whereof the principall is called in the Brittaine language Cair Arture: Cair Arthure or Arthures Castle. that is to say Arthures Castle, by reason of the two toppes of the hilles ascendinge vpwardes shew­inge them selues in maner of a Castle.K. Arthures Chaire of State. And because the Chaire of State is there erected in a high and harde place it is by a common name assigned vnto [Page] the high and mightie Arthure King of Brittaine. These saith Siluester, Baldwinum ali [...]s Mount­gomery. Giraldus. Now must I take my iourney from the hilles of Brecania vnto Baldwine, a Towne in olde time famouse, which for foure hundreth yeares and more a­gone, (of Roger then gouernoure of Mountgomerie, and Earle of Shrowsbury, was called Mountgomerie. Here amongest the ruinous olde Cotages of the walles,King Arthures Gate there. is a place by common reporte knowne, which the remnant of the citizens of later age do call Arthures gate. Truly the people of Wales haue alwayes beene and as yet are with a certaine Gentlemanly feruent affection bent to set forth the praises of their Princes. Gentlemen of Wales praise worthie in praysing their Prince studi­ously addicted. Through which title euen at this day shyneth forth the fame together also with the commendation not vulgar of Arthure sirnamed the greate: who is also called in the Brittaine language Arthure Vaur. Maur In the Brittish tongue signifieth great:King Arthure sirnamed Ar­thure the great but the fond pronunciation of the welch tongue (in the worde Copulatiue Maure) turneth M. into V. Like as also in other wordes by reason of their proper tearming, B. is oftentimes turned into V.

The Antiquitie of Aualonia.

THe circumstance of speach, here admonisheth me that I expresse somewhat touching Arthures buriall: where­of as I haue made sufficient mention, so iudge I it specially (for the lightsome order) conuenient that I should first with exquisite diligence consecrate vnto posteritie the Anti­quitie of that place,Diffinition of Aualonia the place where King Arthure was buried. whither vnto the deade corpes was caried. Aual in the Brittish tongue signifieth Malum, (or as I may with a more commō phraise interprete it) Pomum, an Aple: and Aualon signifieth Pomarium, or Orcharde. By reason whereof also, of Merlinus Caledonius, (as Geoffrey Ar­thurius of Monmouth interpreteth the same) it is called the Isle of Apples,Geoff [...]y of Monmouth his testimony [...]hereo:. in these wordes.

Insula [...]omorum quae fortunata vocatur,
[...]'x re nomen habet, quia per se singula profert.
[Page 21] Non opus est illi sulcantibus arua colonis:
Omnis abest cultus nisi quem natura ministrat.
Vltro foecundas segetes producit & Vuas:
Nataque poma suis, praetonso germine syluis.
The Isle of Apples, which called is fortunate,
Of effect hath name, for it bringes forth all thinges:
The seeded ground no neede of Plowmen hath,
All tillage wantes, saue that which Nature bringes.
Of it owne accorde it beares both Grapes & Corne,
And apples grow in woods, first grafts being pruned & shorne.

MElchinus the Brittaine makes mention of Aualonia and of the religious place there.Melchinus. Siluester Giraldus in his booke De Institutione Principis, thus speaketh. And y is­land which at this day is called Glastenbury, was called in auncient time Aualonia: For it is an Islande altogether en­vironed with moorish or fenny groundes:Siluester, Giral­dus & Whereupon in the Brittish tongue it is called Aualon, that is, an Island fruitefull of apples: For with apples (which in the Brittish tongue are called Aual) this place aboundeth.

Patricius the Apostle or teacher amongest the Irishmen in a certaine Epistle makes mention of this place,Patricius, all 3. witnesses of Avalonia. but by an­other name, whose wordes also I will hereunto annex.

I haue conuerted Ireland vnto the way of truth, and when I had grounded them in the christian faith, I retur­ned at length into Brittaine, & as I beleeue (by the gui­dance of God, who is the way and the life) I chaunced into the Island Iniswitriue, Alias Ciuitas, [...] trina, nunc Glastenbury. wherein I found a holy and auncient place chosen of God, and consecrated vnto the Virgin Mary, and there also founde I certaine Brethrē instructed with the rudiments of the Christian faith,Supposed ra­ther to be [...]. which succeeded the Disciples of Fugatius and Dami­anus.

Thus farre sayth Patri [...]ius: who in that place of his epistle also recyteth the names of twelue religious persons: where of two were noble personages: Of all which twelue, he had chiefe Rule, as by these wordes it is manifest.

So they preferred me (though against my will) before [Page] themselues. And againe, in the same Epistle the brethren shewed me writings of those holy men Fugatius and Dami­anus, F [...]ga [...]tis and Dir [...]aianus. wherein was conteyned that the twelue Disciples of S. Philip and Iacob the Apostles had founded and erected that auncient Church: and that three Pagan kinges had gi­uen so many possessions of land vnto those twelue.

And last of al how that Fugatius & Damianus had builded a chappell on a high hill,Vt ante dixi, Fagaunt & Di­ruuianus. not farre from Aualonia in the ho­nor of God and S. Michaell. Heere is enough at this presēt (euen touch and goe) to haue vnderstanding of the reuerend father Patricius his Epistle.

Gulielmus Meildunensis, W. of Malmes­burie his testi­mony. in his booke of the antiquitie of the religious house at Glastenburie, and in his first booke of kinges vnto Henrie Blesensis otherwise Soliasensis Bi­shop of Venta▪ Simenorum or Winchester, writeth not vn­like matters. Wherupon also by good coniecture it may bee scene that this William, tooke his translations out of the E­pistle of Patricius Siluester Giraldus in his booke De Insti­tutione Principis, Siluester Gi­raldus his testimony and ex­planation of Glastenburie. not inconueniently explaneth the Etymō or true interpretation of the name. It was also in times past called in the brittish language [...]niswitrine: by ye which word the Saxones which came thether afterwarde called that place Glastenbury. For Gles in their tongue signifieth Vitrum or glasse, and Bury signifieth Castrum or Castle, and is called together the city of Glastenburie. These doth he affirme. Tru­ly vnto me this seemeth to bee a [...]cule faulte in writers of bookes that they heere do recite Byry for burg or berg: Byry in the Saxon tongue is in Latine Curia: As for example, Al­dermanburie, that is to say Seniorum Curia. Also Litlebyry, that is Parua Curia. Canonbyry commonly called Canbyry. Burg otherwise Borow, signifieth a hill, and high places of earth cast vp. Finally Beng is in the Latine tongue called Castrum: by reason whereof I more truly beleeue we must reade Berg or Burg, for a Castle: which worde Giraldus vseth or maketh it to serue for a Towne: although as I may freely confesse, I finde the name written diuersly amongest the ancients viz. Glessenbyry Glestōbury and Glessēburg. And there are which pronounce Glas for Gles: Although [Page 22] Gles is more perfect and more Auncient, as by the name of the Islandes of Glastenburie it appeareth plainly.

K. Arthures Buriall.

NEither can I, nor wil I publish for trueth, whether Ar­thure dyed out right in the battle fought at Alaune, Writers of Brittaine affirming where Arthure died. which is commōly called Camblā, or at Aualonia, while his woūds were in healing. The writers of Brittaine with one voyce holde argument, that he dyed at Aualonia, through griefe of the same woundes: But touching the place of his buriall, they doe all agree as one.

This one thing dare I be bolde to affirme,The Brittaines sorowfull for the death of K. Arthure. the Brittanes were so sorowfull for the death of their Soueraigne Lorde, that they endeuored by all meanes to make the same famous, and to leaue the name of their Gouernour euen for euer feare­full and to bee trembled at amongest the Saxones: So farre foorth as they with a certaine plausible and straunge inuen­tion did spreade abroade Rumors both of his comming a­gaine, and of his ruling againe. Touching the againe com­ming (of Arthure so woūded to death) into Aualonia afore­said, certaine Brittaines did blindly write.Merlinus Caledonius a writer his verses of K. Arthures death But none more at large nor more lightsome, then Merlinus Caledonius being instructed (as some men suppose) of Theliesinus the Poet: whose verses also I will heere annex, selected out of his little booke of prophecy, Geoffrey Arthurius beeing interpreter thereof.

Illuc post Bellum Camblani vulnere laesum,
Duximus Arthurum, nos conducente Barincho.
Aequora cui fuerant, & coeli Sidera nota.
Hoc Rectore ratis, cum Principe venimus illuc,
Et nos quo decui [...] Morgan suscepit honore,
In (que) suis thalamis posuit super aurea Regem
Fulcra, manu (que) sibi detexit vulnus honesta,
Inspexit (que) diu: tandem redire salutem.
[Page] Posse sibi dixit, si secum tempore longo
Esset, & ipsius vellet Medicamina fungi.
Gaudentes igitur, Regem commissimus illi,
Et dedimus ventis redeundo vela secundis.

The English.

Thether after the battle was at Camblan fiercely fought.
(Barinchus so conducting vs) we Arthure wounded brought.
Who knew the seas, & of the stars the Clymats perfectly,
By this guider of the hel [...]e with Prince we thether ply.
And Morgan vs receiued as it behouea with honor dewe,
In Chāber his on Goldē hearse,
Morgan a faithfull friend and true subiect vnto Arthure.
and laide the king to view.
And with his friēdly hād forthwith did Arthures woūd vnhill,
Long looking thereon, said, may be life come againe yet will.
If he along time were with him, & would his medicines vse,
Therfore with ioy the king to him we did betake to chuse,
And hoist our sailes with prosperous wind▪ by our returne our porte to finde.

SYluester Gyraldus writeth in his Speculo Ecclesiasti­co, that Morgās noble wife made prouision for Arthures [...]uriall.Morgans wife made prouisiō for Arthures buriall. And againe, in his booke De Institutione Principis he makes relation of these thinges. Whereupon also the no­ble wife of Morgan, and Gouernesse of those partes againe as Patronesse there and also neare of blood vnto Arthure, after the battle at Kemelen caused him to be conueyed into an Isle (which now is called Glasconia) to cure and heale vp his woundes.

The interpretor of the Brittish history, writeth of the death of Arthure,Brittannicae Historiae Interpres testimonium dat de morte Arthurii. on this manner, as in his sixt booke appeareth. Arthure being wounded vnto death at the battle at Cam­blan went vnto Aualonia, his kingdome being left vnto Constantine the sonne of Cadorius Duke of Cornwale.

Iohannes Burgensis Abbot, in his Annales hath left these wordes in credible writinges. Iohannes Bur­gensis testimoniū de eodem. When Arthure was at the pointe of death, he kept him selfe secret, that his enemies should not insult at such and so great a mishap, nor his friends be discōforted as troubled in minde. Thus farhe.

Now must wee speake of the relious place at Aualonia, wherein Arthure was buried.

[Page 23] Melchinus specially makes mention of this and also of Ar­thure buried there.Aualonia cō ­mended by 3. writers. viz. M [...]lchinus, & Malmsbury Giraldus.

Gulielmus a Medulphi curia both els where, and speci­ally in his booke De antiquitate Glessoburgensi, religious­ly celebrateth this place where Arthure was buried.

The same thing doth Giraldus Meneuensis also in his Speculo Ecclesiastico, and in his booke De Institu­tione Principis, religiouse houses were not at that time so common, and in so many places of Brittaine, as they be in these dayes.

Saxons of noble linage, a people without knowledge of God if happely being sicke they dyed at home, were buryed in pleasant gardens: if they were flame abroade, and in bat­tell, they were then buryed in graues digged out of the earth, which they called Burghs, Burying place [...] how and [...]or whom in those dayes. neare vnto their tentes: but the base common people were buried euen in medowes and o­pen fieldes. There was at that time a religiouse place neare vnto the olde Church, in very greate estimation. By which title and of the whole nobilitie in all the west Prouinces of Brittaine, it was chosen as a place allotted for their burials. The same was afterwardes often done by such Saxons as had the knowledge of God. As at Douer of the Kentish­men, at Yorke of the Brygantes, at Lindiffarna or Ly­land and so forth in other places. Concerning the place of his buriall it is now sufficient manifest.

It remayneth that I make declaration of the ceremony and manner of his buriall.Ceremonies vsed at King Arthure his buriall. There was present (but secretly) a Troupe of Noble personages which mourned for ye death of their soueraigne Lord bereft frō them by such sinister fate. The wife of Morgan alone prouided for the buriall thinges needfull:Morgans noble wife a­lone prouided for Kinge Ar­thures buriall. a woman doubtlesse of incomperable godlinesse, who performed all ceremonies and seruices with greefe of minde, and floudes of teares. The manner in those dayes was to bury in the graues, and to lay them as a sur­ceasing from sorrow to the vse of Tombes or sepulcres great boules or bodyes of Alder trees, whereof the places about Aualonia neare adioyning were most fruitfull. For the Al­der tree hath I know not what propertie with the naturall [Page] moyst ground, such as is a Churchyarde: so farre forth as the substance thereof laide on this sorte, more deepe in the Earth, should be reputed for euerlasting not onely. The bo­dy of Arthure thus bewailed and mourned for,How he was interred in the earth. was buryed in a graue of sufficient depth, with the greate boale of Alder tree therein laide hollow. And because he liued most mag­nificent in fame, factes, and rule of his kingdome (they fo­lowing diligently the custome and integritie of Christians in this poynt) bestowed vpon the Tombe of Arthure so buried,Monumentes of him. a toaken of perpetuall memory namely a Crosse, signyfyinge Mnemosynen vitae perpetuae: that is to say, the remem­brance of life euerlasting. It was made of a leaden plate, one foote long more or lesse, which I haue beholden with most curiouse eyes, and handled with feareful ioyntes in each part, being moued both with the Antiquitie and worthinesse of the thing. It conteyneth vpon it these wordes in those not so greate Romane letters, but indifferent cunningly gra­uen. viz.


But here peraduenture some curiouse person would search out for what purpose the inscription was commended to our memory vpon the leaden plates. It was a most vsual manner in that age, and endured euen vntill latter times to bestow vpon Noble mens Tombes leaden plates engrauen. Of which not a fewe haue I seene in euery place throughout all Brittaine. Leade of his nature is ea­silie engrauen, and when it is once grauen continueth both a very long time, and also most firmly, as witnesseth ex­perience.This was set vp in places where enemies were vanquished by the Emperour. The myne hilles where leade groweth much, are scarce fiue miles distant from Aualonia. The Romans as Lordes of riches, were not ashamed to set vp a standard of stone vnto Claudius Caesar by a very long table of leade, almost in the very bottomes of those hilles at the head [...] springes of the fabulus little floude▪ Ochides within the iu­risdiction of Fontanus the Bishoppe, engrauen on this man­ner. TI. CLAVDIO CAESARI. AVGVST. P. M. TR. P. VIIII. IMP. XVI. DE BRITAN. This [Page 24] Standard of Stone a few yeares past was turned vp out of the earth by the plowe,In tempo re regni [...] Reg. [...]. and translated vnto the house of Tho­mas Howarde, Duke of Northfolke at London.

The two Pyrameds in that religious place.

WIthin the burying place which was consecrated at Aualonia stand two Pyramedes of most auncient buylding,Within the burying place were set vp [...] 3. Pyrameds. bearing a shew of figures & letters, but the windes, stormes, and time which consumeth all thinges, finally enuy of man from time to time haue so defaced the notable figures and inscription of auncient workes, that they can scarce be discerned by any neuer so sharpe sight of the eye.Auncient wri­ters commen­ding the same. The conti­nuall trauell of writers commendeth these, and specially the diligence of Gulielmus Meildunensis that greate Antiqua­ry: whom also Siluester Geraldus euen he a louer of Anti­quities, doth follow at an inche. Doubtlesse both of thē handle their matters learnedly: The one whereas by exquisite la­bour he restored to light a fresh, both titles and figures which were not altogether raced out of knowledge for foure hun­dreth yeares before, according as in his famouse and elegant litle booke De Antiquitate Glessoburgensi, appeareth. The other in that he leaning vnto sound argumentes and relati­on of auncient writers, proueth that Arthures Tombe was in times past eyther erected betwene the two Pyrameds, or in a place not far distant from them.King Arthures Tombe where it was erected. Of Giraldus we wil say more in the Tombe of Arthure found.

In the meane time, I wil herevnto annex the discrip­tion of the Pyrameds, artificially purtrayed out by the very pencilles of the same Gulielmus, as it were in a plaine table to the eyes of the beholders. And where as that no doubte is vnknowne vnto all men, I would willingly publish it, (if I could possibly expresse the truth) what those Pyrameds do meane,The meaning and discription of those two Pyramede [...] which being erected in a litle space from the olde Church do after a sorte include the Churchyarde of those religiouse persons.

[Page] Undoubtedly the more statelyer,Tabulatus larger, and nearer Pyramed vnto the Church hath fyue storyes height or flooers boorded, & is in height, 26. foote. This although it foreshewed some de­cay by reason of ye too much oldnesse, yet hath it a few appa­rant spectacles of Antiquitie, which may be plainely reade, al­though they can not fully be vnderstode.Note the blindnesse of that time in prefer­ring a Bishop before a king. For in the vpper story or floore boorde is made an image in likenesse of a Bi­shoppe. In the second is an Image expressing a Kingly state, and letters: Her, Sex, & Bliswerh. In the third neuerthe­lesse are names. Wem Creste. Bantomp. Winewegn. In the fourth. Hate▪ Wulfredi & Franflede. In the fifte, and which is the lowest, an image and this writing. Logwor. Weslielas & Bregdene. Swellwes, Huyrgendes berne. But the other Pyramed hath 18. foote height and foure storyes or flooers boorded wherein these wordes are reade, Hedde, Episcopus & Bregorred & Beorwalde. What these may signifie I do not rashly define: but I gather by suspition, that within or about the same place are laide in hollow stones the bones of them whose names are reade on the outside. Surele Logwor for certaine is affirmed to be the person by reason of whose name Logweres Beorh, was so called, which is now called Montacute. Beorwalde neuerthelesse was Abbot after Hem­giselus. These saith Meildunensis (vnto whom the learned ought to referre these Pyrameds) as from him by all meanes borowed, and most famously set forth. Now ye lady Guen­hera offereth her selfe to be ioyned wt A [...]hure her Husband.

What manner Person Guenhera was.

I Haue easely beleeued, that Guenhera was descended out of the progeny of the Dukes of Cornwale: both leaninge vnto other argumentes, and also for this cause specially, that the History of Brittaine makes mention yt she was brought vp in ye Pallas of Cadorus [...]uke of Cornwale, Where the Lady Guenhe­ra was brought vp. & also from hence taken vnto wi [...]e by Arthure. The coniecture is, and that not altogether vncertaine this name of Guenhera soundeth in the Brittish language the same that Bella Dona [Page 25] doth in the Italian & in frēch. Belle Dame, no doubt the name was giuen for some fame: as Guenllean, that is White or fayre Leonora, Her descriptiō. or of coniecture Helena: so as ye worde White may signifie faire, beautifull, or amiable. [...]ut as it is suffici­ently apparant ye she was beautifull, so it is a thing doubted, whether she was chaste yea or no. Truly so far as I can with honestie I would spare the impayred honor and fame of noble womē: But yet the truth of ye historie pluckes me by the eare, & willeth not onely, but commandeth me to declare what the Ancients haue deemed of her. To wrestle or contend with so greate authoritie were in deede vnto me a controuersie and that greate.Beautie & Chastitie seldom a­gree inuiolab­ly. The historie of Brittaine affirmeth, that she had not onely carnall knowledge of Mordred the Pict, but also that she was ioyned to him in mariage. O mischiefe, O lewd life, O filthy dayes.

The writer of the historie of Gildas is in deede an Aun­cient Author,Anonimus. (but in mine exemplar that same Anonymus) declareth these things of Guenhera the adultresse.A writers testi­monie tou­ching Guenhera.

Arthure in despite of M [...]lua the ruler, beseeged the fenny countries neare vnto Glesconia: which noble man had defi­led Guenhera being stolne away and caried thether. This testimonie as touching a Queene, though hee say she was stolne away, is scarce honourable. Women of such beauty are now and then stolne away by their owne good will. Howsoeuer it was, most assured is this, that she liued no long time after the Death of her Husband, and the Adulterer. But whether through any disease of the bodie, or with vnfayned sorrowe she dyed (which I doe sooner beleeue) it appeareth not playnely. Writers make mention, that the beeing moo­ued with repentance did put vpō her a holy Veyle at Ambro­sia, and that there she dyed and was also there buried, vntill both the dilligence and also Godlinesse of Sir Lancelot the most courteous and most inuincible knight had translated the bones and ashes afterwardes vnto Aualonia. Sir Lancelot, knight, a friend of Guenhera [...] after her death. Heere aryseth a doubt against the suspition of this Adulterie.

Whether so notable a Louer or friend of Arthure, and the same a reuerencer of his royaltie had cōmitted such a fact that hee woulde burie the Adultresse in the most Religiouse [Page] place so neare her husbāds graue in the earth.Nota. where she was buried. The history of the cloister at Glastēbury which was dilligētly collected, fully sheweth that Guenhera was buried in the religious place neare her husbandes Tombe, and that her bones and ashes were found the same time that her husbandes were.

Siluester Giraldus Menenēsis cōfirmeth this in his booke De Institutione Principis speaking of Arthure in the [...]e wordes.

For hee had two wiues, whereof in deede the last was buryed with him,Siluester Giraldus his testimony both of Ar­thure & of Guenheraes dead corpses. and her bones founde at one time with her husbandes bones, so yet separated that the two parts of the graue towardes the head, namely (which should containe the bones of her husband) had beene as­cribed vnto him: But the third part at the feete cōtained the bones of a woman vpwardes. Where as also a yeal­low locke of a womās haire, with the former integrity & coulour was foūd, which as a certaine Moncke desirously caught vp in his hand & lifted it vp, it altogether streight­way perished into dust or pouder.

The same Giraldus recyteth such like matters in his booke intituled Speculo Ecclesiastico: Hee doubtlesse might well with some authority speake concerning this geare, for so much as, euen then he (beeing established in the fauour of K. Kichard coeur de Lion, king of England) came the ve­ry same time that the Sepulchre was found at Glastenbury, and as an eye witnes (by cōduction of Henry de Soliaco ne­phew vnto K. Henry by Adela and cosen germaine of K. Richard beeing the president of Glastenburie, De Soliaco. but after­wardes Bishop of Winchester) learned full and whole all thinges which vnto Arthure appertained.

Yet notwithstanding, if it were lawfull for me heere to speake all thinges which I thinke, I would surely af­firme that those thinges are of farre better credite, which are delyuered vs of Arthures buryall, then of Guenheras. And yet woulde I not doe any iniurie vnto the Authory­tie of Auncyent wryters, that euen the posteritie in time to come myght not handle mine Authoritie or allegation in a worse manner. At Glastenbury vppon the Tombe [Page 26] of Lydias Marble or Touchstone Artyficially engrauen (and erected for Arthure and also for Guenhera) these two little verses,Arthures and Guenheras Tombe ercted at Glastenbury. sauoring of that his time, are written in this manner.

Hic iacet Arturi coniux tumulata secunda,
Her Epitaph.
Quae meruit coelos, Virtutum prole faecunda.
The second wife of Arthure heere, entomed lo doth ly,
Who for the fruites of Vertuous life deserued the heauens on hye.

THere bee which say that Henry Suynesius Abbot of Glastenbury was the composer of these verses: Except any man thinke that Henry Blesensis alias Soliacensis chaunged his name into Suynesius, in whose time the bones and ashes both of Arthure and also of Guenhera were founde.

But what Giraldus & Henricus do meane by the name of Second wise, truly I doe not sufficiently vnderstand. For so much (as I cā remēber) I haue neither hard of the name nor memorie of a second wife vntill this day.

But let credite remaine with Authors: by the latter part of the second litle verse (Virtutū prole faecūda) it appeareth y Guenhera was more vertuous thē apt to beare children. Nei­ther am I ignorāt what Boetius writeth here,Nota. How Guenhe­ra was stolne a­way of the Pictes. that in times past there was a sharp battle fought betweene Arthure and Mordred, at the riuer of Hūber, and yt Guenhera being euē there caried away of ye Picts, into their tents, afterwards died and was buried at Horestia in the streete Angusia. But I leaue Hector to the reporte of Veremūdus & Turgotus those obscure writers. And it might so bee, that the Tombe was there erected for another Guenhera not Queene.

K. Arthures Tombe found.After Arthures death, the Sax­ons florished, but the Brit­taines perished

WHen the Saxones powre grewe to some force after Arthures death, & that the Picts & Scots by and by were put to flight, & chased away beyond the vale of Seuerne, [Page] The same Saxones began not so much to feare, and much lesse to esteeme of, but rather openly to set at nought the remnauntes of those vanquished Brittaines. Wherefore, the glory of them beganne to floorish, but of the Brittaines to decrease and fade away:Saxones were negligent in the fame of Britones▪ their posteritie. Yet so, as the Saxones left almost nothing (touching affaires passed betweene them and the Brittaines) at that time perfectly written for the posterytie.

For, those thinges which were written (after Christ was knowne vnto them) concerning the first victories of the Sax­ones, are deliuered by the reportes of the common people, & so receiued, and in writinges so committed: or els the Brit­taines being vtterly worne away by so many battles, be­stowed scarce any iust or right dilligence in writing of the his­torie. Only there are extant certaine fragments of Gildas the Moncke of the City Bangor rather flaying aliue,Iohn Stowe dismem­bring, and wounding to death the Brittaines, then allowing them with any value of vertue, so farre foorth as he seemeth a Rethorician thorowly moued to make euyll reporte. By this meanes were the affaires of Brittaine, through calamitie of battles left obscure or vnrebayled. The historicall singers on­ly studied to preserue also with musicall meanes the famous memorie of Nobles in those daies.Bardi were such as sung to the harpe, the famous factes of noble personages. They sung the famous facts of noble personages vpō the harp. This studie or practise wonderfully profited knowledge, as it were deliuered by hand vnto posterity. Whereupon in deede it so commeth heere to passe also, that the name, fame, and glory of Arthure might so be preserued after a sorte.

O factum bene.
Si quid mea Carmina possunt,
Aonio statuam sublimes vertice Bardos.
Bardos Pieridum cultores, at (que) canentis,
Phoebi delitias, quibus est data cura perennis,
Dicere nobilium clarissima facta virorum
Aurea (que) excelsam famam super astra locare.

The English.

O well done.
If any thing my verses may auayle,
These statelie singers then aduance Will I,
[Page 27] That high Parnassus mount for to assaile.
As singers honouring the Muses friendes duly,
And Phoebus his delightes singing sweetly.
The famous actes of noble men to blase,
And stately fame I'th golden heauens to place.

WIlliam A Norman had conquered the Nation of Englishmen by permission of God,Anno. [...]. a Christo nat [...]. and now came the kingdome of England, 1154. Regni. Anno. 1. vnto Henry the second of that name, Nephew by Matildes the daughter of Henry Beau­clercke, and the Sonne of Geoffry Plantagenet, Duke of Gaunt. This man endeuoring by all meanes to enlarge the limittes of his kingdome,1154. Regni. Anno. 1. applyed also his minde vnto the kingdome of Ireland. Richard of Clare Erle of Chepstowe, (so called by reason of the wanderinge Riuer) a man both most noble by birth, fortune, and vertue, went into Ireland, beeing before requested of Deronutius the ruler of Lagenia, so to do: in which expedition hee beha­ued him selfe so valiantly,Giraldus. C [...]brensis calleth him Richard Strongbow [...] Earle of C [...]p­stow. that (they being cast out by heapes put to flight, and vanquished which withstood the Ruler) he purchased him selfe fame an immortall glory and (if this also might any thing auaile to the purpose) he obtayned be­sides greate riches vnto him selfe thereby,Iohn stow. taking to wife E­ua the daughter of Deronicius, and heire by right nougth. King Henry had vnderstanding of the successe of Richard the Erle of Chepestowe, and whether he enuyed his glory, or (which is most like) that hee earnestly sought the pray of this rich kingdome, hee forbad this Richard in the meane time to [...]eare rule in Ireland, not disdayning yet to proffer him reward. He being wise, fully knowing the Princes pur­pose, gaue place vnto this right. In the meane season Henry hauing prepared no small part of an Hoast, came into Cambria or Wales, 1157. Regni Anno. 3. and purposing there to appoynt the resi­due, he thēce straight sayled from Menenia or Sanct Dauids into Ireland, Iohn stow. with hope of which kingdome to obtaine, hee burned as hote as fire. Whiles he busieth him selfe here a­boutes being (for his worthinesse as befitted) receyued of the Gouernoures of Wales, at h [...]s banquettes there (vsing [Page] an Interpreter) he gaue eare not with out pleasure vnto the historicall singers, which singe to the Harpe famous actes of noble men. Truly there was one amongst the rest most skilfull in knowledge of Antiquitie.King Henry the second for his valiancy compared to▪ K. Arthure and was inquisitiue after his mo­nument. He so sunge the praises and noble actes of Arthure comparing Henry with him as Conquerour in time to come for many respectes, that hee both wonderfully pleased, & also delighted the Kinges eares: at what time also y King learned this thing especially of the historical singer, that Arthure was buried at Aualonia in the religiouse place. Whereupon sending away the saide sin­ger as witnesse of such a monument most liberally rewar­ded, he had conference with Henricus Blesensis, alîas Soli­acensis his nephew, who euen then or a litle after was made of an Abbot in the Isle of Bermundsege, cheife Magistrate ouer Glastenbury that he might with most exquisite diligēce search out thorowly the Tombe or burying place of Arthure within the compasse of that religiouse house. It was assay­ed by him other whiles and at length founde out with greate difficulty, in the last dayes,King Arthures Tombe found Anno Ric. Re­gis▪ 1. as some suppose of Henry the se­cond, King of England: but as others thinke (vnto whom I easely assent) in the beginning of the raigne of Richard the first, his Sonne.

Touching both this searching for, and finding out of the bones, two persons specially amongst others haue written their mindes: of which two one was a Moncke of Glasten­bury, and by name vnknowne to me, but the other was Sil­uester Giraldus. Siluester Gi­raldus Furdermore there had beene hereunto added also Gulielmus Meildunensis, as the third witnesse to be conferred with them both,M [...]lmsbury. but that death had taken him away in his aged yeares before the Scpulcre or Tombe was found. The testimonies of these men will I vse especially, and at this instant I will bring hether the wordes of Anno­nymus the Moncke.The place where King Arthure his Tombe was found at that time and the manner therof King Arthure was entombed, like as (by K. Henry ye second) Henry y Abbot had learned, whose cosen germane & familier friend he of late was. But ye King had often times heard this out of the actes of the Brittaines & of their historicall singers, that Arthure was buried neare vnto the old Church in the religiouse place betweene two [Page 28] Pyramedes in times past, nobly engrauen, and erected as it is reported for the memory of him.

And King Arthure was buryed verie deeply for feare of the Saxons, whom he had often times vanquished, & whome he had altogether reiected or cast out of the Isle of Brittaine. And whome Mordred his mischeeuous Nephew had first called backe againe and brought thither against him: least they (should also with mallice of minde raige in crueltie to­wardes the deade body) which had laboured by tooth & naile euen now to possesse againe the whole Island after his death. Againe for and in respect of the same feare, he was laide in a certaine broade stone, (as it were at a graue) found of them which digged there, of seauen foote as it were vnder ye earth: when yet notwithstanding Arthures Tombe was founde more lower, of nyne foote depth. There was moreouer founde a leaden crosse not set into the vppermost but rather neathermost parte of the stone,Nota His inscription & the subtile deuise of the Workmen in those dayes. hauing thereon these letters engrauen. HIC IACET SEPVLTVS INCLITVS REX ARTHVRIVS IN INSVLA AVALONIAE.

And the Crosse taken out of the stone, (the saide Abbot Henry shewing the same) we haue seene with our eyes, and haue reade these letters. But like as the Crosse was in­fired to the neathermost parte of the stone: So that parte of the crosse engrauen (to the ende it might bee more secrete) was turned towardes the stone. Doubtlesse a wonderfull industrie and exquisite wisdome of the men in that age, who by all endeuoures desired to hide in secret manner the body of so greate a personage, and their Soueraigne Lord, especially the Patrone of that place, by reason of the instant troubled state: And who yet had further care that at one or other time afterwardes (when the trouble surceased, by the perfect order of those letters engrauen in the Crosse and found out other whiles) they might make apparant testimonies of his buriall.

And as the foresaide King Henry had before declared all the matter to the Abbot: so the body of Arthure was found not in a marble Tombe (as it befitted so notable a Kinge)

[Page] NOw in fit time comes forth Siluester Giraldus, Siluester Giral­dus his testi­monie of Ar­thure his Tombe foūd. that same eye witnesse of Arthures bones and ashes found, and aptly adioyneth his accounte vnto these wordes.

And his body (which as it were fantasticall in the end and as it were by spirites translated vnto places a farre off, and not subiect vnto death, fables so fully had fay­ned) was in these our dayes by wonderfull and as it were meruailous tokens founde out buried more deeper in the earth at Glastenburie betweene two Pyrameds, in old time set vp within the religious place, and by a hollow Oake marked or knowne, & was with honor trāslated in­to the Church, & decētly bestowed in a Marble Tombe. Whereupon a leaden crosse being engrauen in the stone not in the vpper part as it is accustomed (but on the lowermost part rather) which wee also haue seene (for we haue handled the same) conteyned these letters en­grauen and not eminent and extant, but rather inward­lie turned to the stone.


And these wordes follow euen there. And seeing there were some euident tokens of finding the bodie there by his inscriptions, and some by the Pyramedes engrauen (although as very much defaced and ouerworne by too much oldnesse of time:) yet most chiefely and most e­uidentlie did Henry the second king of England declare and manifest full and whole vnto those Monckes, according as he had harde of that auncient historicall Musician the Brittaine: namely that they should finde him buried deepely in the earth for xvi. foote at the least, & not in a Tombe of stone, but in a hollow Oake. And therefore his body (beeing laide and as it were hidden so deepe, to the end that it might not be founde of the Saxons, inhabiting the Island after his death, whome he in his life time had so puissantly subdued & almost destroyed) might sarcely at any time be found.A wise pollycy of workmē in those dayes.

And for this cause were the letters as testimonies of truth engrauen vpon the crosse turned inwardes to the stone, to the end they should at-that time kepe in secret, what they conteyned and that sometime also according to the place & time [Page 30] requisite) they might discouer or manifest that same mea­ning. Moreouer also he writeth these words euen in the same place. We must also know that the bones of Arthures bodie which were foūd, were so greate, that euē that say­ing of the poet might seeme in these words to be fulfilled,

Grandia (que) effossis mirabitur ossa Sepulchris.
And the Tombes being digged forth right:
He shall maruaile at the greate bones in sight.
The largnesse of K. Arthures Lineaments.

FOr the bone of his shinne beeing layde to the shinne of a most tall person (which also the Abbot shewed vs) and as it was fastned vnto that grounde neare vnto his foote, retched it selfe largly, three fingers ouer his knee.

Also the scalp of his head as it were a wonder or spectacle, was capable and grosse, in so much as betweene the eye bryes and the eyes it largely conteyned a hande bignesse.Nota. Ten woundes discerned in his scalp. There appeared in this, tenne or moe woundes: all which (except one only greater then the rest which gaped wide and which onely seemed to bee a deadlie wounde) grewe toge­ther into one whole scarre.A relation to a further testi­mony of Giraldus. in Specu­lo Ecclesiastic [...] yet parly doubted. Nowe if it shall auaile any man either to repeate y very selfe same thinges which I haue ere while recited out of Giraldus, or not much vnlike to these, let him read his booke viz. Speculum Ecclesiasticū, where as two chapters lightsomly entreat of this matter. In meane time yet I haue somwhat which helds me doubtfull. For Gi­raldus affirmeth yt his burying place was of Oake, which as I doe not streyght way affirme to be false: So I will insinu­ate those thinges, which vehemētly persuade me to y cōtrary. First,Alder trees in Aualony. the nūber of greate Alder trees which by a certaine na­ture are growing cōmodious for the ground there. Moreouer agayne, I thinke the inhabitants of Aualonia, were not so ig­norāt of natural things, y they should beleeue y Oake would continue longer in somwhat a moyst ground, then the watery Alder tree, which is growing in the grounde.

They which haue writtē of Trees, willingly attribute som­what moist groūds to be apt both for Alder & Elme trees to be brought forth in thē.Where Giral­dus affirmeth K. Arthures Tombe to be found. There also remaineth another doubt, which, (if I any thing rightly iudge) shall rather seeme a plaine errour, then any doubt at all. Gyraldus con­firmeth that Arthures Tombe was founde betwene two [Page] Pyrameds in the religious place,viz. betweene two Pyrameds at Aualonia alias Glastenbury at Aualonia: In which o­pinion, (as it were, so confirmed with testimonie of ancient writers) euen I also remaine. But I am so farre frō beleeuing any thing to be engrauē in thē, which thing Arthures tombe (as Giraldus declareth y verie same) should shew, expresse, or make famous, that in deede vnto me may appeare nothing lesse like to be true.A doubt. If there had beene any such thing, I pray you who more truly or more playnly should haue manifested y same,Malmesbury. thē Gulielmus Meildunēsis? vnto whom alone all posteritie ought to refer both their portractures & inscriptions. But hee in deede speaketh not so much as one worde of Ar­thure, whome elswhere he diligently extolleth. Doubtlesse it is a coniecture probable, that Giraldus was vtterly ignorāt what inscriptions those Pyrameds contayned, seeing he saith the letters were worne out by antiquitie or oldnes of time.

But I let passe Giraldus (a mā truly otherwise learned & a great & greedy deuourer of anciēt knowledge) as I am pro­uoked by another care not vnprofitable for the purpose: Namely that I should not onely by the testimonie of two, whom I haue aboue named, but also by a full number of wri­ters, confirme, establish, and persuade as it were ratified, Ar­thures Tombe founde.Iohn Leylands insertion of famous men for proofe of Ar­thures Tombe found. Also to the end that that thing may more commodiously be done, I thinke there are causes agree­able why I may more profoundly repeate all and singuler testimonies of famous men within a certaine conuenient and euydent scope of matter.Claudius a Frenchman. In which behalfe Claudius a frēch­man (to the end the reader may vnderstand that the credible report of Arthures Tombe found hapned euen vnto straun­gers vpright and perfect) shall be a greate witnesse in matter aboundant.

Anno 1217. The bodie of Arthure that Noble king of Brittaine, (which had lyen buried. 600. and moe yeeres) was found in the Church of S. Mary at Glastenbury.

Heere, in computation of the yeeres, either by the Au­thors negligence (or as more sincerelie the Interpreter saith) by the negligence of the booke writer, did there creepe in a faule error. For, Henry the Secōd of that name king of Eng­land dyed about the yeere after Christes byrth a thousand [Page 31] one hundreth and nyntie:Anno Domini 1190. and the Tombe was founde in the first yeare of the raigne of King Richard the 1. his sonne. The Cronicles of Persor Abbey doe make relation of these thinges.Perso [...]ana. Iohn Stow.

Anno Domini 1191. the Tombe of Arthure Kinge of Brittaine was found at Glastenbury: Anno Domini 1191. the leaden crosse vp­on his brest, declaring that his name was there written. Iohannes Fiberius who is also commonly called Beuer, writeth these thinges most briefly, and by way of running it ouer.

Anno Domini 1191. were founde at Glastenbury the bones of Arthure. Matthew Paris Moncke of the Monaste­ry of S. Albane at the racing and seege of that most auncient Cittie Verolamium, nere vnto S. Albones in the Countie of Hartford, thus mentioneth of the Tombe. The bones of the most famouse King Arthure were founde at Glasten­bury, laide vp in a certaine most auncient Tombe there, about the which stoode erected two most auncient Pira­meds wherein the letters were engrauen, but by reason of the too much rudnesse and deformitie they could not be reade.By what c [...]aunce Ar­thures Tombe was founde (as Matthew Pari [...] saith) which [...] Iohn Ley­lan de affirme [...] he neuer heard of to be true. And they were found by this occasion. For as they digged there, to bury a certaine Moncke, which with a vehement desire in his life time, had before wished for this place, as to be therein buried: they founde a certaine close Tombe, vpon the which was put a leade crosse, wherein was engrauen: HIC IACET IN­CLITVS BRITONVM REX ARTVRIVS, IN INSVLA AVALONIAE SEPVLTVS. But that place beinge rounde about encompassed with Marish groundes, was in times past called the Isle of Aualon, for truth that is the Ile of Aples.

Like as by Good right I fauour verie much the authoritie of this Matthew, so I am sory that a fewe wordes chaunced redounding to this declaration in the inscription. Certes that which he mentioneth of the Moncke,Ranulphus Higeden of Che­ster mentio­neth of Ar­thures Tombe I neuer hearde of before, neyther doth he so farre forth perswade mee of the truth.

Ranulphus Higeden of Chester also maketh mention of [Page] King Arthure his Tombe. I omit to mention other Au­thours, and that with employed diligence, because I would not seeme to affectate the number of witnesses in a matter so manifestly knowne and credited.

The Translation of King Arthures bones.

I Remember that in my Epistle dedicatory, I haue spoken of Arthures Lyneamentes, three times translated. Whereof, which was the first, (because it appeareth not e­uident enough by the greater Church at Glastenbury, from whence they write these were first of all conueyed) I will somewhat more manifestly and more lightsomely notify. I learned of the Monckes at Glastenbury most diligent reser­uers no doubte of the Antiquitie pertayning to their Cloyster, that Arthures Lyneamentes were translated into the greate Church (which worke was greatly augmented by the libe­rallitie of Henry Plantagenet) from the religiouse place:Arthures bones & ashes translated into the greate Church at Glastenbury. but not laide in that place at that time where they now be. There is a porch towardes the South parte, and a Chappell from whence they go into the Treasury.The remo­ [...]ing of them into the midle Iles of the Queare. In this place men af­firmed that Arthures bones remayned for a certaine season: after that againe, that they were translated into the midle Iles of the Queare.

By which interchaunge of time, a newe, stately, and mag­nificent Tombe out of blacke Marble (such as we see the Ly­dian or tutch stone) was both heawne and cut out, & at that time together framed, by vnaccustomed workmanshippe and witty deuise: concerning which, and also the translation there­of, to write at this present, it were vndoubtedly a needlesse thinge, seeing that in the chapter before going touching Ar­thures Tombe founde,The third translatiō of King Arthure in the dayes of King Edward, sirnamed the long, alias the first of that name. all those matters appeare together in their order. Therefore let our history apply it selfe vnto the third translation: which was made in y dayes of Edward, sir­named Longshanke, K. of England not only the cheefest pa­trone of Arthures praise, but also ye louer, & great reuerencer of his fame, when as all ye Lyneamentes of them remayning [Page 32] in the most stately Tombe (where they tooke their rest toge­ther before) sauing the shinne bones of the King, and of the Queene, which he commaunded to be kept abroade, it was no doubte a spectacle of Antiquitie very acceptable vnto the nobilitie thither resorting. And to the ende now that so noble a deede of King Edwarde (who neuer enough can bee com­mended) may enioy eternall fame: I will recyte al and singu­ler such testimonies hetherunto pertayning, as were most faithfully taken out of the Arches of the Monastery of Gla­stenbury, Authour of which things also was the same Monck of Glastenbury, who had in him a most earnest care to extoll Arthure with due commendations, and with a sounde faith to aduaunce vnto the posteritie these actes done by him. The writer neyther wanted lightsome order, nor wit in han­dling his matters: But that age had neyther familierly Greeke nor Latine eloquence. What manner thinges so e­uer these bee, as he write them, so will I recyte them in or­der, yet pondering by the way, that poynt in time conueniēt: not with how greate elegancie, but how worthie and howe true those thinges are, which he maketh mention of.

Anno Domini 1276. King Edward, The same King and his wife. viz. King Arthures Tombe. the Sonne of Hen­ry the thirde came with the Queene his wife vnto Glasten­bury. But vpon Tewsday next folowing the Kinge and all his Court was entertayned there at the Monasteries chardges. On which day in the twylight time he caused to be opened Arthures Tombe, where, (in two Coffines theire portractures and Armes being depainted thereon) hee founde the bones of the saide Kinge, of a wonderfull thick­nesse and largenesse seperated.King Edward the first, and Queene El [...] ­anor his wife behold King Arthur [...] Image & the Quenes his wife with their inscrip­tions. The picture of the Queene in deede was made with a Crowne vpon her heade. The Crowne of the Kinges picture was made lyinge downe, with the abscision of his left eare, and with the euident signes of that wounde whereof hee dyed. Upon euery one of these was founde a manifest plaine inscription.

The day folowing, namely being wednesday, the Kinge shutting vp the Kinges bones, and the Queene his wife the Queenes bones, folded vppe in seuerall wrappers [Page] of precious preseruatiues and putting to their seales,Their cōman­dement made for preser [...]atiō of the Lynia­mentes of K. Arthure & his Queene en­tombed, & for continuall▪ re­seruation of theire memo­ria [...]. com­maunded that the same Tombe should be with all speede pla­ced before the hye Alter, outwardly retayning still the heades of them both to be seene, engrauen by reason of the zeale of the people, inwardly setting therein such a like sentence. Haec sunt ossa nobilissimi Regis Arthurij quae Anno Do­minicae incarnationis. 1278. Decimo calend. Maij per. Dominum Edwardum Regem Angliae illustrem hic fue­runt sic collocata, praesentibus Leonora serenissima eiusdē Regis consorte, & filia Domini Edwardi Regis Hispa­niae: Magistro Gulielmo de Midleton, tunc Noowice [...]si e­lecto Magistro. Thoma de Becke, Archidiacono Dorce­tensi & predicti Regis Thesaurario, Domino Henrico de Lascey comite Lincolniae, Domino Amadio comite Sabau­diae, & multis magnatibus Angliae. Thus farre mentio­neth the Mòncke of Glastenbury.

Go now William Paruus together with thy successour in place,William Par­uus an enemy of K. Arthures fame. and stoutly deny thou that eyther Arthure liued not, or was not victoriouse in times past. Surely thou shalt ney­ther haue me partaker, nor fauourer, no nor yet one in loue with thine opinion, nay rather errour, at any time. Un­doubtedly it were a greate and greeuouse crime, not onely worthie of stripes, but also of all kinde of punishment, if any man should derogate from her the glory due to his Cuntrie, should enuy the fame of his Princes, which haue most iustly deserued well of the common weale, and should not finally stand vp with valiancy and famouse actes by all meanes to adorne and illustrate the same.

Truly, I hope (most friendly Readers) it will fall out, (that the equitie of the cause being knowne) and also ye truth, I shall haue you my friendly healpe [...]s herein: and that (such is your good will, humanitie, and integritie) you will also willingly render me thankes for my duety towards the com­men weale.Iohn Leylādes pention to the friendly Rea­ders. In the meane time I trusting to this good for­tune will doubtlesse endeuour all that I may, so as hauing taken a fresh courage vnto me, and that most confirmed, I may bodly enterprise to [...]uckle with hand to hand, and by might and maine ouermatch the broode of backbyters which [Page 33] importunatly, greeuously, and enuiously murmure at, and inueigh against the commendations of Arthure, for so, as it were to make an end of my worke, haue I by all meanes determined with my selfe.

A confutation and ouerthrow of Slaun­ders rashly affirming that Arthure was not liuing.

HIstoriographers do contend,Writers vary­ing what time K. Arthure li­ued. and as yet the controuer­sie is before the iudge, at what time Arthure florish­ed. And this contention hath so encreased, and gathered force, that doubts, (concerning vniuersall credite of the historie, which declareth his exploits done) as yet sticke to the feoble concepts of the Readers.

But this is so weake a slaunder,Valerius. Hector Boeti­us. that if needes not any di­ligent answere. Valerius saith that he florished in the time of Zenon the Emperour. But Hector Boetius reporteth in the time of Iustinian the Barbarians then inhabiting Italy. Finally others write otherwise: concerning the time I doe not much force vpon,Paulus Diaco­nus. were it euen now. Although yet from hence, the time is easily gathered, namely frō the raigne of Aurelius Ambrosius, of whome also Paule the Deacon makes mention. Perhaps some of the aduersaries will say, Now comes it to passe, that Paule remembreth not Arthure? I answere, Paule had other matters to busie himselfe with, then doubtfully to make famous the Brittaines, which were not as yet forsakē of the Romans. In y meane time he takes away nothing frō Arthures dignitie or historie because he is not named of him: seeing by the way a good number of no­ble perosnages throughout the whole worlde are of the same Author passed ouer with silence.

Undoubtedly y seemeth to haue greate effect, whereas Gil­das the wryter of Brittaine wrytes nothing at all of Ar­thure, There be which cyte the testimonie of Gildas, both in his fauour and praise also.Gildas a fable [...]. But that Gildas in deede is a [Page] fabler, and layde foorth as an open praie vnto filly wormes and Moathes, [...]. at Oxenforde, in the Lybrary.

Gildas his historie is published abroade of Polidorus, vn­doubtedlie a fragment of y old Gildas, but it is lame, out of order, and maimed, so farre forth, as if he were now againe restored to life, the father would scarce knowe his chylde. It is euidently knowne that he wrote bookes which by him were entituled Cambriedos, found out eight handreth yeres and more agone in the Islandes of Ireland, and caried ouer in to Italy. Admitte the Historie of Gildas bee true: How coulde he as an eye witnesse declare any thing truely of Ar­thure, when he him selfe saith, y he was borne in the yeere when the battle was fought at Bathe, where Arthures victo­rie (and that in deede most famous) fell vnto him, as Nen­nius witnesseth. The enemy gathereth. Gildas makes no mention at all of Arthure: Ergo he was neuer liuing. Un­doubtedly a subtile gathering, such a one as this is: Gildas remembreth not Aruiragus, Lucius, or Constantine the greate, and therefore they were not liuing▪ O strange force of Logicke! And yet being hartened with this so weake argu­ment (as it seemeth to him in deede) he thinkes he hath easily gotten the best game. Is this an Italian reason? For certain­ly, now can I hardly any longer abyde to be called Vltramō tanus, or one that goeth beyond his boundes: And sure­ly why?

Caelum non animum mutant, qui trans Mare currūt.
The ayer, not mind change they,
Which take their voyage ouer the Seay.

I know yet in the meane time, what y Wealch Writers doe iudge of Gildas his silence,Gildas an vn­thankefull per­son & reproch­full towardes his countrie of Brittaine. so much as vnto Arthure apper­taineth: namely, for that Hoel the cosengermaine of Gildas was slaine of Arthure: this was ye cause his name was neg­lected. But I will not so much rest vpō this helpe or sauegard: being rather ready to fight out the battle with him, because (as vnthankefull and the same scarse wise, I will not say vn­godly) hee hath blemished his countrimen the Brittaines with this blot or error of his.

Britanni nec in Bello fortes, nec in pace fideles.

[Page 34] Surely but that I should seeme to fauour mine owne af­fection, or feede the choller of my stomake, I my self woulde heere coragiously enforce my weapō & that in deede sharpe a­gainst this slāderous enemy of ye Brittaines. But I will mo­derate mine anger, being ready to bring hether from another place (amōgst these) most valiāt or stoute defēders of ye truth, least mine affectiō may seeme to haue iniured any man.

Siluester Giraldus (in his Topographia or description of Wales) promiseth that he will answere this slander of Gil­das, Siluester Giral­dus promised to confute the slanders of Gil­das. in his Topographie or description of Brittaine: which booke y he hath so writtē in times past, I doubt not; but so far as I know it is not in these our dayes extant in any place. What hee in meane while writeth in his 2. booke of y Des­criptiō of Wales, Nota. Siluester Giral­dus his praise of the Brit­taines. I wil now amongest others bring forth to light. But for so much as Iulius Caesar, who was such a mā ­ner of mā, as ye testimony of the whole worlde vnder Cassiui­lane ye Duke sheweth, viz. when, as Lucane ye Poet saith.

Territa quaesitis ostendit terga Britannis.
Anno. ante Christ. natiui [...]. 50.
Vnto the Brittaines by him sought,
He shewed his trembling backe for nought.

Were not those Brittaines valiant and coragious persons? Againe,An. ante Christ. natiuitat. 401. Post Christum 107. what were they whē Bellinus & Brennus added y Romane Empyre vnto their victories? what were they in y daies of Constantine the Emperor, & sonne of Helen some­time heere Queene?Brittaines al­waies appro­ued valiant persons, & en [...] in Arthure his time. An. 140. Is [...]ae▪ what were they in ye raigne of Aurelius Ambrosius Anno, post Christ. 466. whom also Paule the Deacō extolleth with praises? And to cōclude, what fellowes were they in ye daies of our famous Arthure. An▪ post Christ 516. Iosephus the writer brought vp at Exceter in Deuon­shire in his booke Antiochiedes, thus singeth.

Inclita fulsit.
Posteritas Ducibus tantis, tot diues Alumnis,
Tot faecunda Viris praemerent qui viribus orbem,
Et fama veteres. Hinc Constantinus adeptus,
Imperium, Romam tenuit, Bizantion auxit,
Hinc Senonum ductor,
La [...]des veter [...] Heroum▪ & Regis Arthuri [...] praecipue.
captiua Brennius vrbe,
Romuleas domuit, flammis Victricibus artes,
Hinc & saeua satus, pars non obscura tumultus.
[Page] Ciuilis, magnum solus quimole soluta
Obsedit, melior (que) stetit pro Caesare murus.
Hinc celebri fato foelici floruit ortu,
Flos Regum Arthurus: Cuius cum facta stupori
Non micuere minus, totus quòd in aure voluptas,
Et populo narrante fauus, Quaecun (que) priorum,
Inspice: Peleum commendat fama Tyrannum,
Pagina Caesareos loquitur formosa tryumphos,
Alciden domitis attollit gloria monstris.
Sed, nec Pinetum Coryli, nec sydera solem
Aequant. Annales Latios, Graios (que) reuolue.
Prisca parem nescit, aequalem Postera nullum
Exhibitura dies. Reges supereminet omnes
Solus, praeteritis melior maior (que) futuris.

The English.

Noble Posteritie.
With so great Princes richlie shined,
The praises of ancient Poten­tates, & amō ­gest them of K. Arthure especially.
& Patrons so many.
So stored with men which cōquered the world with valiancy.
And fame extolleth auncients. Hence had Constantine possest
The Empyre, Rome he surely kept, and Bizance eke encreast.
Hence Brennus the Italians guide, (in Citie captiued so)
With cōquering flames the stately towers of Rome did ouerthrow.
And hence those cruell Impes, a part (of ciuil [...]roile) not base,
Alone besiedge their mightie Prince, the huge hoaste letting p [...]sse.
Defence & sauegarde so, whereby to Caesar was.
Hence florished by famous fate, & origin prosperous
Arthure the flowre of kinges, whose deedes shined no lesse mar­ueilous!
Thē that both peoples eares & tongues did in his praise delue:
As, if thou view of former wights, what euer bookes recite.
Fame doth Peleus tyrant blaze: and Romane hist [...]ries
Extoll their Caesars tryumphes greate, after their victories.
Renoume aduanceth Hercules subduing monsters greate:
But not Coryli, Pinetus, nor Starres the Sunne his heate
Coequate, Search the Cronicles of Greekes & Latines both:
Auncient age knoweth not his like, ne yet posteritie doth
His match declare. All kinges alone in deede surmounteth he,
Better then those are dead & gone, Greater then any shall be.

[Page 35] HOw or in what manner these may not answere the prayses by Gildas before recyted, the discreets Reader at large fully seeth:Gildas his for­mer dispraise of the B [...]it­taines here o­uermastered with praise worthiness. and perceyueth Arthures commendati­ons hereunto (amongest the rest added) to agree so well vnto this place, that I almost haue no néede to reckon them as (I trust) with any fault of mine, but in deede (good Rea­ders) if I iudge aright, with your very much pleasure and delight. For the verses before going haue their right father or authour that he in deede should then be liuing. Moreouer againe they so pleasantly allure the eares of vncorrupt sense, with a certaine apt continnitie or proper agreement, with pure elegancie and equall Maiestie (that except fancy faile me) they shall fully & wholy please the Reader,Ponticus [...] an Italian, commē ­ding the Brit­taines. yea were it so that I reckoned them ouer ten times. Ponticus Verunnius an Italian but yet one that loued the Brittaines well, beinge iustly angry with Polidorus the Italian, thundereth forth these wordes.

O admirabile tunc genus Britonum qui eum, (Caesarē [...]ntelligit) bis in fugam expulerunt, qui totum orbem submiserat occidentis: Cui quasi totus mundus postea nequiuit resi [...]tere illi etiam fugati resistunt, parati pro patria & libertate mortem subire. Which may thus be englished.

O wonderfull nation of the Brittaines in that age, which twise put him (he meaneth Caesar) to flight, who had conque­red the whole west part of the world: whom as it were, when the vniuersall world could not resist afterwardes, euen they them selues being put to flight, resisted, being ready to dy for their Country and the libertie thereof.

Hereupon singeth Lucane the Poet vnto their praises,Lucanus. (writing of Caesar) as before is saide.

Territa quaesitis oftendit terga Britannis.
Vnto the Brittaines by him sought,
he shewed his trembling backe for nought.

IF in this place I should rather endeuour to mende the matter with multitude of testimonies,Iohannes An­neuillanus in Architrenio also commen­ding the Brit­taines. then with vpright truth of effect, I could also take out of Iohannes Anneuilla­nus his Architrenio (that litle booke wittily in praise hand­ling [Page] the same) certaine litle verses concerning the valiancy and prowesse of the Brittaines. For so should I shutte vp the mouthes of brabling backbyters against the praises of these Brittaines, and that with a sufficient frontier framed for the purpose. But me seemeth that I make more a dooe about these bablers then is conueniēt. Let them with shame enough come to naught and burst them selues in their enuy: for so much as the honour of Brittaine neyther standeth nor falleth by meanes of such foggy mistes. But by the way, least I should seeme not mindefull enough of my promise, I come againe to the encounter ready to vanquish the force of argumentes which the aduersaries haue gotten. The Ro­mane writers (say they) made no mention of Arthure, wherefore, like it is to be true, that he was not liuing.

If no thing be true, but that which appeareth by truth of Romane writers, it should go euill to passe with the history of the whole worlde. The infinite force of thinges worthie of memory, and of noble effect consisteth rather of eye witnesses at home resident and inhabiting, then of the vncertaine rela­tion made by forraine writers.Romanes carefull for their owne fame, but neg­ligent in all o­ther mens. For the Romanes made al­most all the whole worlde bond slaues: and writers which proceeded amongest them, and were there borne applyinge their mindes to the study of eloquence, made their owne ex­ploytes euen admirable or wonderfull: but the enterprises & actes of other Nations they dyed euen so obscure and debase, that almost they made them none at all.

For the matter was so handled by them, that they woulde elegantly and not truly pleade their cause. They painted out such thinges in writinges, which they might rather law­fully hope for, then see at that time, done by the most prudent Gouernours. And vndoubtedly maruell it is not, that they made no remembrance at all of Arthure. The Goathes at that time had inuaded Italy, and barbarouse style with phrase of writing and speaking was brought in, in steade of elo­quence,Honour vnto learning in times past rare. so farre forth, that honour vnto learning was rare, & rewardes for the same, were most rarely vnder stoode off. And ye matter was not handled by writers but by warriers. Wherefore if any certaine thing were written as touchinge [Page 36] Arthure the same might rather bee done of the Brittaine writers what manner persons so euer they were, then of the nouicy and ignorance of the Romanes, not onely declyning from the function or office of writing, but also carefully thin­king vpon their owne wretched estate and calamitie, dayly faling vpon them by many meanes, lettinge passe all other thinges.

An other brabler after this alledgeth, more vaine matters are in Arthures History conteyned then that they may tolle­rably be allowed of him that is of ripe iudgement, and discréet knowledge. If he meane touching that History which is reade amongest the common sorte in the Italian, Spanish, Frenche and English tongues, I do not much striue with him. Although the vpright reader shall call to minde, the same thing hath beene often times done, euen in the History each where forraine of Charles, Rowlande, Godfrey, Guy, and Bellouse, Most puysant Personages haue beene parcyally pray­sed in truth. that I may let passe many others. Neyther yet not­withstanding are their names, or credit of the true History taken away the more. It is no noueltie, that men mixe tri­flinge toyes with true thinges, and surely this is euen done with a certaine employment that writers might captiuate y simple common people with a certaine admiration at them when they heare of marueylouse matters. So was Hercu­les, so was Alexander, so Arthure, and so was also Charles commended. But there is an other farre greater reason in­cident to the History of Arthure, then I do conceaue of. For those thinges which are not apparant in course of ages, which are not probable, which as aliable helpes agree not with the credit of Authours, which are not embraced in long exercise of y ages, and furderance of learned men, & by them compro­bate or fully ratified I do not vnaduisedly allow off.Graius the Authour of that booke Schalecronic [...] had much a doe with suc [...] backbiters Many yeares againe, Graius the Authour of the booke Schalecro­nicon (as I suppose) had great contention with this rable of backbyters. Unto him was Beda obiected, who passed o­uer Arthure with great silence. Paraduenture this holy, man refused to mention ye Prince, because he was borne in adulte­ly. And it might also be, y when he had heard some one or o­ther prophecies spoken of him, by those historical signes y it a­lienated [Page] his minde vtterly from the whole history.Beda more re­ligiously then Historically addicted. But they neyther adde, nor take away credit. That is most true, wher­as Beda other wise a good man and a learned, did not onely sienderly esteeme of the glory of Brittaines name, but also despysed or neglected it. For, there was some what a dooe betwene them and the Saxons concerning the rule ouer Brittaine. Nota The tyranny of the Romish Bishop be­twene the Saxons and Brittaines of olde time. The Romish Bishoppe practized by all meanes to keepe vnder his iurisdiction (which hee had most wickedly obtayned) the English Saxons. For this cause the Brittaines cursed him. He againe with a certaine hatred moued, sette the Saxons and them together by the cares. Then, I pray you what praises might the Brittans hope for at the Saxon writers? Undoubtedly, cold cōmendations or rather none at all. Adde hereunto, that Beda also was ignorant in y affaires of Brittaine before the dayes of Gildas: so farre forth as hee neither knew of y monumēt in meniory of Arthures Coro­nation at Ambrosia, nor of y same thereof. A thing credible it is, that the calamitie of those warres which had consumed and destroyed Churches, together with libraries infinite, had vtterly raced out of knowledge, manifest or euident monu­mentes of Antiquitie. Whereupon to him that should then take in hand to write of Antiquitie touching Brittaine, all thinges were most obscure and vnknowne. There are which thinke many thinges haue beene translated into Ar­morica or the lesser Brittaine, although at this day verie fewe thinges may be hoped for from thence, sauing that a few notes are extant in most auncient exemplars of the liues of holie men thither reparing, and which intermixe light with darknesse.

Gulielmus Paruus of Bridelington, in his Prologue before his History thus thundereth out his errour.

Gal [...]ridus Hic dictus est, William Par­ [...]us [...] [...]un­der of Arthure cognomen habens Arthurij, qui diuinationum illarum nenias ex Britannica lingua transtulit, quibus vt non frustra creditur, ex proprio fig­mento multa adiecit. William Paruus there saith: This man is called Geoffry bearing the sirname of Arthure, who translated ye Fabulus Dreames of those prophecies [...]ut of y Brittaine language: whereunto he (as men do not credit [Page 37] vainelie hath also added many thinges after the deuice and imagination of his owne braine. These wordes vttereth he vpon a stomake and contempte. But I will sing him a contrarie songe euen for euer and a day. That men beleeue him in vaine, except he prooue this rather by reason, then by naked or playne wordes.

Well I knowe, and that too well, manie fables and vani­ties are disperced throughout the whole history of Brittaine. Yet, therein are matters (if a man behold the same more thorowly) such as might not be desired without greate hinde­rance of auncient knowledge, and which beeing rather reade then vnderstood by William Paruus beare not any shewe at all of commodity. Againe, I will also heere set downe an­other honourable testimony, namely not onely touching the Interpreter of the historie, but also concerning Arthure him selfe. Plainly it appeareth, that whatsoeuer thinges this fel­low published in writing (concerning Arthure, and Merline to feede ye curiositie of the not so discreete persōs) were fained­ly inuented of lying and dissembling Authours. Let him cogge and foyste sixehundreth times, if hee will. Merli­nus was in very deede a man euen miraculously learned in knowledge of thinges naturall, and especially in the science Mathematicall: For the which cause he was most acceptable and that deseruingly vnto the Princes of his time, and a farre other manner of man, then that hee woulde re­pute himselfe as one subiect vnto y iudgement of any cowled or loytering grosseheaded Moncke. But I will let passe Arthure and Merline, the one more valiant, the other more learned, then that they ought to regarde eyther the pratling or importunitie of the common people. And that seemeth vnto me a thing most vnequall and against all right,Monacus Mo­naco I [...]uidet. that one Moncke beareth enuie towardes another Moncke, which is euen dead and gone. William Par­uus might haue hoped for greater victory of the liuing, then of the deade Persons. This yet by the waye did hee count for aduauntage, to strike him that woulde not strike againe.

But if the Spirites of dead men haue any knowledge [Page] of humane matters, he shall so farre perceiue that beyond equity and honesty hee beares away no victorie from Geof­frey, that dead is, but that by his wounde he hath procured him selfe a perpetuall wounde and bloodshedde. Neither is there cause why hee should hope for the present helpe of that Phisition Polidorus from the Citie Vrbinas, for as much as hee him selfe also languishing of like disease hath very greate neede of a cunning mans cure. And there remayneth as yet another wounde, wherewith W. Paruus supposed that hee had euen quite dispatched Geoffrey out of this life. For, so hee insulteth. Nec vnum quidem Archie­piscum vnquam habuere Britones. Neither (saith hee) had the Brittaines in deede so much as one Archbishoppe at any time.

Didst thou learne this amongest the Brigantes?

Asserius Meneuensis, sometimes the Schoolemaster of Alfredus sirnamed the greate, king of England, taught mee another manner of matter in these wordes, in the booke of his Cronicles. Vixit Alfredus circiter. annum. 842. & post 28. ann. Qui saepe depredabatur (Hemeidum Re­gulum intelligit) illud Monasterium & Paraeciam S. Degwi, id est, Dauidis, aliquando expulsione Antisti­tum qui in eo praeessent, sicut & nobis Archiepiscopum propinquum meum & me aliquando expulsit, sub ipsis. Which did oftentimes spoyle (he meaneth Hemeidus the Duke) that same Monasterie and parrish of Saint Degwy that is S. Dauid, in times past by banishing of the Bishoppes which bare sway therein, like as he banished sometime frō vs the Arch­bishoppe my neighboure, and me also vnder them.

Gyraldus makes mention and with verie good credite that Dubritius was Archbishop of Exceter. Iscanus & Iscae. For Isca so called is the most noble Cytie of Deuonia, and most aunci­ent of others, (by reason of the Ryuers and floude bearing the same name) there edyfied, which also was called of the Romans, the citie of Caerlegion or Chester vpon Huske. The Bishoppes Sea beeing translated from thence vnto Sainte Dauids, where the most holy and the same most Learned Dauid florished in the dignity of an Archbishop. Iohn Stow.

[Page 38] Sampson a man of famous memorie, Archbishop of S. Dauids in Wales shunning the sickenesse or disease of the Jaundice, went vnto Armorica, or the lesse Britaine: where­vpon came the originall of the Archbishopricke of Dolence. And from Sampsons time vnto y victories of y Normans o­uer the Welchmen all the Bishops beyond Seuerne as yt were of solemne orders were consecrate by the bishop of Sainte Dauids their Primate: who when the Paule fay­led him, with tooth and nayle retayned still all his title and interest.

Moreouer, it appeareth by y Dialogue of Siluester Giral­dus that the Cannons at S. Dauids (in the time of Dauid the Bishop which succeeded Bernharde) had a treatie with Richarde the greate, Archbishop ouer the Kentish men (in presence of Hugucion the Cardinall) concerning the Me­tropolitane tytle of their Church: whereof the same Giral­dus, handled earnestlie an entreatie at Rome, being after­wardes chosen Bishop of S. Dauids.

And that I may recite more Ancient testimonies, Ptolo­meus Lucensis, (who wrote the liues of the Romish Bi­shops) declareth y in Eleutherius his time three chiefe flam­mins in Brittaine were conuerted into so many Archbi­shops.3. Bishops Sees. London. Yeorcke, and Ca [...]tlegion vpon Huske in Walles. London, in old time called Troynouant, & Yeorcke then also called Brigantum, without doubt florished famously with this dignitie or prerogatiue. Where then is the third Bishops Sea? Where els but in Wales.

In which poynte that I my selfe say nothing, Trittemi­us surely in his abridgment of Cronicles is also a lightsome and plaine witnesse. May not then William Paruus the Schoolemaster be ashamed to haue inculcate into the eares of Polidorus his scholler farre better Learned then him­selfe such vaine tales. But, beholde, by one euill another euill chaūcing. The ingrafted error so far forth hath now in­fected a nūber, y scarce is this disease curable by any Helleborus, no though they sayle into Anticyria for ye same. And yet for sooth are they compelled, I knowe not by [...] violent Authoritie in the meane time to haue a good opynyon [Page] of thie their Schoolemaster. These I say before hand are hard poyntes to beleeue. Surely I wish all thinges prospe­rous vnto my Schoolemasters. But when the matter is in handling concerning truth and credite of the cause, doubt­les [...]e I beare no partiall affection towardes any of them: No certainely [...] I shoulde by and by knowe that they woulde euen catch and conquere for mee all mine enemyes at once.

A Peroration or briefe Conclusion To the Readers.

HEtherto (most courteous Readers) haue I descri­bed Arthure in his coloures, not without dili­gence, laboure, and finally a ready good will: but yet in meane while, whether with like eloquence, grace, and good successe I haue done this, let that by the iudgemēt of honest and learned persons bee determined. For I knowe very well, How slender Furniture I haue at home: For the which cause I challenge not any thing at all vnto my selfe: Vndoubtedly I might soone appeare both rash & vnwise, if I should so doe. Onely I purposed of good wil to make tryall of my wit in a matter honest, to helpe the history languishing, to aduance the glory of my country, hindred by enuy, and beeing enthralled vnto the crafty deceiptes of euill willers, restore the same honestly vnto liberty. I knowe it will come to passe, that most mighty enemies will assaulte my doinges: Let them ouer­come with powre, if they can, so the trueth be ours. I will imitate the Noble Palme Tree, which beeing pressed downe with heauie burdens yet falleth not to the ground at any time. And neither at this instant doe I seeke for any reward: so you vouchsafe me your courtesy, good will & fauour, truly I may persuade my selfe I haue al thinges that I rightlie looke for. And for amendes, on my part also shall hereunto ensue most requisite promp­titude & expedite alacrity, enflamed also by vertue of en­ment [Page 39] vnto like enterprises not onely, but also to imparte you greater matters which shall stirre vp your learned eares, and being stirred vp, may long detaine them, and so de [...]eyned as it were by a certaine land floude of plea­sant delight therewith bring them vnto fragrant fieldes. And all these thinges do I easily promise my selfe, tru­sting in your honestie and helpe, as one doubtlesse fully bent vpon hope thereof. Surely my muse (such as it is) altogether is youres: neyther tendeth [...]he to any other purpose at any time, but vnto your behoofe, and the cō ­moditie of all men. I count it a base seruice to satisfie the common peoples humor: but to performe you my continuall industrie differeth not far from a kingdome, such a one as by a iust cause I may prefer euen before the kingdome of Alexander. For what more reserued hee vnto him selfe wholy (when he dyed) of so greate Riches, possessions and dominions, sauing fame onely. This, (though by many accomptes in example inferior) ob­teyned by your meane shall I yet so earnestly aduance, that nightes and dayes shall she watch for your welfare & emolument. And at lengthe (those same most thicke mistie cloudes in deede of ignorance beeing shaken off, & vtterly dashed aside) the light of Brittish Antiquitie with displayed beames farre and wide shall shine forth. God giue you long life and wellfare, most sincere fauorers of vertue and good learning.


LONDON. Imprinted by Iohn wolfe, dwelling in Distaffe Lane ouer against the signe of the Castell. 1582.

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