‘ARMA PACIS FVLCRA’
VERA EFFIGIES GVLEIELMI BARRIFF AETATIS SVAE 35.
Though this Effigies here does Represent
and Portray forth his faces Liniament
Yet Read his Booke, and you therin will finde
that he hath Pictur'd there a Soldiers minde.

MILITARY DISCIPLINE: OR, THE YONG ARTILLERY MAN.

Wherein is discoursed and showne the Po­stures both of Musket and Pike: the exactest way, &c.

Together with the Motions which are to be used, in the exercising of a Foot-compa­ny. With divers and severall formes and figures of Battell; with their reducements; very necessary for all such as are stu­dious in the Art Military.

By WILLIAM BARRIFF.

PSAL. 144. 1.

Blessed be the Lord my strength which teacheth my hands to warre, and my fingers to fight.

LONDON, Printed by Thomas Harper, for Ralph Mab, 1635.

[Page] TO THE RIGHT HONOVRABLE
Algernonne, Earle of Northumberland, Lord of the Honours of Cockermouth and Petworth: Lord Percy, Lucy, Poynings, Fitz-pain, Bryan and Lattimer: Lord Lieu­tenant of his MAIESTIES For­ces in the Counties of Northum­berland and Cumberland; and Knight of the most No­ble Order of the Garter.

Right Honorable:

THe Glory of the Meridian Sun, is the more resplen­dently set off; by the foile and darknesse of a Shadow: [Page] which is a perpetuall follower of his Light; as my ambition in all humble service is, to be unto your Lordship: The memory of so many Heroicall Ancestors, as (in all ages) have en­nobliz'd your potent Family; toge­ther with their Martiall and Re­nowned Atchievements: doe for e­ver stand recorded, in the Booke of Honour and of Fame. And that (were occasion fairly offered) your Honour hath Spirit and Bravery e­nough, in a Military emulation, to arrive up to the heighth of their Glo­ry: your constant and Noble De­portment (as well in your private carriage; as of late dayes in your publike Triumph, when you were in­stalled into that most Noble Order of the Garter) doe most evidently presage of you. This as it hath attra­cted [Page] all eyes and expectations: So hath it incouraged my low ambition (a­mong the rest) to esteeme your Ho­nour a fit Patrone for a Booke of this Nature, your innate and inbred ver­tues; together with that Courtesie, Noblenesse, and Affabilitie, (the in­seperable Companions of anciently de­scended Honour) speak you so easie, of accesse; that my YONG ARTILLERY-MAN despaireth not of acceptance & admission, to kisse the hands of your great Lordship. The first-fruits, it is, of my weak endevours: and a Collec­tion, meerly of my private observati­ons. Such as it is, my humble request unto your good Lordship is, that out of the accustomed freedom and good­nesse of your nature; you would be pleased to deigne acceptance of it. [Page] And I withall beseech your Honour, to give pardon unto that presumption, which hath proceeded from devotion. I confesse it an ambition in mee, to soare so loftily in my Dedication. But as Alexander (sometimes) refu­sed not a mean Present of fruit, from the hands of a simple Gardiner: so my hope is, your Honour will hold mee excused for offering so worthlesse and meane a Mite to so great and hono­rable a Personage. But considering that the subiect of my Discourse is in­tended for the bettering of the Souldi­ers knowledge of the trained Bands; and that your Lordship is one of his Majesties Lieutenants: it may prove a good inducement to your Honours liking (who are known to be so great a lover of your Country) to vouchsafe [Page] the protection and patronage of these my first endevours, whereby I shall for ever stand obliged in all humilitie, and remayne,

Your Honours most humble and devoted servant, WILLIAM BARRIFF.

[Page] TO THE RIGHT VVorshipfull, Sir Ralph Bosvile, Knight, Captaine of a Select Company of Foot in the County of Kent.

YOu may be pleased to remember (Noble Sir) how often you have Importunde me to write something (by way of instruction) for the bettering of the judgements of such young Gen­tlemen and Souldiers whose mindes stand this way affe­cted. And although (for my own part) I can better mannage the Pike then the Pen; yet that I might not be wanting in all acknowledgement, I have taken upon me to satisfie your request; which shall ever carry the authority of a Command with it. Expect not (I beseech you Sir) to finde my Booke set forth with fine phrases, nor to be deckt with historicall dis­courses, of forraine fought Battels: this being the onely thing by me intended in it; to set forth the exact grounds of this our moderne discipline, for the exercising of a foot Company. Nor is it to be estee­med a small advancement to the knowledge of the art Military; even to have Taught this little, seeing it must be confessed to have beene one of the chie­fest [Page] meanes to make Philip from a poore Prince, to become a powerfull Monarch; and his Sonne Alex­ander amighty Conquerer. I meane his exact obser­vance of the true grounds of military Discipline, which beginneth with the instruction of a private Company.

Adde hereunto (which I have also toucht upon) his frequent practise and inuring of his Souldiers to the use of Armes: together with his well ordering and contriving the severall formes and figures of his Battels. Alwaies (by the way) observing how to make his advantage, either from the time, the num­ber, or the place, or some other such like oportunity. But not to cloy your quainter eares with impertinent discourses: who are not onely a Master of Armes, but of Arts; also a Gentleman that hath beene Captaine either over horse or foot; for the space of these last forty yeeres: and from your very infancy brought up in the very bosome of the Muses. So that you are now become a Nestor for Counsell, an A­pollo for Musicke, and a Mars for the Field. But lest by acknowledging your worthy parts, (your native modesty being such, that you never love to heare your owne due deserved praises) I purchase a frowne for a recompence: I forbeare. My humble desire now is, that your Worship will be pleased to accept of my well meaning: and although I be wanting in artfull expressions, yet to rest assured, that I am yours in all humble and heartie affection, and shall still continue

Your, though unworthy, yet obedient Lievetenant, WILLIAM BARRIFF.

TO THE WORTHY CAPTAINES, CAPTAINE EDVVARD DICHFIELD, and Captaine HENRY SANDERS, and to all the Gentlemen of the private and lo­ving Societie of Cripplegate mee­ting. W. B. wisheth all health and long continuance.

Right Worthy▪

CAptaines, it is now something morethen seven yeares, since the beginning of that private and commendable exercise of Armes by your two Companies together; how much experi­ence it hath begot in your Soul­diers, your selues be the Iudges. This must be con­fessed, that it is so orderly contrived, as to become no hinderance to mens more necessary callings. Yea it rather calls them the earlier unto it: for that the Exercise continueth onely one houre the Thursday of every weeke; and in the Summer time, ending at se­ven of the clocke in the Morning. Some there have been notwithstanding, that have held a prejudicate opinion of this meeting: conceiving that it would prove an hinderance to the Artillery ground. Never­thelesse [Page] the proofe hath reported the quite con­trarie: for that it hath become a great meanes to­wards the advancement thereof. And that by send­ing divers Gentlemen thither to enter themselues therein, who before had not the least conceit or purpose that way. As for the Souldiers of that meeting, they neither beat Drumme, display Ensigne, nor discharge Musket: But onely exercise their Postures, Motions, and formes of Battell, with false fire in their pannes. Which is the cause, that the Souldiers having at­tained some little skill in the handling of their Armes: presently desire, to exercise with more liberty; and so enter upon the Artillery Garden. Wherefore (most worthy Captains) you shall do well to che­rish your diligent and industrious Souldiers: that so they may be heartened to persist, in so honourable and commendable an entendment. It being such an exercise whereby God may gaine glory, the King and Kingdome, honour; your selues, credit; and your Souldiers, skill: For my owne part, I professe and ac­knowledge my selfe to be one of the first beginners of it: and do still continue a member of the same. And this maketh me the more silent, though still I wish in heart the continuance of so friendly a societie. And therefore (fellow Souldiers) I pray you accept of my good will for the deed: for were I as able as I am willing; I then, with the Poet,

Would consecrate your Memories to time,
That yours might Live, when I am turn'd to slime.
Yours in all service, WILLIAM BARRIFF.

To all worthy Commanders, and brave Souldiers.

GAllant brave Sonnes of Mars you must not looke
That here's ought worth your reading in this Book,
Since I intend not further for to goe
Then to the Letters of our Christ-crosse-row:
To shew the Vowels, or to learn to spell
In Disciplines high strains I will not mell.
But if, perhaps, you have a mind to scan
Or spie faults in the Yong Artillery-man,
I pray you for your credits as mine owne
You'l picke no fault till you be sure 'tis one
And then (perhaps) when Reason taking place,
Opinion must retreit with foule disgrace.
Yet if you truly shall an Errour spie
Tell me my fault, I'le not in Error die.
Then worthy Followers in great Mars his traine,
That to peruse my worthlesse worke will deigne,
Iudge but the best, and you, perhaps, shall see
The next I write shall a farre better bee
In the, mean time, this is the best I have
Prove and approve. And more I will not crave.
W. B.

To Captaine Walter Neale, now Captaine of the Artillery Garden: and to all the rest of the Worthy Captaines, Lieftenants, Ensignes, Serjeants, and other Gentlemen of that noble Society: W. B. wisheth all increase of knowledge and continuance of Love and Vnity.

RIght worthy Souldiers of th' Artillery,
Me thinkes I see some of you looke awry,
Telling me I've done our Garden wrong
And that in Souldier-ship I am too yong:
That the worst Souldier of three hundred men
Should dare in Discipline to use his Pen,
And he that th' other day scarce knew a Ranke
To write a Booke should now be growne so cranke:
But spare your Anger for this Booke you see
Can neither bring reproch to you nor mee:
If for meane matter I shall be detected
From a yong Souldier much is not expected:
If any say I have done prety well
They needs must thinke should you write 'twould excell,
Like Lads at Wasters I but lead the way
That better Gamesters may come in to play.
Therefore be pleas'd if any fault be found
No shame at all can unto you redound.
If ought be good 'ith' Garden 'twas me showne
If ought be ill the Errour is mine owne.
Then as I from amongst you learn't my skill,
So grant me love your favour and good will.
Yours ever William Barriff.

Faults escaped in the Printing.

PAge 17. line 5. for and, reade ad, p. 25 l. the last, for betweene before, p. 34. first line of the [...]1. Chap. for off, r. 10, p. 36. in the mar­gens, for particular, r. particle, p 64 l. 13 for armes, r. armies, p, 74. l. 9. for also, r. all, p. 78 l. 8. for left, r. least, p. 86. l. 6. instead of for, r. or, p. 86. l. 19. for into, r. to, p. 87 l. 8. for with, r. without, p. 87. l 23. for drawne figure, r. drawne a figure p 89. l 6. for e [...]ft, r. left, p. 89. l. 17. for likewise, r. file wise, p. 97. l the last, for gratifie, r. satisfie, p. 106. l. 3. for ne, r. one, p. 108. l. 9. instead of for, r. in, p. 112 l. 4. for beh [...]nde, r. before, p. 117. l. 4. r. file-leaders, p. 11 [...]. l. 19 & 20. instead of, or with the Chorean it holds affinity, r. and with the Chorean it holds no affinity, p. 124. the last line, r. be as at first. p. 127. the 2 m s which stand for the outmost file-leaders to the right, stand quite contrary. p. 137. l. 5 for in, r. to p. 140. the figure set wrong. pa 1 [...]2 l. 8. or in, r. too p. 166. l. 11. for flanke, r. flanks. p. 173. l. 13. for innermost, r. outer­most. p. 176. l. 32. for figures, r. figures. p. 307. l 14 for command, r. commanded. p. 217. l 4. for to, r. up. p. 290. l. 8 for figure, r firing. p. 269. l. 18. for tm, r. them. p. 271. l. 1 [...]. for arme, r. armes. p 2 [...]. l. 13. for flanke, r. flanks p. 393. the title of the figure, for polium, r. Plesium. p. 296. l. 6. for their severall, r. to their severall, &c. p. 297. the marginall note opposite to the [...] line, r. instead of one file and close. One file of Muskettiers to give fire, and close, p. 302 l. the 9. for ho [...]s­wise, r herswise, p. 306. l. 27. for Leader, r. Leaders, p 311. l. 17 for over­head, r. overhand.

[...]

[Page] To the Reader.

COurteous Reader, although I have set forth this small Treatise, princi­pally ayming at the benefit of my Country, yet I know that some will not be wanting, to disparage both the workman and the worke, the mat­ter and the manner. For such is the misery of the times, and the malice of men; that the frothy Depra­ver, shall found (in some men) an opinion of his worth, by detracting and undervaluing other mens merits: For mine own part, I ingenuously confesse, that amongst many in our owne Ground, I was the meanest both for skill and schollership, to have un­dertaken a worke of this nature; but being continu­ally prest by my acquaintance: some for the Postures, others for the Motions, and by some againe for Fi­gures, I being alwaies willing to further men this way affected; granted and gave to some men Co­pies, and suffered others to peruse my Notes, which I had placed in an old waste Paper-booke. But at length, time and mens tongues together, had begot an opinion, that I had writ a booke. Which was so freely divulged, that I was requested by some, to know when it would come forth of the Presse; when as yet I had not the least conceit, to put pen to paper [Page] tending to this purpose. So that being engaged some­thing in my credit, and withall requested by a right worthy Knight, my Captaine, who had power to command: And lastly, being thrust on by the impor­tunity of some of my familiar friends: I haue put my Card amongst the rest into the Bunch to bee shuffled: not much caring where it be dealt, so it be not mixt with the—If any carpe at the plainenesse of the stile, I conceiue that it fits best with the subiect: workes of this nature, chiefly requiring it. If such, whom opinion hath made proud, and cu­stome, captious; shall happen to be my Supervisors, to them I say, that it is easier to finde faults, then mend them; and to mend Bookes, then to make them. But to the Courteous and skilfull, whose better parts will yeeld better fruits, I shall request their favou­rable censure, and that with their judgements, they will mend what by over-sight I have mist. For which their loves, I shall ever stand engaged: and remaine

Their thankefull friend and Servant, WILLIAM BARRIFF

To my loving Friend, The Author.

HOmer eterniz'd is for writing what
Achilles and his Myrmidons did at
The Siege of Troy. I envie not his fame,
But needs must future Ages greatly blame,
If they forget to Memorise thee too,
That show'st not what was done, but how to doo.
Rowland Gwyn.

To his much esteemed Friend, and fellow Souldier, the Author.

CRitticke, observe thy distance, censure not,
Nor spend thy judgement like an Ideot
That nothing knows; If knowing, know thou then,
Thou must be rank't amongst the Envious men.
If once thou dost attempt to contradict
The matter that this Booke conteins in it:
The Method's plaine; not deckt with complements,
Those frivolous, idle, needlesse supplements.
[Page] The substance ponderous is; no fond conceit
Affronts thee, friend. With shame they shall retreit;
And so retrit, as not to charge againe
In Front, in Reere, or Flanks. Thou shalt disdaine
All Formalists, that faine would Souldiers seeme;
Who much expressive are, in judgement greene.
Andrew Wheatley. Ex Hospitio Gray.

In Amicum Willielmum Barriff.

YOung, and so old in Martiall Discipline?
Distrust will say, This work is none of thine.
But I, that know it, will averre the same
To be thine owne, and not anothers fame.
A noble Souldier scorns to be so base
By others Worth to purchase his owne Grace.
Aud such is BARRIFF. What his Booke doth speake,
It is his owne: Let Envie swell and breake.
Amicus H. P.
THe Art Military (how e're suppos'd)
Is hard like other Arts; yet here disclo'd,
In such a manner that who e're he be
That hath in it but learn'd his A B C.
Without difficulty, with little paine,
Such knowledge in this noblest Art may gaine:
That he may say, and do as much as some,
That for this Art, have travel'd Christendome.
All by the learned helpe of BARRIFFS skill,
Learned, I say, say others what they will.
But if they speake 'gainst this he hath put forth,
They will betray in them there's no such worth:
For this in him there is no fault at all.
Except in this, to teach this Art to all.
Persist then noble Friend, to th' world descry
What worth lyes hid in our Artillery.
And we that long to learne this Art shall say,
Thanks be to BARRIFF, he hath showne the way.
Rich. Clement.

On his much esteemed friend, the Author.

AS London, Englands farre fam'd Emperie,
In her brave Garden of Artillery,
With Reason glory may: because therin
Is exercis'd exacter Discipline,
By motions and apt firings; than is done
In any other Place of Christendome.
So maythat Garden as deservedly,
(Accomplisht Barriff) joy and boast in thee:
Who stil'st thy selfe The young Artillery-Man,
Of thy abounding modesty. Yet can
Thy knowne experience thereby vailed be
No more than Sun-beames by a Tyffanie:
Why young? Is't cause chou'lt still a Learner be?
"Even so must all that ayme at Excellencie.
New Accidents, and expert mens direction,
Brings th'arte of Warre still neerer to perfection.
'Tis said, great Alexander wept, for that
He no more worlds could finde to subjugate.
And yet if Hee before Ostend had beene,
He might have easier wept, than gotten in.
Thy practicke part of Drilling: I approve,
As meriting thy Countries thankes and love.
[Page] The rather, that I oft have seene thee doe
A Captaines Office, and a Souldiers too.
With such exact dexterity, as none
Could say thou cam'st short in perfection,
To forraine Discipliners (neere or farre,)
Though daily train'd up in the Schoole of Warre.
Yet as in thy assum'd Title: so,
Th'art modest in thy faire expressions too.
For thou adorn'st not thy book's Frontispiece,
With glorious Titles, to endeere its Price.
As Th'art of Warre: or Souldiers Academy.
But thee confin'st within a Company,
Or Squadrons exercise. And yet a way
To set a greater Body in Array;
Thereby discover'st. Onwards then, and stead,
Thy Nation for supplying at her need.
Thy Country with large Troupes well-disciplin'd,
For which, occasion will hereafter finde,
A meane to crowne thy merit. Whilst thy friends
Wish thy Designes, acquire their hop'd for ends.
Ia. Hayward ex Hospitio Graiensij.

[Page 1] CHAP. I.
Concerning Postures and hand­ling Armes.

THe first rudiments for the Discipline of Infan­try ought to be an In­struction, for the well mannaging of their Armes; whereby they may be brought, to use them with ease and de­light: whereas to the contrary (without exercise) both sorts of Armes, wil become a troublesom burden, unto the unskil­full Bearers. No man is borne a Souldier, neither can any attain, to be kilfull in the Art Military without practice. But by practice is gained know­ledge, knowledge begets courage and confidence; few or none being fearefull to execute what by [Page 2] frequent practice they have throughly learned.

Wherefore it is necessary for every one that in­tends any proficiency in this part of the Art mili­tary, to be instructed in the Postures and well handling of their Armes; a thing much to be de­sired in our Trained Bands, though small hope of amendment. Seeing the Souldiers are scarce cal­led forth to exercise either Posture, or Motion once in foure or five yeares. Whose the fault is I know not, only I pray God that it may be amēded, lest shame and infamy be the least of euils which our carelesse security may bring upon us: Yet par­don this digression, for my zeale to my Countries good had almost transported mee beyond the bounds of my intent, but of this no more. I will now come to the postures of the Musket and Pike: which, I conceive, are fittest to begin from the ta­king up of their Armes, and arming the Souldiers concluding them with the laying down of their Armes, or disarming them. But before I begin the Postures: Mee thinks I heare some already inqui­ring what is a Posture. Wherefore that I may sa­tisfie them, and not be troublesome to others. In briefe thus.

Posture in a Souldier is the garbe or figure, that he useth in the handling of his Armes, consisting of severall Motions for atchieving of each Po­sture. The Motion being the working part, the Posture the alteration or act, either in circum­stance or matter. As to rest your Musket being one Posture, to shoulder your Musket another, so likewise for the rest, howbeit some perchance will [Page 3] object, (as formerly hath bin to one of Athens, ma­king a long Oration in the praise of Hercules his valour) who ever doubted of it. So to me who ever questioned these for Postures: yet I have known them not only questioned, but written a­gainst, peremptorily concluding that there are but three Postures to be used for the Musket, whose errours I shal easily confute. But more of this after the Postures of the Musket. Wherefore for the more orderly proceeding conceive their Armes to lie before them on the ground, and then the first command will be, to stand to their Armes.

The Postures of the Musket.

TAke up your Bandeliers.

Put on your Bandeliers.

Take up your Match.

Place your Match.

Take up your Musket and Rest.

Rest your Musket.

Now if you please you may performe your salu­ting Posture.

Poyse your Musket.

Shoulder your Musket.

Take your Rest into your right hand, and you are armed ready to March.

Now to begin to make ready, which may be done either standing or marching.

Take your Match between the fingers of your right hand.

Put your Rest string about your left Wrist, and carry your Rest in your left hand.

[Page 4] Return your Match between the fingers of your left hand.

Unshoulder your Musket and Poyse.

Ioyn your Rest to the outside of your Musket.

Openyour Pan.
Cleer
Prime
Shut

Cast off your loose Corns.

Blow off your loose Corns, and bring about your Musket to the left side.

Treile your Rest, & ballance your Musket in your left hand.

  • Charge with
    • Powder.
    • Bullet.
Draw forthyour Scowring stick.
Shorten

Put your scowring stick into your Musket.

Ram home your Charge.

Withdrawyour scowring stick.
Shorten
Return

Bring forward your Musket and Rest.

Poyse your Musket and recover your Rest.

Ioyn your Rest to the outside of your Musket.

Draw forth your Match.

Blow your Coale.

Cockyour Match.
Fit

Guard your Pan.

Blow the Ash from your Coale.

[Page 5] Open your Pan.

Present upon your Rest.

Give fire brest high.

Dismount your Musket, joyning your Rest to the outside of your Musket.

Uncock and return your Match.

Cleeryour Pan
Shut
Poiseyour Musket.
Shoulder

Take your Match between the fingers of the right hand.

Take your Rest into your right hand, cleering your string from your wrist.

Return your Rest into the left hand, the string loose.

Return your Match into your left hand.

Unshoulder your Musket and Poyse.

Rest your Musket.

Set the But-end of your Musket on the ground.

  • Lay down your
    • Musket and Rest.
    • Match.
Take offyour Bandeliers.
Lay down

March from your Armes.

There is likewise the Sentinell Posture, which is, The Muskettier having his Musket charged with Bullet, his Match cockt, his Pan guarded, stands with his Musket rested to per­forme [Page 6] such duty as shall be commanded or given him in charge. Some have likewise taught to make ready on, or from the Sentinell Posture: But note that as none comes to stand Sentinell but comes ready charged: So if any occasion happen that he must give fire in the time of his standing Sentinel, it causeth a generall Alarme. So that he will have no fit time to make ready upon his Rest: Where­fore, I conceive it superfluous; but will ever con­forme to better judgement.

We have also the Funerall Posture, which from the Rest is to be performed at 3. Motions, which cannot so well be exprest in writing, as it will ex­presse it selfe in Action. Wherefore seeing that it is rather an Ornament to Obsequies, than truly ne­cessary for Armies I will not spend more time a­bout it, but come to the Postures of the Pike. Yet before I passe upon them, give me leave to answer some, which out of a Criticall humour will al­wayes be carping at others, condemning these Postures, saying, There are more by halfe, then are either good or usefull; and that there are no more Postures to be used, but Make ready, Present, Give fire. The which wee will not deny that in Service there are any other usefull: notwithstand­ing I would have them to know, that Make ready is no Posture, but a word of Command, including all Postures, from the first Arming of the Soul­dier to the present: or if the Muskettier be char­ged, shouldered or both, then the word (Make ready) commands the prosecution of the rest of your Postures which are between the Posture [Page 7] you then immediatly are at, when the word is gi­ven, and the other Posture, Present for which reason when wee teach Muskettiers at first it is most necessary to instruct them punctually, from Posture to Posture: Which being once attained, he manageth his Armes more surely more come­ly, with more celerity, and with better execution: and at the first may as easily be taught the best way. But if he have got an habit of doing ill there wil be as much or more pains spent in reclayming his errours, as at first to teach him the best, safest, and readiest way.

CHAP. II.
Of the Postures of the Pike.

THat which followeth next of course is the Posture of the Pike. Where­fore that we may observe order in our proceeding; we will likewise conceive their Pikes to lie in like manner before them on the ground▪ And then, as before, the first Command will be, To stand to their Armes.

Handleyour Pikes.
Order

[Page 8]

To youropenOrder.
close

Charge with the But-end of your Pike at the in­side of your right Foot, your Pike in the left hand, drawing your Sword over the left Arme.

  • Charge to the
    • Right,
    • Left,
    • Reere.

Order your Pikes, and put up your Swords.

Note that these Charges at the Foot are to re­ceive a desperate Enemy on Horse, upon a stand in some strait, or other place of advantage▪ the Muskettiers to give fire over the Pikemens heads, or else-where, at the discretion of the Comman­der.

Portyour Pikes.
Comport
Cheeke
Treile
Order

Charge to the Reere is to be understood al­wayes to the left about, be­cause it is 3. times a nearer way then char­ging to the right about▪

Charge to theFrontOrder as you were.
Right
Left
Reere
 Shoulder your Pikes
Advanceyour Pikes.
Port
Comport
Cheeke

[Page 9]

Treile your Pikes Advance as you were.
Charge to theFront
Right
Left
Reere
Shoulderyour Pikes.
Port
Comport
Cheeke
Treile
Shoulder your Pikes Shoulder as you were.
Charge to theFront
Right
Left
Reere

From Comport, Cheeke, or Treile, the Pike­man may at the discretion of the Commander charge either to the Front, Reere, or both Flanks, as shall be necessary or thought expedient. Wher­fore we shall not need to do it but once over, for the Charges will be all alike, whether you Com­port from Order, from Advance, or Shoulder. And so likewise for Cheek and Treile, &c.

From Comport Charge to theFrontComport as you were.
Right
Left
Reere
Cheek your Pikes.  
From the Cheek Charge to theFrontCheek as you were.
Right
Left
Reere

[Page 10]

Treile your Pikes.  
From the Treile Charge to theFrontTreile as you were.
Right
Left
Reere
Orderyour Pikes.
Lay down

I shall undergo the censure of some, for that they will finde more Postures of the Pike here then formerly they knew of, and so by their con­clusion more then there is any need of; for now-a-dayes there are such that will limit discipline, to the verge of their owne knowledge, and whatso­ever else they shall see either acted or written by others that is without the lists of their kenning, they will peremptorily conclude for superfluous and improper, howsoever I shall alwayes referre my selfe to the judgment of the more judicious.

The charges of the Pike are twofold either for defense or offence. Charges underhand or over­hand▪ but divers and different they are from their severall wayes and Postures from which they are or may be done, although they are not all alwayes usefull, yet at sometimes they may be usefull, and therefore very requisite to be known to all such as either are, or at lest would be accounted for good Souldiers.

As I have set down the Postures themselves both of Musket and Pike, so it were not much a­misse, if that the Motions of Posture were likewise here exprest. But because they will take up too [Page 11] much time, & fill too much paper, and the Subject it selfe not pleasing unto many; I will spare my la­bour, and my booke the lines, rather suffering the censure of curtail'd brevity, then tedious prolixity.

CHAP. III.
Of the Drum.

OVr Souldiers being sufficiently instru­cted in the Postures of such Armes as they carry, or are appointed to use: the next thing they are to learn, is the knowledge of the severall beats of the Drum, which is as requisite to be learnt of the Souldier, as any thing else in this way. For the Drum is the voice of the Commander, the spurre of the valiant, the heart of the coward, and by it they must receive their directions when the roring Canon, the clashing of armes, the neighing of hor­ses, and other confused noise causeth, that neither Captaine nor other Officer can be heard. Where­fore it will be most necessary for him to learne these sixe severall Beats, viz.

  • 1 A Call.
  • 2 A Troope.
  • 3 A March.
  • 4 A Preparative.
  • 5 A Battaile.
  • 6 A Retreit.

1 By a Call, you must understand to prepare to heare-present Proclamation, or else to repaire to your Ensigne.

[Page 12] 2 By a Troope understand to shoulder your Muskets, to advance your Pikes, to close your Rankes and Files to their order, and to troope along with (or follow) your Officer to the place of Randesvous or elsewhere.

3 By a March you are to understand to take your open order in ranke, to shoulder both Muskets and Pikes, and to direct your March either quick­er or slower, according to the beat of the Drum.

4 By a Preparative you are to understand to close to your due distance, for skirmish both for ranke and file, and to make ready, that so you may execute upon the first command.

5 By the Battaile or charge, understand the con­tinuation or pressing forward in order of battaile without lagging behind, rather boldly stepping forward into the place of him that fals dead, or wounded before thee.

6 By a Retreit understand an orderly retiring backward, either for reliefe, for advantage of ground, or for some other politicall end, as to draw the enemy into some ambushment, or such like. Much more might be written concerning the Drum, but this may suffice for the present.

CHAP. IV.
Of Rankes and Files, their places and dignities.

NOw that our Souldiers are some­what skilfull in managing of their armes, and no lesse capable of the severall beats of the Drum, it is high time for them to know the dif­ference between a Ranke, and a File. WhereforeWhat is a Ranke. know that a Ranke is a row of men, sometimes more, sometimes fewer, standing, moving, or marching even a breast, or (as some write) poul­dron to pouldron, or shoulder to shoulder. A FileWhat is a File. is a sequence of men, standing one behinde ano­ther, backe to belly in a straight line from Front to Reere, consisting sometimes of 6. 8. or 10. men. on some occasions the Spaniards make them 12. deepe. But when any one would shew much varie­ty of exercise, then 8. will be the more pliant and dividual number, yet for service in the field, where men are not altogether so expert (as I could wish our Country-men were) 10. men is the fittest number, not onely for the cause aforesaid, but al­so because that 10. is the square root of a 100. and is a better number to draw Companies into gros­ser bodies.

And now I thinke it would not be much amisse if I should here insert the severall places of digni­nity and precedency in Ranke, as also in File. [Page 14] Wherfore because that Files are first to be drawn forth, and that by adding or joyning of Files to­gether, Rankes are made; we will begin first with Files. Wherefore conceive their honour accor­ding to the figures or numbers hereunder placed, first in File, then of Rank, lastly of both cōjoyned.

[figure]

It will not be of it selfe sufficient that I have both marked and figured the places and dignities to each particular man in his File and Ranke, but it will be looked for of some, that I should backe my opinions either with sound and good reasons of mine owne, or at the least with the opinions of some others: as for such as have employed them­selves upon this subject, they have been as divers in their judgements, as their number, each man having a fancie to his owne way. And if it were much materiall, I might have here demonstrated unto you the severall opinions of Leo, Robertellus, Count Mansfield, Sir Thomas Kellie, and many o­thers: whose workes being extant, I will spare the [Page 15] labour. But above all the rest that ever I read, Cap­taine Iohn Bingham hath in my judgement best de­livered himselfe in this particular: which although he have exprest by way of Tetarchies and Mirrar­chies, yet the same may be understood as well by Rankes and Files. His words are these:In the Tac­ticks of Ae [...]an lib. 1. the Notes of the 10. Chapter. Every ‘Tetarch is over foure Files, in all which the Commander that hath the right, hath the first place; he that hath the point of the left, the se­cond place; he that standeth on the right hand next to him, the third place. The last place is his that standeth next to the Commander of the right point on the left hand: He demonstrates it by way of figure thus.’

[figure]

CHAP. V.
Reasons for precedency of dignity in Rankes and Files.

I Shall now endevour to give some reasons for these severall places of dignitie in Ranke and File. And first for that Geometricall propor­tion gives both life and being to [Page 16] orderly discipline, consider that all parts of the body ought to be answerable. Wherefore seeing that the joyning of Files and Rankes produceth greater Bodies; it is necessary that a true proporti­on should be kept from the beginning: and that in drawing forth of Files they observe to make the Reere halfe files answerable in skill and worth to the Front halfe file. And that the file-leaders, and halfe-rankes of the left flanke, should be equiva­lent in worth, skill, and valour to the right flanke, that the Reere division hold like proportion with the Front division, and that all parts of the body

[depiction of 'ranks and files']

be ballanced with true proportion, so neere as the knowledge of the Souldi­ers, and the number of the men will give you leave; and that there may be correspondency in their worth, place, and dignity▪ you may observe by ad­ding the figures of number together, which are in the Margent, where you shal finde that the dignity being added together of the Front halfe file, makes the number of 18. And the worth of the Reere division being in like man­ner added, makes the like number. So likewise shal you finde the dignity and worth of the File leaders of the left flanke, to paralell the worth of those on the right flanke by the same rule. If you will have it yet more cleere, observe that the file leader is the chiefe in his File, the bringer up the second, the halfe File leader the third, the [Page 17] last man of the front halfe file the fourth. Now note that as the worth of the first precedes the se­cond, so the worth of the third exceeds the fourth. Now adde the first worth to the fourth worth, and that makes five. And the second worth to the third, and it makes the same number; so that there is equalitie throughout the Battell both in Front, Reere, and Flankes: for it were unreasonable, that all the chiefe men should be on the right Flanke, and all the worst on the left. For the left must be opposed to the enemies right. The File leader ought to be worthiest, because he hath the com­mand of his File, and marcheth the first against his enemy. The bringer up ought to be the second, because his place of march is in the Reere, and is in most danger, should the enemy charge on that part. The halfe file leader is the third in honour, because that when the halfe file is taken off upon any occasion, he is the leader (unlesse they be commanded to face about) the last man of the front halfe file is the fourth man in dignitie, for when the Reere division is taken off, then he is the Bringer up. The next man to the file-leader hath the fift place of honour, for that one doubling brings him into the front. The next man before the Bringer-up hath the sixt place of honour, for that if the body be faced about, one doubling brings him into the Front accidentall, or keeping the proper front by once doubling of rankes, he becomes Bringer-up to his File-leader. The se­venth place of honour is his that marcheth next after the halfe-file leader, for that when the halfe [Page 18] files double the Front, or marcheth forth, then one doubling, ranks him even with the Front. The eight and last place of honour, is his that is the third from the Front, the File being but 8. deepe, which may also be made a File-leader, though with more trouble than the rest: for by counter-marching Front and Reere into the middest, and then facing to the former front, & after doubling of ranks, makes him likewise a file-leader. Now as every mans dignitie is more or lesse in his File, so is all his ranke with him. Wherefore this that hath already beene said, may suffice to demon­strate unto those which as yet are ignorant of the severall places of dignity, both in Ranke and File. I might have enforced many other reasons con­cerning the dignity of number and place: but I have insisted longer upon this subject, then at first I intended, which makes me the more willing, though somewhat abruptly to breake from it, and come to shew the manner of joyning or draw­ing up of Files into forme of battell. And there­fore this may serve for all, the Serjeant that hath order to place them, is to lead them up according to their worth and honour. As first the right hand file; then the left hand file; and so the other files successively within them according to their seve­rall worths and places. As by the following figure you may more plainely perceive.

[Page 19]

[figure]

If there be any that shall say these are nicities, and of no repute amongst Souldiers, I dare say they have been well reputed of by good Souldi­ers, no disparagement unto the fault-finders (if there happen to be any such.) As for the noble, worthy, and well-knowing Souldiers, I am almost confident that out of their true-speaking judge­ments, they will eyther conclude that it is so used, or at the least that it ought so to be; but if this can worke no effect with the—I leave every man freely to his owne judgement, desiring the judicious, alwaies to hold a favourable opini­on of my well-meaning.

CHAP. VI.
Of the severall distances.

NOw that our Souldiers have attained some small knowledge in the use of their Armes (me thinkes like some of our little-knowing souldiers of the trained Bands) they already begin to be ambitious of File-lea­ders places; therefore that their owne weakenes­ses may light them to reade their owne follies, we will see how they will behave themselves in exer­cise amongst the Companie. Wherein the first thing we are to instruct them in, is their distances. But because it is held by some a matter disputable, whether distance be one of the motions or no: We will first declare what is distance. To which I answer, that indeed Distance it selfe is no motion, but there is motion in producing such distance; for Distance is the space of ground between man and man, either in File or Ranke, having relation one­ly to the place between each partie. All the rest of the motions having not onely relation to the one, but the other. Wherefore not to spend more time in a matter so apparant, we will say that the disci­pline of a foot-companie consists chiefly in di­stance and motion. And therefore seeing that [Page 21] distance is the ground of motion, and that no mo­tion can be performed without distance, wee will leave to discourse it, and fall to the matter it selfe, and shew how many sorts of Distance is ordinari­ly used in our moderne discipline, which are these foure here under named, viz.

Close Order,which isOne foot and a halfe.
Order,both inThree foot.
Open Order,Rank &Sixe foot.
Double distāce,FileTwelve foot.

It hath been the opinion of some ancient Com­manders, that the distance of Ranke, was alwaies double the distance of File, although they went both under one and the same denomination. As that order in File was three foot, order in Ranke sixe foot, open order in file sixe foot, open order in ranke twelve foot, and so of other distances. But the best received opinions hold them to be alike both in ranke and file.

There is to be considered in distance these three especially, that is,

  • Distance
    • For March.
    • For Motion.
    • For Skirmish.

You are to observe, thatyour distance for march is to be three foot between file and file, and sixe foot between ranke and ranke; distance for moti­on sixe foot both in ranke and file, distance for wheelings and skirmish three foot in ranke and file. Onely if you were to receive a charge from the horse, it is necessary for your files of Pite-men to be at close order. Wherefore we will rehearse [Page 22] all the ordinary wayes for the opening, and clo­sing both of files and rankes. But in the first place command them to even their Rankes, and streigh­ten their Files, to be silent & attend to their words of command and direction, &c.

In motion of Files you are to observe your Leader. Rankes and files to your close order.

Files open to the rightto your order.
Rankes open forward
Files open to the rightto your open order.
Rankes open forward
In motion of Rankes you are to observe your right hand man.
Files open to the right
to your double distance.
Rankes open forward
Files close to the rightto your open order.
Rankes close forward
Files close to the rightto your order.
Rankes close forward
Files close to the rightto your close order.
Rankes close forward
Files open to the leftto your order.
Rankes open backward
Files open to the leftto your open order.
Rankes open backward
Files open to the leftto your double distance.
Ranks open backwards
Files close to the leftto your open order.
Ranks close backward
Files close to the leftto your order.
Ranks close backward
Files close to the leftto your close order.
Ranks close backward
Filesopenright and leftto your order.
Ranksto thefront & reere

[Page 23]

Filesopenright and leftto your open or­der.
Ranksto thefront and reere
Filesopenright and leftto your double distance.
Ranksto thefront and reere
Filescloseright and left inwardto your o­pen order.
Ranksto themiddest—

Note that when Files open to the right, the left­hand file must stand fast, every file taking his di­stance from the file next his left hand: And when they open to the left, then the right hand file stands, every file taking his distance from the file next his right hand. Obserue also that when Ranks open forwards, then the last ranke stands, every Ranke taking his distance from the Ranke next behinde him: And when they open back­wards, then the first Ranke is to stand, every Rank to take his distance from the Ranke next before him. You are likewise to take notice in the action, that you are either to face to the right, or to the right about.

Note also that in closing of Files, if it be to the Right, then contrary to the opening, the right hand file stands; the rest closing to the Right, ta­king their distance from their next right hand file. If you close to the left, then the left hand file stands; the rest of the files closing to the left, ta­king their distance in like manner. When Files close to the right and left, then they close inward, taking their distance from the files within them, neerer to the middest of the bodie. Also note, that when Files are commanded to open to the right and left (or by division) it must be outward. If [Page 24] Ranks close to Front and Reere, then the first and last Ranke stand; the others taking their distances from them. If they close Ranks towards the cen­ter or midst, then they close towards their two middlemost Ranks.

It is not required that every Captaine or other Officer that shall exercise a Company, shall use all these several openings, and closings which are here exprest, but rather that he shall make use of so ma­ny of them, as he shall thinke fit for his present oc­casion or exercise. Although they all may be use­full at some time or other. I may spare examples, for it must needs be apparant to the meanest capa­cities.

[figure] CHAP. VII.
Of marching the Company in Divisions at length, the order and places of the Officers, and againe drawing them into forme of Battell.

NOw that our Souldiers are somewhat expert in their distances, we will next draw them forth into a long March. Wherefore note, that our files must be at order, and our Ranks at open order: The Muskettiers of the right flanke, are to make the Van, and to march next after the Captaine: The Pikes are to make the battell, and to march after the En­signe, either in one or two divisions, according to their number. The Muskettiers of the left flanke (sometimes called the second division of Muskets) make the Reere Guard, which is led commonly by the second Serjeant. How beit if there be but one division of Pikes, then the eldest (or chiefest) Serjeant leads the second division of Muskettiers. If the Company be but small, then it is best to make but two Divisions, one of the Muskettiers, ano­ther of the Pikes; For the placing of the rest of the Offi­cers, you may perceive by the figure in the margent▪ Wherefore note that M. stands for Muskets, p. for Pikes, D. for Drummes, S. for Serjeants, E. for Ensigne, L. for Lieutenant, and C. for Captaine.

Note, if you have but three Drummes, then let the Drumme in the second division of Pikes be wanting: If onely two, then upon a March, the first betweene the third and fourth ranke of the front division of Musket­tiers. The second betweene the third and fourth ranke of the second division of Pikes.

Note that betweene each Division in March, there ought to be 12. foot distance; 6. foot betweene the Offi­cer, and 6. foot behinde him.

[figure] CHAP. VIII.
Of drawing the divisions up into a square.

WHen you would bring your body againe into Battalia, command your front division to make Alt or Stand; then give order to your Ensigne either by a Serjeant, or by some signe to leade up the first division

[figure]

of pikes on the left of the first division of Mus­kettiers, with his colours flying, and the Pikes to continue shouldered, so long as the Drumme beats a March. But if it beat a Troope, then the Pikes are to advance, and close their Ranks for­ward to their order, and so the Ensigne to troop them up with his colours fierld. The eldest Ser­jeant is to leadeup the second division

[figure]

of Pikes; The second Serjeant in like manner is to leade up the second or reere Division of Muskettiers; each di­vision still marching up to the left of that division next before it. The man­ner you may plainly see in the figure; where the front division is marked in the Reere with the letter A. The first Division of Pikes

[figure]

with the letter B. The se­cond Division of pikes with C. The second Division of Muskettiers hath in the Reere the let­ter D. The other figure on the other leafe in form of a square shewes their standing, after the Divisi­ons are led up. All the file-leaders standing even in front together making one Ranke.

[Page 27]

[figure]

The discipline of the Art Militarie may rightly be divided into these five generall heads, (viz.) Di­stance, Facings, Doublings, Countermarches, and Wheelings, which have beene not unaptly compa­red to the five vowels: For as without one or more of the vowels, no word can be spelled, so without one or more of these, neither forme, nor action can be performed.

CHAP. IX.
What is Facing, and the use of the word, whether to be used or refused.

BEfore we come to shew the varietie of Facings in the action, I thinke it will not be amisse to speake a word or two in the way of definition: and therefore what is Facing▪ To which I answer, That Facing is a particular turning of the Aspect from one part to another, whereby the Front proper becomes a Front accidentall: And a Front accidentall, may be reduced to his proper Front. There are some likewise that by no meanes will allow of the word Face: Concluding it alto­gether unnecessarie; And no other word must be given, but, To the Right, To the left, &c. Yet I wonder that men will stumble at so small a straw, which cannot chuse but be better used than refu­sed. For the word Face is but one syllable, and quickly pronounced, and gives so cleare an expres­sion of the intent of the Commander that it con­cludes it necessary. As for example, Should you command a Company to double Rankes to the Right, and then command them as they were, and then say, To the Left, it might puzzle a good Soul­dier at the first, to discerne whether he should face [Page 29] or double: The like mistake might bee among Countermarches: Wherefore I conceive that none can justly taxe it for superfluous, seeing the easiest expression hath alwayes beene accounted for the best. Yet spare me, for my intent is not to over­sway any man in his opinion, but rather to deliver mine; leaving all men freely to their owne likings.

If my intent were to make a great booke with a little matter, I might then here insert figures for every particular Facing, and their Reducements to their first Posture, which would take up divers sheets of paper, and to little purpose. For I suppose that every man that knows any thing, may easily conceive the Idea of any ordinary Facing in his minde. Wherefore I will but shew one or two of the hardest. You are to note that in the Motion of Facings every man turnes on the Center, or Ball of the left foot, moving onely the right, the other being the keeper both of ranke and file. In the exercise of the motion of facings, you are to be at open order in Ranke and File.

Face to theRightAs you were.
Left
Right and left
Right about
Left about
Right and left inward
When you face to any hand in the Reducement, you are to re­turne by the contrary.
Rightangle
Left
Foure Angles

The front halfe files standing, it will be requi­site for the halfe files to the reere, to do as much by themselues: whereby, they will the more aptly perceive, how that the subdivision goeth under [Page 30] the denomination of the halfe files, &c.

Halfe files face to theRight.As you were.
Left.
Right and left.
Rightabout.
Left
Right and left inward

There is another word which is ordinarily used and proper, for reducements of Facings, which is, To your Leader.

There is another Facing sometimes used, which is, Face to the center, and is when the body stands in some circular form, or else in an hollow square.

There is also a Facing, which causeth the Body to face to the front, reere, and flanks, which some call, Facing square.

CHAP. X.
Of Facing square, and how to performe it, the useful­nesse of facings, and the severall parts thereof.

WHen we instruct our Souldiers how to face square (if the Body be but 8. deepe) command, the two first ranks stand fast, the two last Ranks face about, the rest of the Body face to the right and left. If the Body be deeper we command more Ranks to the Front, and so like­wise to the Reere. It is very necessary for young [Page 31] Souldiers to move 10. or 12. paces upon every motion of facings, whether they are entire, or di­visionall. Now I will pricke two severall figures of facing, which will be sufficient to demonstrate all the rest.

Face square and march.

[figure]

When your Souldiers begin any motion, let them advance their Armes. When they come to a stand, and have performed their mo­tion, let them order their Armes. The words of Command, commonly used to produce this figure, are these as followeth.

The two first ranks stand.

The two last ranks face about.

The rest of the body face to the right and left, (then) march all.

[Page 32] To reduce them to their first order▪

Face all about to the right, march and close your divisions.

Face all to your Leader (who then stands at his front proper.)

Facing square another way, & marching upon it.

[figure]

[Page 33] The words of command customarily used to produce this figure are these as followeth,

Muskettiers face to the right and left.

Halfe files of Pikes face about to the right (then) march all.

To reduce them to their former order,

Face all about to the right, march and close your divisions.

Face all to your Leader.

Facings are so usefull and necessary, that you may as well dispense with any one of the grounds of Discipline, as with them; for they are usefull almost upon all occasions, and not onely sooner executed than any other of the motions, but may be needfull when Wheelings and Countermar­ches cannot be used, as in a strait. There are no more then foure facings intire, besides Angular; as for Divisionall, there be divers, and indeed ve­ry necessary many of them be, as occasion may of­fer it selfe for their severall uses; howsoever per­emptorily to say, there be so many and no more, I conceive, hath beene concluded by none; but it still rests at the discretion of the Commander, to exercise more or fewer of them, as he best liketh, and the necessity requireth either for action or ex­ercise.

Intire. Intire facings are so called when the aspect of the whole Company are directed one way.

Divisionall. Divisionall facings are so called, when the as­pect of the Souldiers is at one & the same time di­rected divers and severall waies: as to the front and reere, the right and left, or to all foure at once, &c.

[Page 34] Angular. Angular Facings are so called, when the aspect of the Company is directed to the right corner man, which is the right Angle, or to the left cor­ner man, which is the left Angle; or to the foure corner men, which are the foure Angles.

Angular facings were of great use among the an­cients, for their figures called the Diamond, the wedge, the Sheeres, the Saw, and such like, when they made use of such formes of battell. But for the use of them in our moderne Discipline, I conceive there is little or none, onely thus, wee honour the memory of the Ancients in their use. And some say they are very fit for exercise; for that by their use the souldier is made more apt and perfect in the other. Therefore let this suffice to be spoken concerning facings, and now be plea­sed to turne your aspect, and take a view how our young souldiers will behave themselves, in the performance of the doublings.

CHAP. XI.
Of Doublings, their use and parts.

DOublings are of most excellent and singular good use for the strengthe­ning of any part of the battell, ac­cording to the occasion or discreti­on of the Commander, and consists of these two generals, Doublings of length, and Doublings of depth, all times in quan­tity [Page 35] of number, sometimes both in number and place, both sorts having this restriction, to be dou­blings of rankes or flanks; every particular dou­blings pointing at one of these, although there be sundry and divers waies for the doing of them, each of them being to very good purpose, for some consideration or other. Doublings of Ranks, from what forme soever it be done, doth make the number double so much as was before, and sometimes doth extend the length of the battell to double the proportion of ground, as well as well as num­ber.

Doublings of files (or flankes) doe also double the number in depth, and sometimes becomes a doubling both of number and place. Wherefore for the better understanding of the doublings, ob­serve with me these sixe usuall waies following.

The severall parts or branches of Doublings.
  • Doublings of
    • 1 Ranks.
    • 2 Halfe-files.
    • 3 Bringers-up.
    • 4 The Reere.
    • 5 Files.
    • 6 Halfe-rankes.

The first is the doubling of rankes, and is when every even ranke doubleth into the odde; the se­cond is, when the halfe-files double their ranks forwards into the Front: the third, when the Bringers-up double their ranks forwards into the Front. The fourth when the Front-halfe files dou­bleth [Page 36] the Reere. These first foure being doublings of ranks, the length of the battell being by them extended either simply in number, or both in number and place. The next two are doublings of flanks: the first whereof is the ordinary doublings of files, every one of the even files being inserted into the odde files, accounting from the hand na­med. The next is the doubling of halfe-rankes, which is to be understood when one flanke dou­bleth the other, either by passing through, coun­termarch, doubling intire, or divisionall.

You are to note in this motion of doubling, that as there is one part of the body stands, so the o­ther part moves: the standing part is to be dou­bled,The distance for particular and divisionall doublings, is open order in Ranke and File. Note that the ordinary dou­blings of Rankes and Files, is or ought to be performed by three steps, first stepping forth with that foot which is next unto the place named, and in the reducement, to returne by the contrary hand. the part moving, are those that double, as you may perceive by the figures, which shew the manner of each doubling. That which next fol­lowes are the words of command, and direction for doublings with their severall reducements fol­lowing next after them.

The words of command for Doublings.
Ranks to therightdouble.
 left 

Rankes as you were.

Files to therightdouble.
 left 

Files as you were.

Bringers up double your ranks forward to the right.

Bringers up face about to the left, march forth into your places.

[Page 37] Bringers up double your ranks forward to the left.

Bringers up face about to the right, march forth into your places.

Files to the right and left doubleoutward,Files as you were.
Note that in these dou­blings of ranks and files, if you double rankes to either hand, doubling of files to the contrary, redu­ceth them. Or in doubling of files to any hand, doubling of ranks to the contrary will reduce them.
 inward, 

Halfe files double your rankes forward to the right.

Halfe files face about to the left, march forth in­to your places.

Halfe files double your ranks forward to the left.

Halfe files face about to the right, march forth into your places.

  • Front halfe files face about to the left
    • and double the reere to the right,
    • march forth into your pla­ces.
  • Front halfe files face about to the right
    • and double the reere to the left,
    • march forth into your pla­ces.

Front halfe-files double the reere to the right by counter-march.

Front halfe-files face about to the left, march forth into your places.

Front halfe-files double the reere to the left by counter-march.

Front halfe-files face about to the right, march forth into your places.

Halfe-rankes to the right by counter-march, double your left flanke.

[Page 38] Halfe-rankes that doubled face to the right, march forth into your places.

Halfe-rankes to the left by counter-march, dou­ble your right flanke.

Halfe▪ranks that doubled face to the left, march forth into your places.

Halfe-ranks of the right, double your left flank.

Halfe-ranks that doubled, face to the right, march forth into your places.

Halfe-ranks of the left, double your right flank.

Halfe-ranks that doubled face to the left, march forth into your right places.

Note that up­on all motions of doublings, that they that are to double before they move from their places, are to advance their Armes. When they have perfor­med their doubling, they are to con­forme to the Posture of those whom they double, whether it be Order, Ad­vance, or Shoulder. Halfe-files double your front to the right intire.

Halfe-files face about to the left, march forth into your places.

Halfe-files double your front to the left intire.

Halfe-files face about to the right, march forth into your places.

Halfe-files double your front inward intire.

Halfe-files face about to the right, march forth into your places.

Halfe-files double your front by diuision.

Halfe-files face about to the right and left, march forth into your places.

Front halfe-files double your reere by division.

Front halfe-files face about to the right and left inward, march forth into your places.

Front halfe-files double your reere to the right intire.

Front halfe-files face about to the left, march forth into your places.

Front halfe-files double your reer to the left in­tire.

[Page 39] Front halfe-files face about to the right, march forth into your places.

Halfe-ranks of the right, double your left flank intire to the right.

Halfe-rankes that doubled, face about to the left, march forth into your places.

Halfe-ranks of the left, double your right flanke intire to the left.

Halfe-ranks that doubled, face about to the right, march into your places.

Halfe-ranks of the right, double your left flanke by division.

Halfe-rankes that doubled, face about the right and left inward, march forth into your places.

Note that all entire dou­blings, are to be performed at Order both in Ranke and File. Double your ranks to the right intire.

Ranks that doubled face to the left, march forth into your places.

Double your ranks to the left intire.

Ranks that doubled face to the right, march forth into your places.

Double your ranks by division.

Ranks that doubled, face to the right and left inward, march forth into your places.

Double your files to the right intire, advancing.

Files that doubled, face about to the left, march forth into your places.

Double your files to the left intire, advancing.

Files that doubled, face about to the right, march forth into your places.

Files double your depth intire to therightfiles that doubled, as you were.
left

Files double your depth to the right, every man [Page 40] falling behinde his bringer-up.

Files that doubled, as you were.

CHAP. XII.
Of inversion and conversion, and of doubling Ranks.

THere is yet another doubling of the depth, which is called Inversion. But because some out of their igno­rance make little or no difference betwixt Inversion and conversion. Give me leave for the clearing of the doubt, to place Conversion and Inversion together, that by their contrary effects, the difference may be the more perspicuous to such as shall be desirous to know it. Yet before I either enter upon figure, or command for Inversion or Conversion, I hold it necessary to shew some of the figures of those doublings, for which I have already given the words of command and reducements. And then next after them, I will place both the words of Command, and the figures belonging to Inversi­on and Conversion.

This figure next following, is a doubling of rankes to the right, where you may perceive how the even rankes are inserted into the odde rankes: the pricks denotating the places they stood in, be­fore the doubling began, the little line or stroke drawne from the pricks, shewing the manner of [Page 41] the doubling: I thinke it would be needlesse toNote that in the doubling of Ranks, the even Ranks are to double into the odde, be­ginning al­waies to reckon from the first Rank. make another figure, to shew the doubling of rankes to the left; for the meanest judgement may by this figure easily apprehend what the other would be.

Rankes to the right double.

[figure]

Rankes as you were.

CHAP. XIII.
Of doublings of Files.

IN this doubling of Files, you may perceive, that each of the even files doubleth into the odde files, begin­ning from the hand named: as in this doubling of files to the left; the left hand file stands fast, the second file dou­bleth into it, the fourth file into the third, and so for the rest. If your command be to double your files to the right, then contrariwise the right hand file stands fast, the rest of the even files doubling into the odde, accounting from the right, as before from the left. Thus much may suffice for the dou­bling of files, onely take this by way of admoni­tion; that as in doubling of ranks any way, you are to observe your right hand leader: so in doubling of files, you are to observe your file-leader; so that as neere as possibly may be, you may eitherIn doubling of Files, note if the doubling be to the left, as in this Figure, then every man of the even Files, steps behinde his left hand in ranke or file, be altogether in one motion. If you please further to observe with me, that this dou­bling is a doubling of number, and not of place, the depth of the battell not being thereby exten­ded, for further satisfaction observe this figure.

[Page 43] man at three steps, every even File doubling into the odde files beginning your account with the out­most File to the hand named, as I have formerly said. Files to the left, double.

[figure]

In this dou­bling of Ranks by Bringers▪ up, as likewise in all other of like nature, they that are to move, are to adxance their Armes. But if the Comman­der please, it will be best for the ease of the Musettiers, to be shouldered. And upon all doubling of Ranks what­soever, lot them be sure to observe their right hand men. Files as you were.

CHAP. XIV.
Of doublings by bringers-up.

THis doubling which next followeth, shall be a doubling by Bringers-up, of which sort, one figure will be sufficient, which I hold most necessary to demonstrate in manner of motion▪ The figure followeth.

[Page 44] Bringers up double your Rankes forward to the right.

[figure]

Bringers up face about to the left, march forth into your places.

This doubling of Ranks by Bringers up, diffe­reth from the other doubling of ranks, first done, both in quantity and quality. In quantity it diffe­reth, in regard the other leaves a large distance betweene Ranke and Ranke, being double the di­stance they formerly stood at: this contrariwise continuing and preserving the same distance they formerly stood at betweene each Ranke. In quali­ty it also differeth, in regard that it brings the best and second sort of Souldiers, together into the Front. The manner of this doubling you may [Page 45] plainely perceive by the figure, where it is perfor­med as followeth. The eight or last ranke, which are the bringers up, passe forwards even in ranke, through or betweene the intervales, to the right of them that stand before them, until they come even in ranke with the Front; The seventh rank follow­ing those which marched from behinde them, placing themselves in the second Rank, the sixth in the third, the fifth ranke or halfe file in the fourth or reere of the front halfe file. This dou­bling maketh a very able Front, in bringing all the best Souldiers together. And although it hath di­minished the number, in regard of the depth, yet it hath doubled the number in the length. This doubling is in quantity of number, not of ground. When you march into your places, remember this, that the Rank which last tooke his place in the execution of this motion, must first march into his place in the way of reducement. For as they are led forth by their Bringers up, contrariwise they are led off by their halfe file leaders.

In the doubling of the Front to the left by Brin­gers up, it is the same, onely differing in this, that whereas before it was to the Right, this is to the Left. Wherefore let this suffice for doublings, by Bringers up.

CHAP. XV.
Doublings of Files outward and inward.

THe next doubling, is a doubling of Files outward, which workes the same effect; as to double Files to the right and left. For the right flanke is to double to the right, the left flanke to the left. As you may plainely per­ceive by the following Figure.

Files to the right and left double outward.

[figure]

Files as you were.

[Page 47] This doubling of Files to the right and left out­ward, strengthneth both the Flanks at once; by doubling their numbers in depth: But it weakneth the Inward part, where it taketh two Files cleane away, leaving a large Interuale in the midst. Some say it is good when a Commander will grace any, to bring them through the center or midst of the Battalia. But you must note, if you have an odde File you cannot so punctually performe it, as when the number of your Files be even. The manner of the doubling, you may perceive by the Figure; The motion, by the little lines drawen from the Pricks. The performance is as followeth.

The outmost File of each Flanke stands; The se­cond Files double into them; The third File from each Flanke stands; The fourth File double into the third; The sixt into the fift, and so likewise for the rest.

If you would double Files to the right and left inward, it is to be done the contrary way: For whereas in this Figure of doubling last performed; the outmost Files stand, the other doubling out­ward into them: Contrarywise the two inmost Files should stand, the rest doubling to them in­ward. And whereas in this there is a larger distance in the midst, then is in any other part; The other part Contra would bee closest in that part. Some men doe not approove of either of these doublings. I leave every man to his owne choice. The practise of it makes perfection, and he that can doe much may doe lesse when he li [...]teth.

CHAP. XVI.
Of doubling by Halfe-files.

THe next doubling is a doubling by Halfe-files, whereby the length of the Battaile is extended to double the former proporti­on of number, the depth being extenuated both in number and place. This Figure will demon­strate unto you the manner of the motion, which is as followeth.

Halfe-files double your Rankes forward to the right.

[figure]

Halfe-files face about to the left, March foorth into your places.

[Page 49] This doubling our Rankes forward by our Halfe-files, is a Moriō generally approved of by all for ser­viceable, if it be done with conveniencie. It differeth from the other doubling by Bringers up, in quality, not in quantity, (for therein they keepe one propor­tion:) In quality it differeth thus: The doubling by Bringers up brought the best and second sort of soul­diers together into the Front; The fourth and third sort into the Reere: So that the Reere was 4/7 worse then the Front: This doubling by Halfe-files brings the best and the third together into the Front, and leaves the second and fourth in the Reere: So that the Front is made more able, then the Reere, by ⅓. It differeth likewise in Motion thus; For whereas in the other doubling, by Bringers up, the Motion was be­gun, by the last Ranke▪ every Ranke following the Ranke which came from behind him: This contrary­wise is directly led foorth by the fift Ranke from the Front, (if they be but eight deepe) and so is executed more surely and suddenly; the fift Ranke passing in­to the first; the sixth Ranke into the second; the se­venth into the third, and so for the rest. For the re­ducement, when they are commanded to face about to the left, and march forth into their places; Then as the Motion was led on by the Halfe-file-leaders, so in the reducement, they are led off by the Bringers up: Doubling of halfe-files to the left produceth the same effect; onely the contrary hand.

CHAP. XVII.
Of doubling the Reere by Front Halfe-files.

THe doubling of the Reere by Front halfe-files, is differing from the doubling last shew­en, more in maner then matter; Both concur­ring in substance, although differing in circumstance. To say more of it, were more then needed; only per­use the Figure which presents it selfe unto you (as it is in motion) as followeth.

Front halfe-files, Face about to the Left; and double your Reere to the Right.

[figure]

Front Halfe-files, face about to the Left, march forth into your places.

[Page 51] This doubling of the Reere, by the Front halfe-files, is to bee performed after this manner. The command being first given, the Front halfe-files face about to the left, (the Pikes being all aduanced, the Muskets all either poysed or shouldred) and so being led by the Halfe-file-leaders to the Reere, which are those that hold the fourth place of honour, they march directly forwards to the Right of the other part of the Body, which stood faced in opposition; untill the leaders of the doubling have ranked, even in Ranke with the Bringers up, the rest ranking even with the other standing Rankes, according to their places: If it be for service that this doubling is used, then the whole body is to face about to the Reere, being the part to be doubled: If onely for exercise, then the Commander may (if he please) keepe his place, and the doubling being perfor­med, and the whole Body faced to the Leader, command for the reducement; Files to the Right, double intire advancing; every man falling before his leader; which reduceth each man to his first place.

CHAP. XVIII.
Of doubling the Reere by Countermarch.

THere is another manner, of doubling of the Reere, by the Front halfe-files, contrary to that shewen in the prece­dent Chapter, which is done by the way of the Lacedemon Counter­march; which some would ranke amongst the Countermarches. Because (say they) the Motion is a Countermarch. But the act intended, or thing wrought, is a doubling; and if it were, to have the denomination of a Countermarch, then it ought not to mixe with any other part of the Body, onely to Countermarch the Front into the midst, and there to stand, without passing forwards to the Reere; (which makes it a doubling) and then it might be accountedA part Coun­termarch is when one Moity, or part of the Body countermarcheth, thereby, not altering the number of the length, or depth of the Figure; but onely transferring one part into another. Note that if the Reere be doubled to the Right, the Countermarch must be to the Left: if the doubling be to the Left, the Countermarch must be to the Right. It is at the discretion of the Commander, to face the Company, which way he plea­seth, either for Motion, or Reducement of any Motion formerly performed. for a part-Countermarch. But as it is here comman­ded, and performed, it is a doubling. Obserue the Figure following.

[Page 53] Front halfe-files, double your Reere to the Right by Countermarch.

[figure]

Front Halfe-files, face about to the Left, march forth into your places

This Figure of doubling the Reere by Coun­termarch, produceth the same effect to the Reere, as doubling the Front by Bringers up doth unto the Front. The Countermarch by which it is per­formed, is a Countermarch of losse of ground, We will speake more of it amongst the Counter­marches. The command to reduce it is (if the Commander stand, at the head of that part that is doubled.) Front halfe-files, face about to the Right, march forth into your places: If he keepe his first stand, having faced them to him; Then, [Page 54] Front halfe-files, march forth into your places. To double the Reere to the Left, by Counter­march, is the same, differing onely in the hand. I will next shew a doubling of the left Flanke, by way of Countermarch.

CHAP. XIX.
Of Doubling Flankes by way of Countermarch.

HAlfe-rankes (or flankes) are then said to be doubled, when the depth of your Battalia, is increased to double, their former proportion; of Num­ber, or Place, or both: which may be done divers wayes. But this Chàpter, and Figure, is onely to demonstrate unto you, the doubling of the left Flanke, by way of Counter­march. The Figure followeth: and stands as the doubling is in Motion.

[Page 55] Halfe-rankes to the Right by Countermarch, double your left flanke.

[figure]

Halfe-rankes that doubled, face to the Right. March foorth into your places.

This doubling of Halfe-rankes by Counter­march, is a doubling of Number, not of Place: for the depth still retaines, the same proportion; one­ly augmented by one man, the length of your Battalia, being diminished, both in Number and Place; The right Flanke being wholly inserted, into the left Flanke, as you may perceive by the [Page 56] Figure; The Motion is to be performed on this manner: The halfe-rankes of the Right, Face to the Right, and then Even in ranke together, Coun­termarch betweene the Intervales, untill the out­most file to the Right, which is marked with the figure 1, be come into the outmost File of the left Flanke, which is marked with the number 16: The second into the fifteenth; the third into the foure­teenth; The fourth into the thirteenth: and the rest in like manner. The use of this doubling is, to strengthen one of the Flankes, by bringing more hands, to doe present execution; the other Flanke being in more surety. The way for the Reduce­ment of this Motion is, after this manner; The halfe-ranks last doubled, being faced to the Right, then they which were the last, which tooke their places in the Motion, now are the first, which take their places in the Reducement; orderly marching in Ranke together, untill they come to their places: Then facing to their Leader, they become Files againe. The left flanke may in like manner, double the Right by Countermarch; The difference is this: The right Flanke stands, the left Flanke is inserted into the Right, as before the Right was into the Left. To shew another Figure for it, would be altogether needlesse.

CHAP. XX.
Doubling halfe files to the right intire to accomodate the doubling of halfe Rankes.

I Should now come to shew another manner of doubling of flanks, by inserting the one flanke into the o­ther, a different way from that last shewen. But if I should performe it, as the body stands, in the ordinary square, flan­ked with Muskettiers: then it would produce a mixture of Armes. To avoid which, before you enter upon this doubling, of passing in, through or betweene your halfe rankes; Cause your halfe files to double the Front to the right intire, which being performed, you may then proceed to the doubling of your flanks, any way without mixture of Armes. If I should have shewen this motion with Pikes or Muskettiers alone, this first dou­bling of halfe files intire, might have beene spa­red: but I desire not to leave any thing obscure or difficult, but to render it as easie and apparant as I may, to the capacity of the meanest reader: and if any place in this small Treatise of mine shall seem ambiguous, I shall intreate the courteous to im­pute it to my lacke of language to expresse my selfe, rather than any will in me to conceale, or [Page 58] obnubilate the sense, whereby to deprive them of the true meaning of any thing in this Booke con­tained. But left by doubling of words, I prove tar­dy in my worke; I will forbeare further circum­stance, and come to the prosecution of the matter: which in the first place, will be a doubling of halfe files to the right intire, whereby the next dou­bling may be the more commodiously accompli­shed. The figure followeth.

Halfe files, double your front to the right intire.

[figure]

This doubling of halfe files to the right intire, I have fully exprest in the figure, as the body stands, the motion being ended: because we are to adde another doubling, before wee reduce them. This figure next following, will be best shewen in [Page 59] the motion or action, not fully performed: that thereby the manner may be the more easily dis­cerned. But by the way observe, that this dou­bling of halfe files, is a doubling both of number and place; for the length of the Battalia is not on­ly double so many a breast as they were before, but they also have extended ther length to dou­ble their proportion of ground, which formerly they did occupie. I forbeare to speake more of this doubling, untill we come to shew it in motion: and now proceed to the next doubling upon this. The command is as followeth.

Halfe rankes of the right, double your left flanke.

[figure]

Halfe rankes that doubled, face to the right, march forth into your places.

[Page 60] This doubling of halfe rankes is a more speedy and sure doubling, then the doubling of halfe ranks by countermarch, but is most commonly used when the body consists but of one sort of Armes, being either all Muskettiers, or all Pikes. But because in my figures I have as well Musket­tiers as Pikes, I have made use of a Doubling in­tire, and from that have doubled my left flanke, to prevent the mixture of Armes: However mixture of Armes upon some occasion may be necessary. The manner to performe the motion, is this. The left flanke stands, the halfe ranks of the right, face to the left; and then the inmost file of the right flanke, (all the files of the right flanke, being by this facing become ranks) is the leader of this mo­tion, marching forth right to their left hands, be­tween the intervales of the rankes of the left flank, untill that the sixteenth file which now is become a ranke, have placed themselves orderly in the two and thirtieth file, (which is the outmost file of the left flanke.) The fifteenth in the one and thirtieth, the fourteenth in the thirtieth: the thirteenth in the nine and twentieth; and so likewise of all the rest. The places may be per­ceived by the figure. The doubling is of number, and not of place. For reducement to both these doublings, first cause the halfe rankes which last doubled, to face to the right, and so to march into their places. They that last tooke their places in the motion, are the first that take their places in the reducement. The doubling of halfe ranks be­ing thus reduced, next for the reducing of the halfe [Page 61] files, (which were doubled before, for the acco­modatingOrder in Ranke and File. The distance requi­red for intire Doubling. of the doubling of halfe-ranks) com­mand the halfe files to face about to the left, and to march forth into their places: Wherewith I will conclude these sort of doublings, which re­quire open order in Ranke and File, and come next to shew intire doublings, which claime a clo­ser distance for their true performance. And ther­fore conceive them closed to their order, both in Ranke and File.

CHAP. XXI.
The difference betweene intire and divisionall dou­blings, and of doubling halfe-files intire.

HAving closed our Souldiers to their due distance, I will next proceed, to shew doublings intire. But me thinkes, I heare some already inqui­ring, what is meant, by intire dou­blings; and therefore without offence to the curi­ous, give me leave to be so courteous (to the Igno­rant) to tell them, that all Doublings, are either intire or divisionall. Intire Doublings being these,What intire Doublingsare. or such like, as when the files or halfe-files, rankes, or halfe-rankes, (according as the command may be) doe march forth joyntly together, without division or dissipation, to double the part com­manded. [Page 62] What is meant by Particle, and dividuall Doublings. Particle and divisionall Doublings be­ing such, as I have formerly shewn; as when the files or halfe-files, rankes or halfe-rankes, are dis­ranked and divided into more parts or places than one. This may serve for way of distinction: I will now shew intire doublings, as they are in action: and first beginne with doubling halfe-files. The Figure followeth.

Halfe-files double your front to the left intire.

[figure]

Halfe-files, face about to the right, march forth into your places.

This doubling of halfe-files intire, hath beene held a better doubling; then either the ordinary doubling of Ranks, or the usuall way of doubling by halfe-files or Bringers up: some of the causes are these. First it makes no disturbance to the o­ther part of the Battalia; but that it may either be executed in time of motion, exercise, or skirmish. Secondly, it appeares another solid body, to the [Page 63] great disheartening of any enemy. Thirdly, it is very apt for over-fronting; being a doubling both of number and place. The way to performe the motion, is this. The halfe-files face to the left, and march till they are quite cleere of that part of the body, which stands; then they face to their Lea­der, and so march up, untill they are become e­ven in ranke with those which stand upon the right flanke: and then the Figure will be perfect. For the reducement; the word of command is, Halfe Files face about to the right, march forth into your places: having faced about, they march straight forth, untill they be cleere of the front halfe-files; then they face to the left, and march straight forth, untill every man hath his right place, and then face right after their Leaders. The doubling of halfe-files to the right intire, is performed af­ter the same manner, onely differing in the hand.

CHAP. XXII.
Of doubling the Front inward intire.

DOubling of the Front inward intire, hath beene a doubling as usefull, as ancient: notwithstanding, most commonly used by greater bodies, as when one Regiment, Division, or Maniple, moveth forward, be­tweene two others, thereby seconding or relieving them: whereby the Front of all the three divisions [Page 64] become ranged in an even line; but I have onely taken upon me, to shew the motion, in a private Company. The Figure whereof followeth, as it is in the execution.

Halfe-Files, double your Front inward intire.

[figure]

Halfe-files, face about, and march. Front halfe-files, close your division. Face all to your Leader.

It hath beene the custome amongst ancient Soul­diers and great Commanders, that in the matter of Exercise, they shew some things which are most apt for a private Company; some for a Re­giment; other some most usefull for compleat arms; so in like manner, it must be the discretion of every Reader, (whether hereade for apprehensi­on or reprehension) to suit and fit each motion to his true end & purpose, & with the wise man, rather [Page 65] reade twise, than judge once: and then perhaps, when the intent of the Author is perceived, his opinions may be received; yet what need I, or any other apologize ought, in the behalfe of this Figure, or any other such like: sith they are but the expressi­ons of the various figures which proceed of the words of command, used almost by every ordina­ry Exerciser of a foot Company? Neverthelesse if Aesops long ear'd beast passing by, should peepe into this Druggists shop, and quarrell with the Compounds, I shall not studie for a further an­swer, then That the excellent and skilfull Physitian, can convert that into an Antidote, which the unlearned foole will make his poyson. But lest I be taxt for di­gression, the motion of this doubling is thus per­formed. The halfe files of the Front, faceth to the right and left; and march till they have left a di­stance between them sufficient to receive the halfe files of the Reere, and then stand and face to their Leader. Then the halfe files march up, and even their Front. For the reducement of this Figure, there are (as there are for all the rest) divers waies. But because that it is necessary to shew one, let the halfe files face about to the Reere, and march un­till they are cleere of the Front halfe files, then stand and face to their Leader; then the other halfe files of the Front, close their division, and they are reduced.

CHAP. XXIII.
Of hale-files, doubling the Front by division.

THis doubling hath beene very well approved of by Count Mansfield, Sir Thomas Kelly, Captaine Bing­ham, and divers other souldiers of good esteeme, who preferre these sorts of doublings before any other: because these doublings may be used in time of fight, without disturbance to the other part of the Battell. The Figure stands as it is in motion.

Halfe-files, double your Front by Division.

[figure]

Halfe-files, face about inward. March forth into your places.

[Page 67] The way to performe this motion, is as follow­eth: the halfe-files are to face to the right and left, and to march, untill rhey are cleere of the Reere part of the Front division; then they face to their Leader, and march up, untill they be come even in ranke, with the Front, and so stand: which per­fects this doubling. The way to reduce them is, as followeth. The halfe-files are to face about to the Reere, and to march forth-right untill they are cleere of the Front halfe-files; and then they are to face to the right and left inward; and so to march and close their division; Then being faced to their Leader, they are reduced, as at first.

CHAP. XXIV.
Of doubling the Reere, by Division.

THis next doubling, shall be a dou­bling of the Reere by the Front halfe-files, which will worke the same effect to the Reere, as the last doubling, by division, did to the Front. It may be usefull in the passing of a River, when the enemy chargeth or persueth in the reere. The Front-division either opening, as you may perceive by the Figure (next following) and suffering the Reere halfe-files to passe through them, they maintaining the Skirmish, untill the [Page 46] other have attained the further banke of the River; Or else the Front-halfe-files, being opened to the Right and Left, and Faced upon the Enemy; March gallantly Vp, and receive the Charge, whilest the others provide for themselves. This Motion may also be usefull, when you have gained some place of aduantage, For then by this Doub­ling of the Reere, your Battaile will bee both Lengthened and Strengthened; And so by the suddaine bringing of these Supplies into the Reere you may not onely relieve your owne, but happily overfront your Enemy. The Figure followeth▪

Front-halfe-files double your Reere by Division.

[figure]

Front-halfe-files, Face about to the Right and Left, inward. March fourth into your places,

[Page 69] For the manner or way of this Motion, it may be thus performed: The Front halfe-files Face to the Right, and Left, and march untill they are cleere of the other halfe-files of the Reere; Then they Face to the Reere, and March on, untill they have attained to bee Even in Ranke with them, whom they had Command to Double; which perfects the Doubling. The way to Reduce them, is as followeth: If you keepe your place of the first Front, Then let your Halfe-files▪ Face about, (according to former directions,) and March un­till they are cleere of the Reere Halfe-files, which stand; Then Face to the Right and Left inward, and close their Divisions; And being Eaced all to their Leader, they are Reduced. Sundry, and di­vers ways there are, for Reducement both of this and most other Figures. Neuerthelesse I conceive, if I give one Reducement to each Figure, it may suffice to those that know little; As for such which know better, they know more wayes to the Wood then one: And surely, should I inlarge my selfe, but halfe so much as I might, (and indeed in some things, no more then were needfull) I should then bring my Volume into too great a Bulke, and by the price, hinder some of the profit: But I am wil­lingly silent in some things, whereby others may be the better encouraged by my weaknesses, to take notice of their owne worths, which may in­duce them to put Pen to paper, and thereby pro­duce some worthy worke, which may tend to their Credits, and their Countreys good.

CHAP. XXV.
Of Doubling the Reere intire, by the Front-halfe-files.

THis next doubling, shall be a doubling of the Reere to the Right intire, by the Eront halfe-files; which I intend not fully to expresse: But to deliver the Figure as the Body stands in Motion. For I conceive it better to shew some Figures in the manner of the Motion, then to shew them as they would appeare. The Motion being perfected for the way of the work­ing, gives a great deale more light to the Learner, then to shew the thing absolutely wrought. Nei­ther would I have any thinke, although I shew these varieties of Doublings, and acknowledge them to be of singular good use for the extension of the Length or Depth of any Battaile; but that the wise conduct and skill of the Commander must so order them, that the extending of the Length, doe not too much weaken the Depth; nor that the strengthening of the Depth, be not too great a weakening to the Front or Length of your Battaile. I might give examples how divers great Cōmanders, either by good foresight, or ill over­sight, have gained to themselues and their Coun­treys, [Page 71] Honor and Victory, or losse and slavery. But others have beene very plentifull in examples of this nature, which makes me the more sparing: For my intent is not to write a History of the acti­ons of others; but rather to shew to such as are not so skilfull, The Bostures, Motions, and some few Formes or Figures of Battaile, with their severall Reducements. The Figure of this present Doubling followeth.

Front-halfe-files, double your Reere to the right intire.

[figure]

Front-halfefiles, face about to the Left. March forth into your places.

[Page 72] The manner of this motion (or doubling) is thus to be performed. The Front-halfe-files, Face to the Left, and March untill they are cleere of the Reere-halfe-files: Then Face againe to the Left (which is the Reere) and March outright, untill they Ranke even with the last ranke of the Reere-division; which gives conclusion to the Doubling.

For the reducement. Let your Front-halfe-files, Face about to the Left, and March right foorth untill they [...] cleere of the Reere-halfe-files: Then Face them to the Right, and let them March into their places. Then if the Commander goe to his first Front, and Face them all to him; they are reduced as at first. To double the Reere to the Left intire, may be done after the same manner: onely diffe­ring in the hand.

CHAP. XXVI.
Of doublings by Halfe-rankes intire.

HAving shewed the Particle doublings and the Doublings of Front and Reere intire, and by division▪ I will next shew the doublings of Flankes after the same manner, and will first be­gin with a doubling of the left Flanke, by advancing the right Flanke, and placing it be­fore [Page 73] the Leaders of the left Flanke▪ which is a doub­ling both of Number and Place, and may serve to singular good use for the strengthening of any flank, where it may be needfull: For it makes the Battaile defensible on every part. The Figure, as it is in Mo­tion followeth.

Halfe-rankes of the right, double your left flanke intire to the Right.

[figure]

Halfe-rankes that doubled, face about to the left, March fourth into your places.

[Page 74] If you would have [...] Muskettiers, to double even with the Muskettiers of the contrary Flanke. Then it is no more but thus; cause the halfe Ranks of the right Flanke, to march forth-right (as you may perceive by the Figure) untill the Reere Ranke of the right Flanke be advanced about three foot be­fore the Front of the left Flanke, and then cause that Flanke so advanced, to Countermarch their Rankes to the right. And then also your Musket­tiers will be together, and the Pikes likewise by themselves. The Reducement wil be after the same manner. But for instruction for the Motion, by this figure intended according to the command former­ly given. The left Flanke, stands; the right Flanke marcheth forth right, untill the Reere of the right Flanke be advanced before the Front of the left Flanke▪ as a foresaid▪ Then face them to the left; and cause them to march, untill the Pikes are even in Ranke with the Muskettiers, which perfects the doubling.

For the Reducement: let the halfe Rankes that dou­bled, face about to the left▪ and march, until they are cleere of the left Flanke (or standing part of the Battaile) then cause them to face to the right; and to march strait downe into their places. Then the Leader being at his first From faceth them all to him, which reduceth them as at first. The right Flanke may also double the left Flanke▪ to the left intire: And then as the right Flank in this doubling, came crosse the Front of the left▪ contrariwise they will come crosse the Reere. The left Flanke may double the right Flanke intire; to gether hand in [Page 75] like manner. But by this that hath already been shown▪ the others may be understood. Wherefore I spare the Figures.

CHAP. XXVII.
Of doubling of Flankes, by Division.

THis next doubling, is a doubling of flanks by division, and with­out question, a serviceable doubling, and very usefull, for some occasions: For if you note the figure; and conceive rightly; what it will produce▪ (the motion being ended) it makes a strong forme of battaile, to give fire three severall wayes at once. The figure followeth.

[Page 76] Half-ranks of the left, double your Right Flanke by Division.

[figure]

Half-ranks that doubled, face about inward. March forth into your places.

The motion of this doubling, is thus to, be perfor­med. The Reere-half-files of the left Flanke, face a­bout to the right: and then both the front, half-files, and Reere-half-files, march forth-right; untill they are cleere of that part of the body, that stands: Then each division, faceth that way, which they are to [Page 77] double, (which the Front half-files must doe to the right, the Reere half-files, to the left.) And so march forth-right, untill the doubling be performed. For the Reducement; you are to conceive, it may bee diversly performed: If the Leader, be at the right flanke, (which is the part that was doubled.) Then, the Reducement is, as followeth: The half-rankes that doubled, face about, inward; and march forth-right untill they are cleere of the right flank, which stands; Then, the Front half-files, face to the left: the Reere-half-files to the right, and then close their division. The Leader going to his first front, and fa­cing the whole body to him, they are reduced as at first▪ If that the right flanke, would double the left Flanke, by division; The matter is the same: dif­fering onely in the hand.

CHAP. XXVIII.
Of doubling Rankes intire.

DOubling of ranks to the right in­tire, is a doubling, both of num­ber, and place: and in some sort, worketh the same effect; as the doubling of half- [...]les to the right intire. But differeth first in re­gard of the partias; which are the doublers, and secondly, in the distance, left af­ter [Page 78] the doubling. For the first, (which is matter of dignitie.) The fift and first in honour, are ranked to­gether in the front; the second, and sixt in dignity, make the last ranke in the Reere: So that the Front, precedes. the Reere, ¼ in worth: where­as, in the doubling by half-files, the Front exceeded the Reere, by ⅓: Secondly, it differeth for the di­stance; by leaving open order, at the left, betweene all the ranks. For further satisfaction, observe this figure following.

Double your Ranks to the right intire.

[figure]

Ranks that doubled, face to the left. March forth into your places.

The motion of this doubling, ought to be perfor­med, as followeth, namely, if the doubling be to the right, as is above expressed by this figure: Eve­ry even ranke, faceth to the right. The right hand man of each ranke, becomming the leader of his ranke file-wise: leading them forth, and in their march or moving forwards, a little bending to the [Page 79] left: that when the left hand man of each ranke, (which are the bringers-up of the motion) are cleere of the standing part of the body, by onely facing to the front, they may stand even in ranke, with the rest of the company.

Note, that the left-hand men are the Lea­ders of the motion, in the reducement. For reducement of this doubling: it may be as fol­loweth. Command the ranks that doubled, to face to the left; and march forth-right into their pla­ces. Or for variety, command halfe-ranks of the right, to face to the left, and double the left flanke. Both which, as the company now stand, worke one and the same effect. The left hand men of each ranke, being the leaders of the motion, in the reduce­ment. To double rankes to the left intire; is to be done after the same manner; onely observing the difference of the hand. This doubling, may also be done by division. But I spare the figures.

CHAP. XXIX.
Of doubling Files intire, advancing.

DOubling of files to the right intire, ad­vancing, is (also) a doubling both of number and place: for it increaseth the depth, to double their former pro­portion: of number, as from eight, to sixteene; from ten to twenty, &c.

It also gaineth so much more ground before the front, as formerly the Battell did containe: by [Page 80] transferring the even files of the body, into the ground, before the front of the odde files: but this doubling, diminisheth the number of the length of your battell, although it preserves their place. I spare to speake further of it, onely thus. Let the antiquity of this doubling, plead for it's excellen­cie, and if that may hold for a rule, then this may be ranked amongst the best. For further directi­ons, observe the following Figure.

Double your Files to the right intire, advancing.

[figure]

Files that doubled, face about to the left. March forth forth into your places.

[Page 81] The motion of this doubling, ought to be perfor­med after this manner. The odde files are to stand, beginning your account from the outmost sile, to the hand named. The Musketticrs, and Pikes, of the even files, are to advance their Armes, and fol­low their file-leaders; every file-leader leading his file forth right; before his next file to the right, un­till the bringers up of the even files are orderly pla­ced, before the leaders of the odde files: as you may perceive by the Figure. For reducement: let the files that doubled, face about to the left: the bringers up of each file leading them forth, right downe the Intervales, which are on the left hand; untill they are come even, with the Reere: and then stand, and face to their leader, and they are reduced, as at first. The doubling of files to the left intire, advancing; is after the same manner: It onely▪ differeth in the hand: wherefore I spare the figure. They that love to be curious, may likewise double files, by division, advancing.

CHAP. XXX.
Of Files, doubling their depth.

THis next doubling, is a doubling of the depth, to the right intire: and is like­wise, a doubling of files, as the other last, shewen in the precedent Chap­ter. Being alike, both for number and place: notwithstanding, it differeth from the o­ther, both in manner of executing, and in some sort of the matter executed. For whereas the other doubling, by advancing of files, did transferre all the even-files into the ground before the Front. Contrariwise, this doubling doth transferre them into the ground next behind the Reer. And as in the other doubling, you may perceive halfe the file-lea­ders, to remaine in the Front; the other halfe to be halfe-file leaders. This doubling, hath halfe the file-leaders in the front: the other halfe being the last ranke, of the Reere. Those which were the former Bringers up, being become the two innermost, or middlemost ranks. The figure followeth, being de­monstrated as the body stands; the motion being ended.

[Page 83] Files, double your depth to the Right: every man fal­ling behinde his bringer up.

[depiction of 'files doubling their depth']

Files as you were, or Bringers up, double your Ranks forward, to the left.

The manner of the motion for this doubling; is as followeth. The command being given; files, double your depth to the right intire: every man falling be­hinde his bringer up: then the even files (accounting from the hand named immediately face about to the right, and the bringers up of each of the even [Page 84] files, turne behinde the Bringers up of the odde files, that stand. And so every man, as he commeth down to the Reere, turneth to the left behinde him, that marcheth downe the next before him; untill those that were the leaders of the even files, are be­come the bringers up to those which were the odde files. The reducement is as followeth. Bringers up that now are, double your ranks forward to the left. Which being performed, they are, as at the first. If you would be instructed in the manner, turne backe and see it: where the bringers up double their ranks forward, into the front. It is the fourteenth Chapter.

I have willingly past over another doubling of the depth, because it is much after the manner of that, which is done by advancing file upon file; which is the doubling of the last Chapter. It differeth one­ly thus. In the last figure, the even files marched forth; placing themselves before the odde files. And in this which I have omitted, the even files are to face about, and march forth right towards the reere; untill the file-leaders of the even files, have placed themselves, just behinde the bringers up of the odde files: and then every man to face to his leader. Some have a doubling of the depth by countermarch. Which I conceive scarce worth pen­ning, yet willing to leave every man to his owne liking; & as I do nothing in it, so I'le say nothing of it. There are others that have written concerning doublings of place, nevertheles because they are no­thing, but the opening of ranks & files, wherby length or depth of your battell is extended, and so doubled [Page 85] in place, and not in number. I forbeare to write fur­ther of them, desiring not to treate of such things, which are more curious then necessary.

CHAP. XXXI.
Of Conversion and Inversion, with their words of Command, and Reducements.

ACcording to my promise, I will next shew the difference, betweene Inversion and Conversion: the very names whereof is such a puzzling unto many, that they are more troubled with the words, then the worke. Some are of opinion, that they are both one; differing in let­ter not in matter. Others would have a difference, if they could tell how, or where. But generally, they are so chopt and changed, one for the other; that the Souldier cannot in truth tell which is ei­ther. But that you may not be deceived, take this for a rule: that Inversion doth alwaies produce, file, or files; and Conversion, ranke, or rankes. Inversion con­sists of the files filing, or of rankes filing. Conversion of ranks ranking, to the right or left. Or by increase of files, ranking by even, or uneven parts: and of ranks wheeling, to the right or left. I shall speake further of them in their severall places. But by the way, you are to observe, that Inversion and Con­version, [Page 86] require larger distances of Ground, then any other Motions; which must be, the Officers care, to open the ranks, or files, to such distance as shall be necessary, to containe the rankes or files, so to be Inverted or Converted, whether it be double-distance, or twice double-distance for any other les­ser, or larger quantity of ground. The words of Command, with their severall Reducements, are as followeth.

Inversion.
Files, file one, to theRight,File-leaders, lead up your files as you were,
Left,
Files, file to the right and left by division.
Ranks, file to theRight,Files, ranke as you were.
Left,
Right & left.
Conversion.
Ranks, ranke3, 5, 7, or 9, to the rightRanks, ranke as you were.
4, 6, 8, or 10, to the left
by increase 2. 4. 6. 8. &c. to the right
by increase 1. 3. 5. 7. &c. to the left
intire to the right into the front
intire into the left into the front
by division into the front
Ranks, wheele to theRight
Left
Right and Left

[Page 87]

Files, rank3, 5, 7, or 9. to the rightRanks, file as you were.
4, 6, 8, or 10. to the left
by increase to the right, 1, 3, 5, 7, &c.
by increase to the left, 2, 4, 6, 8, &c.
to the rightinto the front.
to the left

To avoid the words of Inversion, and Conversion, I have delivered the directions, with once naming either of them. Onely I have exprest the six first words of Command, to be Inversion, and these last sixteen, to be Conversion. For I conceive it; not to be so necessary, to adde to every word of Com­mand, Inversion, or Conversion. For by so doing, the unlearned, and ignorant Souldier will be so transported, with the strangnesse of the word; that he will scarce, by any meanes be made, capable of the matter: For my own part, I have ever held this opinion: that the easiest expressions, are ever to be preferred in the way of instruction, to young Souldiers. I might have much inlarged my self, in the words of direction, concerning this subject: but these being perfectly attained; others by practice, wil be gained. I at the first intēded, to have drawn figure, for every one of these words, of Command: but I have better considered, that some of them will require, so much roome: and againe are so easie to be understood without their figures; that I conceive, I may both spare the pains, and cost; and onely deliver the figures of some few of them, which will be the most necessary. And for the o­thers [Page 88] I will expresse in words, what they will pro­duce, in figure.

CHAP. XXXII.
Of Files, filing in sequence.
The Command is, Files, file on to the right.

Inversion. TO performe this word of Com­mand, or Direction. The right hand file, marcheth away sin­gle; The second file from the right, falleth into the Reere of the first. The third, behind the second; The fourth, behind the third. And so consequently, all the rest of the files; fall into the Reere of their next right-hand-files, untill all the whole Company, become one file. It may bee usefull, to passe some narrow bridge, or thicket, or else-where; where but one, at once can passe: the Commander being willing, to preserve his files, intire▪ and whole. The way for the Reducement, may be after this manner. The place being convenient, every file-leader, is to lead up his file, to the left of him, that marcheth before him; untill all the file-leaders, are even in ranke to­gether: their files orderly following them. The [Page 89] word for the Reducement; is, File-leaders, Lead up your files as you were: For files, to file on in sequence, to the left; may be performed, after the same man­ner: but differeth in the hand. Yet works the same effect; only, the right-hand-file-leader, led the other: and the elft-hand-file, fell last of all into the Reere. This, contrariwise', is led forth by the left-hand-file: and the right-hand-file, is the last, that taketh place, in the Reere of the extended file.

Files, file to the Right and Left by Division.

This files filing by division; is wrought after the same manner: but differeth in this; That the right-hand-file of the Company, and the left-hand-file of the same, begin to lead forth at one, and the same time in their severall places. The files of the right flanke fal­ling likewise, behind the Right-hand-file: the files of the left flanke, falling in like manner, behind the left-hand-file. So, that if the body be flankt with Muskettiers; then this filing by division, bringeth all the Musket­tiers into the front-division: and the Pikes in the Reere of them. If there be an odde file, it most com­monly falleth to the right. The word for Reduce­ment is; File-leaders lead up your files as you were. This sort of Inversion, is called filing in sequence. I will now shew another sort of Inversion, which is by Ranks filing. The which I will demonstrate un­to you, by two figures, which will be sufficient, to instruct the desirous.

CHAP. XXXIII.
Of inverting Rankes; or Rankes filing.

THis following figure of Inversion, is of Ranks, filing to the right; where all the Ranks are to be inverted, into the out-most-file to the right; For the do­ing whereof, let all your files, be closed to their order, or close order; as shall bee thought most necessary: the ranks opened, either forward, or backward, to double-distāce, or twice dou­ble-distance, (more or lesse) as the Commander shall see most convenient, according to his number. Having closed your files, and opened your ranks, un­to their due distance; then, let every ranke, move after his right-hand-man, untill every ranke stand right in file, after the right-hand-leader of his rank. In this figure, I have onely opened the foure first ranks to their distance, and inverted but two of the foure. By which it may easily be perceived, both the manner of the worke, and the matter which is to be wrought. But if the Commander will performe it upon a March; then they shall not need to open to any distance, but to take their distance, in the execu­tions which is the easiest way, and will be thus performed. The right-hand-man of the first ranke, marcheth forth right; all his ranke facing to the right, and marching file-wise after him. The right-hand-man, [Page] of the Se­cond ranke, falling im­mediately after the left hand-man of the First ranke, all his ranke in like manner following of him. The right-hand-man of the Third ranke, after the left-hand-man of the Se­cond; his ranke like­wise following of him. And so for all the rest, untill they are all become one file.

Ranks, file to the right.

[figure]
[figure]
[figure]

Files, Ranke as ye were.

Place this Figure in Chapter 33. betweene folio 90, and 91.

This Rankes fileing, is sooner performed, and reduced; then Files file­ing: and in the Reduce­ment will presently be ready to make resi­stance, against any op­position in the Front. Whereas if Files, file; it will be a great while before the File-leaders will be able to make [Page 90] [...] [Page 91] good the Front: The manner of the Reducement of this figure, is as followeth. If they were Eight men, before in ranke, then the first Eight men, ranke to the Left, into the front. The next Eight men, ranke next after them, which makes the second ranke. The third Eight men, ranking to the left, make the third ranke. And so forward for the rest, untill they are reduced, as at the first. But it may be, that some will object; That in this figure, there is mix­ture of Armes; which if they will avoyd, they may either March forwards their Muskettiers of each division, and close them before the Pikes; and invert them first. Or they may March forwards their Pikes first, and leave their Muskettiers to come in the Reere. Or if they please, they may upon a long March, first invert the front-division of Muskettiers: then their Pikes, and last the Reere-division of Mus­kettiers; which way so ever it be done. The Word for the reducement will be, Files, ranke as you were.

Rankes, file to the Left, is performed after the same manner. It differeth from this last done, but onely in the hand. And whereas the Right-hand-file-Lea­der, was the Leader of the last, this would be led by the left-hand-file-Leader: The left-hand-Leader of each ranke, leading forth his ranke file-wise, as be­fore it was performed; but to the contrary hand. I spare the figure,

CHAP. XXXIIII.
Of Rankes filing by division: and how vsefull.

THis next figure of Inversion, is Rankes filing by division is a doubling of the depth, by un­equall proportion. For whereas in most of all other doublings, the Number of the Length, or Depth is augmented, but to double their former proportion of Number: this doubling of Inversion, makes their Depth so many times more in num­ber, as there are files to double. Or halfe so many times, if it be done by Division, as in the next fol­lowing figure. It hath beene, of ancient use, a­mongst the old Grecians: and in these our latter times, it hath beene held of speciall use, to avoyd the shot of the great Ordnance, when of necessity we are to march against any Battery. It hath also been held good, to prevent the eminent danger of some great shower of small shot, likely to be powred out upon the Front of your Battalia. It may also serue for an Honourable passage, large interualle, street, or gallery, (as some call it) for any great Perso­nage, or Commander to passe through. It is also of common use, for the lodging of the Colours, or En­signe. And many other such like.

[Page] Rankes, file to the Right and Left; by division.

[figure]

Files, ranke as you were.

Place this Figure in Chapter 34. betweene folio 92, and 93.

[...]

[Page 93] For instruction how to performe this Motion, It is the same with the last figure; differing onely in this; That as in the other figure, all the whole rankes turned to the right, behind their right-hand-men: In this Motion, the left-flanke, (or halfe-rankes to the left) fall into the outmost file to the left: The halfe-rankes to the right, behind their severall right-hand-men: as you may perceive in part by the figure. I have shewen the figure, in the manner of the action, not fully performed: The pricks ranke­wise, denoting the places, from whence they came: The Quarter-circles, shewing the way of the Mo­tion: The prickes file-wise, directing, or shewing their Places they are going too.

For reducement to the figure: it is no more then this. The Rankes which before inverted into files, now againe convert into rankes, as they were. The word of Command for it, is, Files, ranke to the right and left inward, as you were.

I hope, this that hath already been shewen, will be sufficient, (at least in some small measure) to give satisfaction to those, which as yet have not knowne what is meant by Inversion. Yet I could wish, that such as exercise the Companies of the Trained-Bands of this Kingdome; would rather make use of the plainer word of demonstration; which is, Rankes, file, or Files, file: and leave out the word Inversion, as a word not sutable with the Ca­pacity of divers of our Souldiers of the Trained-Bands. Especially of this City, where Porters, Colliars, Water-bearers, and Broomemen, are [Page 94] thrust into the roomes of men, of better quality, as though they themselves were too good, to doe the King and Country service.

CHAP. XXXV.
Of the severall parts of Conversion: and how they-are to be understood.

THe next branch of Discipline which I offer to your view, shall be of Conversion: and of its severall parts: wherein if there be any that thinke me tedious; let them turne it over, and settle on some other part, which may be to them more delectable: whilest I, in the meane time, shall endeavour to give content to all, neither stuffing out my booke with needlesse discourses; nor yet too much abbreviating the matter, whereby to render it too obscure unto the commonest ca­pacity. Wherefore take their parts as they hereaf­ter follow.

Conversion consists of these parts, viz. OfRanks rankingin equall parts1
in unequall parts2
intire into the Front3
by division into the Front4
by wheeling to the Flanks5
Files rankingby equall parts6
by unequall parts7
intire into the Front.8

[Page 95] First of ranks ranking, in even or equall parts. Which is to be understood, when there are twelve, or twenty, (more or lesse) marching abreast, and the Commander (either for the narrownesle of a passage, or for some other intent) causeth his rankes to ranke three or sixe abreast, or five, ten, or any other number, ei­ther according to the place, or occasion; every ranke hol­ding equality of number.

Secondly, rankes then ranke by unequall parts: when they ranke by increase or decrease. As when the first ranke shall be three, the next five, then se­ven, nine, &c. which is commonly used, for the making of Diamond, and Triangular figures.

Thirdly, ranks then ranke intire, into the front: when the first ranke stands: the second ranke placeth it selfe on the right or left of the first: the third by the second, the fourth by the third, and so forward for all the rest, untill all the rankes, (either to the right or left) according to direction are become one ranke in the front.

Fourthly, rankes then ranke by division into the front, when the second ranke, and all the rest of the rankes behinde, open to the right and left: the one part going to the right, the other to the left; rank­ing even with the first, as before, and all together making one ranke.

Fiftly, Ranks, then ranke to the flanke or flankes; when either the right hand man of each ranke, or the left hand man (or both together) are as it were the Hindge of the motion, the rest of each ranke wheeling about them, to the right or left, or each hand by divi­sion▪ untill that every ranke be brought into the di­stance [Page 96] which was before the ranke; betweene the right hand-man, of the ranke next before, and the right hand-man of the same ranke you stand in. If it be to the left, then they wheele into the distance between the left-hand-leaders of each ranke. If it be by divi­sion, then halfe the ranke wheeleth to the right: the other halfe to the left, and produceth two rankes.

Sixthly, Files, then rankes by equall parts: when they rank three, foure, or five, abrest (more or lesse) still keeping the number of men in ranke, of due proportion. If you ranke three abrest (either to the right or left) and your files be but eight deepe; then the first sixe men make two rankes, the third ranke must be made up by the leader of the second file. And so for all the rest. If you ranke foure, and the files be eight deepe, then every file makes two rankes. If you ranke five, the files being 8 deep, then the first five men make a ranke: and the first two men of the second file from the hand named, make up the second ranke. Five of the other sixe, make up the third ranke. And so forward for the rest. If the depth of the file were ten men, then it would make two even rankes.

Seventhly, Files then ranke by unequall parts: when they either ranke by progressionall increase, or by decrease. As when every ranke exceeds the ranke before it, by two▪ three, or foure, be it more or lesse. Or else that each ranke decreaseth, after the same manner.

Eightly, Files then ranke intire into the front; when there is so much distance betweene file and file, as will containe each file, ranke-wise: every man in [Page 97] the file marching forwards to the right or left, as shall be commanded, untill he stand even in ranke, with the leader of his file, which brings the body into one ranke.

CHAP. XXXVI.
Of Rankes wheeling by Conversion.

IF I would strive to bee curious, I should need no other subject to lengthen my discourse, but onely this, of Inversion and Conversion, which of it selfe would yeeld mat­ter sufficient to make a Booke of. But I have taken a large taske. And therefore like the Artists in Ge­ography, who sometimes by a spot, present a Town, and by a wrinckled line, a large River: so must I crave of the favourable Reader, that in this small Treatise of Discipline, he will not expect that I should inlarge my selfe so amply, as I might, upon every part. For then my booke would grow be­yond his bounds, and I beyond my promise; but lest I be taxed for digression, this that hath alrea­dy beene shewne, may suffice for Conversion. But because it may be expected, that I should shew Conversion in Figure, as well as the other Motions, therefore to gratifie such, I shall demonstrate two [Page 98] Figures unto them: which may serve for all the rest. The one shall be of rankes wheeling, by Conver­sion: the other of files ranking, foure to the left. The word of command for the first, stands placed right over the figure.

[Page] Rankes, wheele to the right and left by division

[figure]

Place this Figure in Chapter 36. betweene folio 98. and 99.

[...]

[Page 99] This foregoing figure of Conversion, is of Rankes, wheeling to the right and left, or ranks ranking to each flanke by wheeling. It differeth from ranks filing, both in manner and matter. In the manner thus, Whereas in ranks filing to the right and left; the right and left-hand file-leaders, preserve and conti­nue their places; and with that, their honours. In this wheeling by Conversion to the right and left, con­trariwise: the innermost file-leaders, become the outmost men in that pure where the front stood; the other file-leaders ranking even within them. Some men have called this, Rankes, filing by Conversion, to the right and left, but corruptly. For conversion alwaies produceth rankes, as I formerly said: and inversion, files. But their mistake groweth from this, that when rankes wheele to the right, or right and left, then (say they) they by wheeling, become file, or files, which is a palpable mistake. For when we have any command for wheeling, it is a maxime for us, to wheele our aspects unto the hand or part na­med. By which doing, we either become ranke, or rankes: and not files, as some have sought former­ly to maintaine. One use, among many, for this motion is. It is the speediest way for a great body (if they have their due distance) to give fire to one, or both flanks, that as yet I know of. The way to performe this motion, is as followeth. The right and left-hand-men, of every ranke, became the Hindges of the motion: the rest of each ranke, whee­ling by equall division, to the right and left about, and above their right and left-hand Leaders, untill they become ranks to the flanks. As you may per­ceive [Page 100] by the Figure, where the pricks denote unto you, the places they stood in before the moti­on: the quarter circles, shewing the way of their mo­tion: themselves being converted into two ranks, sheweth the motion executed. I have onely conver­ted three of the rankes; for it would have taken too much roome, to have wheeled all the ranks. And it is easie by this that is shewne, to conceive the rest. If you would avoid mixture of Armes, then place all your Muskettiers, either in Front, or Reere: or else wheele onely your Muskettiers, and leave your Pikes, standing. Or else it may be done; the body marching at length: the Muskettiers being in the front, and reere Divisions. The word for the re­ducement is; rankes, ranke as you were.

The easiest way for the reducement, will be first for to face to the reere, and then to wheele backe into their places. Then, face to their leader; and they will be reduced as at first. Now we will come to shew the next figure of Conversion, which is of files converted into ranks by equall proportion.

CHAP. XXXVII.
Of Files ranking in equall parts.

IN this Chapter, I intend to shew the manner, of files ranking by Conversion, in equall parts; which Motion, I have seene u­sed by some Commanders, at such times as their Companies have been but small, having not had above two or three files of Muskettiers, upon a flanke; and being willing, to march forth their Companies in divisions: And this, because, that two a brest would be somwhat improper (un­lesse it were upon necessity, in some narrow pas­sage) and that three a brest, is also somewhat with the thinnest. Therefore to augment the front of their march, they have shartned somewhat of their depths, in each division: by causing their files, to ranke foure, or five, according as their depth may be, when the Command shall be given. This Motion of Conversion, may also be usefull for larger bodies. For if upon a March, you are to passe thorough some streight, where not above foure or five, can march a brest; and that being past thorough, you are to direct your course, to the right, or left: If [Page 102] your way be to the right, then cause your files to ranke to the left: If to the left, then let the files ranke to the contrary hand. For by so doing; ha­ving past the streight, and faced your body that way, which you intend your March, by commanding the File-leaders to march; and the half-files to stand, and take their places: your body will be led again by their proper file-leaders, all a brest; the Musketiers becomming again the Flankers, which in the pas­sage of the streight, were in the Front and Reere. For the better understanding the manner of the Motion, observe the following figure.

[Page 013] Files, ranke foure to the left.

[figure]

[Page 104] The way to performe this Motion, is as follow­eth. The Command being first given (as abovesaid) the right-hand-file-leader, leadeth forth his file: & the three next men behind him, move forwards to the left of each other; untill they ranke even a brest with their file-leader. The next foure, in like manner ranking to the left, make the second ranke. The file-leader of the second file, placeth himselfe, next after him, that was the half-file-leader of the first, which now is become the right-hand-man of the second ranke; the three next men behind him, making up of his rank, in like manner. And so for­ward for all the rest, untill the Motion be fully per­fected. This converts each file, into two ranks; and brings all the proper file-leaders, and half-file-leaders, to make the outmost file to the right: the Bringers-up, both of the Front, and Reere-half-files; make the outermost file to the left. The figures of Number, which are on the left flanke of the figure, in which, the word file added to each of them, demonstrate places of the first, second, third, and fourth file, and so consequently for all the rest; according to their former standing, and the places they now occupy, being converted into ranks. The letters f, and h, which are placed on the right flanke; shewes the places of those, which were the file-leaders, and half-file-leaders: each of the propex file-leaders, ha­ving now his half-file-leader, next after him▪ I have showne this figure partly performed partly perfor­ming, and partly standing, as before the Motion be­gan.

[Page 105] For reducement, of this Motion of files ranking, foure to the left: One way is, to cause your ranks to file, (or invert) to the right, which being done, Command every File-leader, to lead up his file to the left: and so every man will have his place: For another way, Face the whole body to the right, and command the File-leaders to march, and half-files to stand, and take their places: and then they are all reduced, onely the file-leaders of the right-flanke, are on the left; and the file-leaders of the left-flanke, are on the right: which is reduced, by any entire Countermarch, of ranke, or file.

CHAP. XXXVIII.
The conclusion of doublings.

THere are yet another sort of Doublings, both of length and depth, which are performed by divisionall wheelings. Which because they have ever been accounted for wheelings, I will not displace them; but stil rank them in their former places: although in truth they are doublings. The working part indeed is whee­ling; but the intent, or thing wrought, is Doubling. I will speake further of them, when I come to shew [Page 106] them, in their severall places. And here I mean to set a Period to our Doublings. Concluding, that those Souldiers, who can put every one of these to his right use; as also give to each his right reduce­ment, must needs be skilfull, and expert, in this part, of the Art Military. And contrariwise, they that are ignorant in these Doublings; can never tru­ly attain, to the right managing of a Foot-company, either for exercise, or service. For doublings, indeed, are the only Motions, for varicty and alteration of figures, or formes of battaile: No other Motions do­ing the like. And therefore Doublings, must needs be accounted the most excellent amongst all the Motions.

You that have eyes to read, and skill to judge;
And have perus'd these doublings I have done:
Though I have tedious been, yet do not grudge:
For you know well, I have skipt over some.
But marvell not: the cause I do not show them,
It is not much materiall for to know them.
Those that are Skilfull in the Art of Warre,
And take delight to exercise their men:
Shall find more pleasure in these doublings farre,
If that they intermixe them now and then.
And so contrive their doublings in these cases,
That lastly one word brings them to their places.
Why in our Country do we Captains chuse,
That have no skill nor artfull inclination?
They do themselves and Country much abuse:
Thus to deceive them in their expectation.
I thinke the Cause of this fault in our Nation
Is, that our Gentry holds it not in fashion.
But some, perhaps, will say, I am too bold;
There's no such need for Captains to have skill.
The Muster-masters have enough (some hold)
The Captains and the Counties for to fill.
So whilest the Muster-master doth the labour.
The Officers may play upon a Tabour.
But stay! me thinks, one puls me by the sleeve:
And tels me that I have my selfe forgot.
Wherefore of doublings, here I take my leave:
Intreating those that read, mistake me not.
Let Muster-masters take their money, then;
But let the Captains exercise their men.

CHAP. XXXIX.
Of Countermarches. Their Antiquity, and words of direction.

THe next branch of Discipline which offers it selfe to your perusall, are Coun­termarches: which are of three kinds. To wit, Chorean, Lacedamonian, Macedonian: which is, Maintaining, Loosing, and Gaining. Each of them are to be performed two manner of waies. One by File: the other by Ranke.

There are also Counter-marches, Intire and Divi­sionall. But divers men, are divers for their opini­ons concerning the Macedonian and Lacedamonian Counter-marches. Some will have the Macedoni­an, A Counter-march of gaining of ground; be­cause that it transfers the Battalia, into the ground before the Front. Others will have it, A Coun­ter-march of losse of ground; because (say they) the Enemy being in the Reere, it makes a semblance of flying. Some will have the Lacedamonian, A Counter-march of gaining of ground: because the Enemy appearing in the Reere, it makes a semblance of Charging or falling on. Others call it, A Coun­termarch of losse of ground: because it looseth all [Page 109] that ground the Battalia stood upon; taking in stead thereof, the ground behind the Reere. There are others of opinion, That there are Counter-marches of losse and gaine, in either of them. All these are furnished with reasons, to backe their opi­nions. But if I should stand to shew their many and severall reasons, I might well be thought to be without reason my selfe. My opinion is; That taking the ground before the Front, is gaining ground: and that to leave the ground we stood on, to take the ground next behind the Reere, is losse of ground: And yet to take either, whereby there is advantage gotten, must needs be gaining. But where the matter it selfe is so indifferent, it were fondnesse to spend longer time about it. Where­fore note, That Countermarches were of ancient use amongst the Greekes many hundred of yeeres since, & from them learned and practised, by many other Nations; and so still continued unto this day. But as the Snow-ball by much rowling, becomes the greater: So, in like manner, these Counter-marches have received addition in all ages. So that the three originall ones are now become more then thirty accounting those divisionall. And yet are all of them fathered upon one or other, of the three kinds. Though some of them will scarcely be owned or acknowledged; as you shall perceive, when I come to shew them in their severall places. But amongst all the Motions, this might be the best spared: as being least beneficiall, to this our moderne Discipline. But because that knowledge is no burthen; and that at some times they may be usefull: There­fore [Page 110] first take the words of command or direction, which are as followeth.

Intire Countermarches, by file.
  • Chorean.
    Files to the
    • right
    • left
      • hand countermarch.
  • Lacedemon.
    Files to the
    • light
    • left
      • countermarch, every man turning on the ground he stands.
  • Macedon.
    File-leaders, face about to the
    • right
    • left
      • the rest passe through to the
        • right,
        • left,
  • and place your selues behind your Leaders.
  • Bastard Coun­termarch.
    File-leaders stand; the rest passe through to the your Leaders.
    • right
    • left
      • placing your selues before
  • Bast.Count.
    File-leaders stand, the rest passe through to the
    • right
    • left
      • placing your selues before your Leaders; following your Bringers up.
  • Lacedemon.
    Bringers up, face about to the
    • right:
    • left:
      • the rest passe through
  • to the
    • right
    • left
      • and place your selues before your bringers up.
  • Lacedemon.
    Bringers up, stand: the rest of the Body passe through to the
    • right
    • left
      • placing your selues behinde your bringers up.
Intire Countermarches by Ranks.
  • Cretan or Chorean Lacedemonian
    Ranks to the
    • right
    • left
      • Countermarch.
  • Ranks to the
    • right
    • left
      • countermarch, every man turning on the ground he stands.
  • [Page 111] This right hand file, face to the left: the rest passe Macedonian. through to the right: placing your selues behind your right hand men.
  • This left hand file may face to the right, and do as much.
  • This
    • light
    • left
      • hand file stand; the rest passe through to the
        • right,
          B. A Counter­march.
        • left,
  • placing your selues on the our side of your
    • right
    • left
      • hand men.
  • This
    • right
    • left
      • hand file face to the
        • right,
        • left,
          • the rest passe
            Lacedemonia
            through to
  • the
    • right,
    • left,
      • placing your selues before your
        • right
        • left
          • hand men.
Divisionall Countermarches, by Files.
  • Cretan or Chorean Bast. Counter­march.
    Countermarch front and [...]e cre into the midst.
  • File-leaders, and halfe-file-leaders, stand; the rest passe through to the right, and place your selues before your Leaders.
  • Lacedemonia,
    File-leaders, and Bringers up, stand; the rest passe through to the right: and place your selues be­fore your Leaders and Bringers up.
  • Macedonian.
    File-leaders, face about; Bringers up, stand; the rest passe through to the Right; and place your selues behinde your Leaders and Bringers up.
  • Bast. Count.
    Front-halfe-files, interchange ground with the Reere.
Divisionall Countermarches by ranks.
  • Chorean or Cretan.
    Countermarch your (wings or) Flanks into the [Page 112] middest (or Center).
  • Lacedemoniā.
    The out-most-file of each Flanke, face outward▪ the rest passe through to the right and left; pla­cing your selues behinde your out-side men.
  • Macedonian.
    The out-most file of each Flanke, face inward: the rest passe through to the right and left; placing your selues behinde your outside men.
  • Bast. Counter.
    The out-most file of each flanke, stand: the rest passe through to the right and left, and place your selues on the outside of your outside men. Interchange your Flanks.

Note, what is done by the out most files, may be reduced by converting the command to the innermost files; but must be done before they have closed their divisions, &c.

CHAP. XL.
Of the Chorean Countermarch: and the way to performe it.

I Could willingly have prickt a Fi­gure, for each of these severall coun­termarches, The distance for Counter march is, sixe foot, or open order in ranke and file. but that they will take up too much roome. And therefore I will onely pricke some few of the hardest of them; and for the rest, I will endeavour by words to make them as facile as I may: that so they may be apprehended by the meanest capaci­tie. [Page 113] And first I will begin with the (Persian, Cretan, or) Chorean Countermarch. The word of Command or Direction is,

Files to the Right hand, Countermarch.

Note, that when there is a Counter­march com­manded with­out any other addition; then it is alwayes intended, a Chorean coun­termarch. This Chorean Countermarch, is by some called the Moderne Countermarch. I conceive their reason to be, because that it is more in use than any of the other: Or else, for antiquitie, it might claime ma­ny ages. It is a Countermarch for maintaining of ground: for it worketh its effect, on the same ground it stands; neither loosing nor gaining. But it trans­ferres the file-leaders, into the place of the bringers up: and the bringers up, into the place of the file-leaders: withall turning the aspect of the body or battalia, to the Reere. The way to performe this motion, is as followeth. Assoone as the word of com­mand is given, if it be to the right, then all the file-leaders step forwards with their right legges, and face about to the right: every file-leader with his file following him, passing downe towards the Reere, through the intervall on his right hand, still observing, to keepe even in ranke with his right hand man. But by the way, note that no man must turne, untill he come to the ground where at first his file-leader began the Countermarch. This motion is then performed, when the bringers up, have attained unto the place where before their file-leaders stood: being faced right after them; Files, countermarch to the left.

To countermarch to the left, worketh the same [Page 114] effect; and is done after the same manner: onely differing in the hand.

For reducement, if you countermarch to the right; do as much to the left: and they will be as they were. For any intire countermarch of files, will be reduced (of what kinde soever) by making another intire countermarch, to what hand soever.

CHAP. XLI.
Of Countermarching to loose Ground.

The Command is.
Files to the Right, Countermarch: every man turning after his Leader, on the Ground he stands.

Lacedemoniā. THis Lacedemonian countermarch, is a Countermarch of losse of ground; for that it leaves all the ground the Batta­lia formerly did conteine, and in lieu or place thereof taketh the ground behinde the Reere. This Countermarch is to be performed, when the Bodie is upon a stand. And as the Chorean, turnes the Aspect towards the Reere. The Greekes were wont with this Countermarch, to bring their file-leaders to oppose any enemie, appearing in the Reere: thereby gallantly bearding their ene­mies [Page 115] in the teeth: neither politickly making shew of flight, whereby to bring the enemie into disarray; nor over providently carefull, of the advantage of ground. The motion of this Countermarch, is to be performed as followeth. The file-leaders of each file, are to step side wayes to the right, and there­withall to face about to the reere; and so march even in ranke together downe betweene theAn Intervall is the space of ground be­tweene fils & file, or ranke and ranke; but in this place, is intended the space of ground be­tweene the files. Intervalls, no man advancing a foot forwards, but turning in like manner after their leaders, when they are past by them; still observing to keep their due distance. And so a whole ranke together, still turning off to the right, each Ranke successively doing the like, untill the Countermarch be fully performed. Any intire countermarch of files, will reduce this. But for order sake, take one of the same sort to the contra­ry hand, which is.

Files to the left, Countermarch: every man turning after his Leader, on the ground he stands.

I shall not need to speake further, concerning this Countermarch of losse of ground to the left; seeing that it differs from the other onely in the alteration of the hand. The substance and effect of both, being one and the same: onely I will now speake to a se­cond fort of Countermarch, which is of the same kinde. The Command is.

Bringers up, face about to the Right, the rest passe through to the Reere, and place your selues before your Bringers up.

Lacedemoniā. This Lacedemonian Countermarch doth also loose the ground, whereon it formerly stood, and takes the ground behinde the Reere, the manner of the motion is as followeth: The last ranke or Bringers up face to the Reere, and stand: the rest of the Body fa­cing about in like manner, and passing through or betweene their bringers up, and placing themselues even in ranke before them. The motion is begun, by the ranke, next the bringers up, and so continued; successively by the rest, untill the Countermarch be ended. It may be reduced, by doing the same to the contrary hand. Neverthelesse for brevity sake, I will make use of a sprigge, from the same bough, and reduce this Lacedemon countermarch, by ano­ther of the same kinde. The Command is,

Bringers up, stand, the rest passe through to the Right, and place your selues behind your Bringers up.

Lacedemonian. This Lacedemonian countermarch, is thus to be performed; the last ranke (or bringers up) are to stand; and the rest of the body, to face to the Reere, and passe through to the Right, and place them­selues behinde their bringers up, contrary to the countermarch last showne, where they placed them­selues before. The motion is also begun, by the se­cond ranke from the reere, the rest following suc­cessively, untill the file-leaders are become the Bringers up: Then face them about after their pro­per file-leaders, and they are reduced.

CHAP. XLII.
Of Countermarches to gaine ground, or the Macedonian Counter-march.

The Command is, File-leader face about to the right, the rest passe through to the right, and place your selves behinde your Leaders.

Macedonian. THis Macedonian Counter-march, is for gaining ground, for that it leaues the ground, the Battalia formerly stood upon, taking in lieu thereof, the ground next before the front. It also turnes the aspect towards the reere. The moti­on of this Counter-march is from the reere to the front, contrary to the Lacedemon, whose motion is from the front to the reere: This Macedonian Coun­ter-march, makes semblance in the reere of flight, but presently produceth an orderly settled front, when perhaps the enemy, with a too early pursuit, hath broken the order of their array.

The way to performe this Counter-march▪ accor­ding to the directions formerly given, is as fol­loweth: The file-leaders or first ranke, face about to the right: the rest of the body passe through, be­tweene the Intervalles, (or distance of files) to the [Page 118] left: and place themselves behinde their leaders; every ranke (beginning with that next the file lea­ders) passing through successively, and taking their places, untill the Counter-march be fully executed. It may be reduced as the rest, by doing the same to the contrary hand, or as I have formerly said, by any intire counter-march of file; and therefore I will reduce it by another Macedonian counter-march. The command is, as followeth.

File-leaders face to the Reere, the rest of the body passe through to the left, following your bringers up, pla­cing your selves behinde your leaders.

Macedonian. This Macedonian counter-march is rather remem­bred for its antiquity, then excellencie, (as some more of them be) neverthelesse if any will be curi­ous to observe the motion, it may be performed as followeth: The first ranke (or file-leaders) face to the reere, then the last ranke begin the counter-march, passing forwarde betweene the Intervalls, the seventh ranke following the eighth, the sixt fol­lowing the seventh, and so likewise the rest, untill the whole body be transferred, into the ground be­fore the front, and then joyntly together, facing to the right about, after their leaders, the counter mar­che is ended. For reducement, observe this for all; that any intire countermarch of file, may be redu­ced, by another intire counter-march by file, of what kinde, or to what hand soever.

These three last Chapters of counter-marches, are the originall grounds of all the rest, yet I shall [Page 119] shew one in the insuing Chapter, which time hath begotten out of the latter two, which takes part with either, being absolute in neither.

CHAP. XLIII.
Of the Bastard counter-march.

The Command is, File-leaders stand, the rest passe through to the right, and place your selves before your Leader.

Bastard Counter-march. THis passing through, (or bastard counter-march) is partly Macedonian, and partly Lacedemonian; for first with the Macedon, it takes the ground before the front, the motion be­ing from the reere forward: it is partly Lacedemoni­an, for that they passe through, and place them­selves before their Leaders, and for that it makes semblance of falling on, or charging the enemy: neverthelesse the Macedonian disclaimes it, for that it alters not his aspect: The Lacedemonian refuseth it, for that it takes the ground before the front, and not that behinde the reere: or with the Chorean, it holds affinitie. And many there be that will not allow it for a countermarch, for indeed the word it selfe will not beare it; notwithstanding seeing that it hath beene long ranged amongst them, I will not be he that shall displace it, but will passe for­wards, to shew the manner of the motion, which is [Page 120] to be performed as followeth. The file-leaders stand, according to the former direction, the rest of the body, advance their armes; the second ranke first passing through to the right, and placing themselves before the first ranke, the third ranke before the second; the fourth before the third, and so forwards for the rest, untill the last ranke (or bringers up) are become the foremost, which perfects the motion. It may be severally use­full, as to skirmish against an enemy, advancing by way of introduction, or upon occasion, to bring the reere, men to march in front, and such like. For the reducement, you may doe, as much to the contrary hand, onely for order sake, I will reduce it, by ano­ther like it selfe. The Command is,

File-leaders stand, the rest passe through to the right, placing your selves before your Leaders, following your bringers up.

Bastard Counter­march. This motion may be done either to the right or left, and is nothing differing from that last shewne; but that, whereas the other, began with the second ranke, this contrariwise begins with the last ranke, (or bringers up) every ranke successively, following the ranke, which came from behinde them, untill they which were the leaders, are become the last in the reere. If this countermarch be first done, it may be reduced by any of those formerly shewn, &c.

CHAP. XLIV.
Of countermarching ranks, to maintaine ground.

The Command is.
Ranks to the right hand countermarch.

Chorean THis Chorean counter-march of rankes, is an altering or changing of one flanke for the other, the Battalia still keeping the same ground, one­ly the right flanke becomes the left, and the left, be­comes the right: The way to performe this motion, is as followeth: the command being given, then the whole body faceth to the hand named, and every man in the outmost file, to the right: (files by this facing, being become rankes) turnes down through the Intervalle, (or distance betweene ranke and ranke) marching forth right unto the part, which was the left flanke, with their rankes, file-wise fol­lowing them, being come unto their ground, they face as before, and the counter-march is performed: for the reducement, let rankes countermarch to the left, after the same manner, differing onely in the hand, and they are as at first.

CHAP. XLV.
Of Countermarching Rankes to lose Ground.

The Command is.
Rankes to the right-hand Countermarch, every man turning after his right-hand-man, on the ground he stands.

Lacedemonian. THis Lacedemonian-Countermarch of Rankes, is a falling on upon the left Flanke: the Motion being begun by the right; It leaves all the ground, the Battalia stood on, and takes in place therof the ground beside the left Flanke, turning the Aspect to the left: The manner or way, to performe this Motion, is as followeth: The whole Bodie faceth to the right; and then the right-hand-file being faced, (becomes a Ranke) be­gins the Countermarch, turning downe the Inter­vals of the Ranks, (which by this facing, is made the distance between the Files) and so marcheth forth-right, beyond the left Flanke, every man fol­lowing him that was his right-hand-man (but not stepping forwards one foot of ground) untill the Countermarch be performed. For the reducement of [Page 123] this Countermarch, do as much to the left, and they will he as at first: Or (if you please) take another of the same kind; The word of Command, or dire­ction is.

Right-hand-file, face to the right, the rest passe through to the right, and place your selves before your right-hand-men.

Lacedemonian. THis Lacedemonian Countermarch of ranks, makes a falling on upon the right Flanke, the Motion be­ing from the left Flanke, to the right, leaving all the ground whereon the Battalia stood, and taking in lieu thereof the ground beside the right Flanke. In those dayes; when Countermarches were more usefull for their Discipline, then now they are for ours; the Lacedemonian Countermarches were of chiefe repute, aswell amongst the Macedonians, as the Spartans and others: the way to performe this Motion is as followeth. The right-hand-file fa­ceth to the right; and passeth through the Intervals or spaces, to the right: placing themselves, before their right-hand-men, untill the left-hand-file, be­come the foremost ranke; If you doe this Counter­march by it selfe, then for reducement, first face them to their Front proper, then let the left-hand-files, face to the left, and do as much to the left; and then they will be as at first.

CHAP. XLVI.
Of the Macedonian Countermarch by Ranke.

The Command is: Right-hand-file face to the left, the rest passe through to the right, placing your selves behind your right-hand-men.

Macedon. THis Macedonian Countermarch of ranks, contrary to the Spar­tan, dismarcheth from the ene­my upon that Flanke where hee appeares, and presents the con­trary Flanke, to receive the Charge. It is performed after this manner. The out-most-file to the right, faceth to the left. The rest of the body, or Battalia, faceth to the right; every man passing thorough to the right and placing themselves, be­hind their right-hand-men: For the reducement of this Countermarch, as all the rest, there are divers, and severall wayes; but performe as much to the left, as you have done to the right, and they will be at first: Or if you please, this following Bastard [Page 125] Countermand, will do the same. The word of Com­mand or direction is,

Right-hand-file stand, the rest passe through to the right, placing your selves, on the outside of your Right-hand-men.

Bast. Count. THis passing thorough, or Bastard Countermarch of Ranks, doth alter both ground, and flanke; (still reserving the Aspect, without alteration.) It is to be performed as followeth. The out-most or right-hand-file, stands; the rest of the body, facing to the right, passe thorough to the right, e­very man placing himselfe, on the right side of his right-hand-man, and so standing euen in Ranke, the Motion still continuing, untill the left-hand-file, is become the right; the right, the contrary. If this Countermarch be done alone, for the reducement; let the left-hand-file stand, and do as much to the left, as before to the right; and they will be as at first.

CHAP. XLVII.
Of Countermarching Front and Reere to the middest.

Of divisionall Countermar­ches. FOr the Intire Countermarches, I have indea­voured to expresse them, as well as I could in words, but for the divisionall Countermar­ches, [Page 126] I intend to expresse, both in word and figure, whereby they may be the more easily apprehen­ded by such as shall be desirous to know them: notwithstanding before I enter upon the divisio­nall Countermarches▪ I would willingly cleere one thing which by some will be carped at; which is, the using of the word Middest, insteed of the word Center: The word Center (I confesse) hath been the more usuall word amongst us; and yet it is not altogether so proper to our use as the other; wherefore give me leave, without offence, to use those words, which are not only more proper, but more significant. The Midst of the Battaile, is to be understood, either from the Front, & Reere; or from both Flanks (or wings:) If between Front and Reere, the Midst must be betweene the half-file-leaders, and the Reere ranke of the Front half-files, exten­ding it selfe from Flanke to Flanke: The Midst be­tweene the Flankes, is betweene the two innermost files; continuing the whole depth: from Front to Reere: Our first Countermarch shall be Chorean; the word of command or direction is.

[Page 127] Countermarch Front and Reere, into the midst.

[figure]

This divisionall, chorean countermarch, brings our File-leaders, and Bringers up together in the midst, and the ranks that were in the midst in the Front & Reere. It is a countermarch mayntayning ground; for every man marcheth up, into his leaders ground; before he faceth about to countermarch: The way to performe the Motion, is as followeth. The com­mand Note, that for Counter­marching Front and Reere in­to the midst, the Front-halfe-files ever turne off to the Right, the Reere halfe files to the Left, which being truely observed, they will alwayes meet even in the middle of the Battaile, where to the contrary, if they turne both off to the Right, they can ne­ver doe the Counter-march but wrong. being given to countermarch, either let the commander, or some other of the Officers, com­mand the half-files, to face about: then the file-lea­ders stepping forwards, with the right legge, and face about to the right, passing downe the Intervals on the right hand, the rest of the Front-halfe-files, following their Leaders, and not turning, untill they come to the ground, where their Leaders▪ tur­ned [Page 128] down before them: The bringers up with the Reere-half-files, at the same instant turning downe their Intervales, on the left hand, the rest of their division following them, untill the file-leaders and bringers up, meet together in the midst of the Bat­taile, and then having faced all to their Leader, the Motion is performed. For the reducement, of this figure, doing the same thing over againe, will re­duce it. Or any other divisionall countermarch of File.

CHAP. XLVIII.
Of bringing Front and Reere together, into the midst, by the Bastard Countermarch.

The Command is: File-leaders, and half-fileaders stand, the rest passe thorough to the right, and place your selves before your Leaders.

Bast. Counter. THis Bastard Countermarch, doth bring the Leaders, and bringers up, together, into the midst, and saves two facings, and is quick­lier performed, then the other last done: or any other in the prece­dent Chapters: The way to per­forme [Page 129] the Motion, is as followeth: The first ranke stands; and the half-file-leaders stand, then those of the Front-half-files, passe thorough their Inter­vals to the right, placing themselves before their File-leaders: The second ranke before the first, the third before the second, the fourth before the third; The Reere-half-files at the same instant, doing the like, and placing themselves, before theirNote that as the front half-files empiieth the space of ground be­tweene the leaders and halfe-file-lea­ders placing themselues in the ground be­fore the front, so in the meane time their places are replenished by the souldiers of the Reere-halfe-files which march up and supply their roomes. half-file-leaders, as the other did, before their File-lea­ders: This Motion may be either reduced by doing the same over againe to the contrary hand, or else by countermarching front and Reere into the midst, or by any other of the divisionall countermarches of files. The next shal be a Lacedemonian countermarch, the word of command, or direction, is as shall be exprest in the ensuing Chapter.

CHAP. XLIX.
Of Countermarching to make a large Intervale be­tween the first, and last Ranks.

The Command is, File-leaders, and Bringers up stand, the rest passe thorough to the right, and place your selves, before your Leaders, and Bringers up.

Lacedemonian.

[figure]

[Page 131] THis divisionall Lacedemonian Countermarch, makes semblance of falling on, or charging, both to the Front and Reere, and leaves all the ground, which was occupied by the Souldiers, which stood betweene the front and reere, transferring them into the ground, before the front, and behinde the reere; the ground (or place) of their former standing, being vacant, onely demonstrated in this figure by the pricks. The Motion may be thus per­formed. The Reere-halfe-files are commanded to face to the Reere, and then the front-halfe-files, passe through to the right: placing themselves before their Leaders; The second Ranke, before the first; the third, before the second; the fourth, before the third; the Reere-halfe-files at the same instant, passing through to the Reere, after the same manner; and placing themselues before their Bringers-up. You may perceive by the figures of Number, placed on the Flanks of the figure of battell, both how the men stood, before the Motion began, as also how and in what place they stand, the Motion being ended: For the reducement, if you have not closed their distance, you may face them about, and so let them passe a­gaine into their places: Or else, by doing the sameIf you reduce them by ano­ther Counter­march, first close their di­visions. Countermarch over againe, or to the contrary hand, or any such like way, will reduce them. This next following Countermarch will also reduce them, or this will reduce that. The word for the Command, or direction is, as you shall finde it placed, over the front of the figure.

CHAP. L.
Of making a large Intervalle, betweene the first and last ranks, by the Macedonian Countermarch.

Macedonian. THis divisionall Macedonian Coun­termarch, is little different from that, next before it, onely the other, turned the Aspect outward, to the front, and Reere; this Coun­termarch turnes the Aspect in­wards, towards the midst. It may be usefull, if the Commander would shew, or publish ought, before his best Souldiers, for that it not onely leaves a large distance, but that it brings the best Souldiers into the midst, with their Aspects di­rected inwards: It may also serue, to conduct any great personage, crosse the length of your battell, whereby to shew them, the braverie of your Soul­diers, &c. The figure followeth.

The Command is, File-leaders face about, Bringers up stand, the rest passe through to the Right, and place your selues behinde your file-leaders and Bringers up.

[figure]

This motion may be thus performed: The first ranke (or file-leaders) face about, the last ranke stands, the Reere-halfe-files, face about, and so the front-di­vision; passe forwards, and place themselues behindNote that when the Reere half files face about, the last ranke which are the bring­ers up [...] [...]ill to keep their [...]. the file-leaders, the reere-halfe-files, behinde their Bringers up. The manner, you may perceive the plainer, if you note the figures, of number, which are placed, on the flanks of the figure, their number [Page 134] shewing the places, they had, from the front, before the motion began. This figure may be reduced, either by the same word of command, which produced it, or else by any of the foregoing divisionall counter­marches. Our next, shall be a countermarch of ex­change of ground. The words for command, or dire­ction, are as followeth.

CHAP. LI.
Of Interchanging Ground.

The Command is, Front-halfe-files, interchange ground with the Reere, passing through to the Right.

Bast. Countermarch. In Motion.

[figure]

[Page 135] This Bastard Countermarch, may not rightly be said, to be derived from any one of the particular grounds of Countermarch; but rather, participating of them all: And yet considering it, as it is to be, it is different from them all: for whereas the other countermarches, of files in division, although they bring the Front and Reere into the middest, yet the front-halfe-files continue still, on the same part, and the Reere-halfe-files do not alter into the places of the other. But this, contrary to any other, of the divisionall countermarches, transferres the front-halfe-files into the ground, or place of the Reere-halfe-files; and them, into the contrary part, bringing the file-lea­ders, and bringers up, together into the midst. The way to performe this Motion, is as followeth. The front-halfe-files face about, passing forwards to the right (being led by the bringers up, of the front-halfe-files) betweene the Intervalles towards the reere: The Reere-halfe-files at the same instant in like manner marching forwards, betweene the Intervalles on their right hands into the Front, untill the Front-di­vision, have attained the places of the Reere, and they contrariwise, the places of the Front. For the reducement of this countermarch, do as much backe againe; Or if you would reduce it some other way, you may first make an intirc countermarch of files, and then countermarch front, and reere, into the midst; for under two countermarches, it will not be reduced. Now I will passe, to shew divisionall countermarches of Ranks, or Flanks; The first shall be Chorean, as in the Chapter following.

CHAP. LII.
Of counter-marching the flanks (or wings) into the midst of the Battell.

The Command is, Countermarch your flanks into the midst.

Chorean

[figure]

THis Chorean counter-march of the flanks into the midst, is of ordinary use, when the Commander would have the outermost files, to be­come the innermost: the motion to bee performed on the same [Page 137] ground, and is as followeth. The command being given, the whole body faceth to the right and left, byNote that up­on the Coun­termarching of flanks into the midst, the right flanke must alwayes obser [...]e to turn to the right, the left flanke to the left. For if they should both turne off to the right, they wil never meet right i [...] they turne off both to the left, it will be as bad. division; the outermost files, by this facing, becomming rankes, every man in the right hand file, being a lea­der in his halfe ranke file-wise, and so likewise in the left hand file the same▪ then they countermarch the right flanke to the right, the left flank to the left, which you must alwaies observe to doe, and your flan­quers will meet just in the midst of your Battalia. Lastly, having faced them to their first front, the counter-march is ended.

To reduce them, they may either use the same Counter-march againe, or any of these following divisionall countermarches of flankes, (unlesse it bee that of interchanging of ground.) The next shall be Lacedemonian, the Command, or words of directi­on, are, as in the Chapter following.

CHAP. LIII.
Of Countermarching, to take the ground before the flanks.

The Command is, The outermost file of each flanke, face outward, the rest passe through to the right and left, placing your selves before your out-side men.

Lacedemonian.

[figure]

[Page 139] THis Lacedemonian Countermarch of halfe ranks or flanks, makes [...] of charging on, upon both flanks, but leaves a wast di­stance of ground, unoccupied be­tweene the two outmost-files, or midst of the battell. The way to performe this Motion is as followeth. The right-hand-file faceth to the right, the left-hand-file to the left; the rest of the body faceth to the right and left, the right-flanke passing through to the right, and placing themselues, before their right-hand-men. The second file from the right, begins the Motion on the right-flanke; the left-flanke in like manner, pas­sing through to the left, and placing themselues be­fore their left-hand-men; the second file accounting, from the left, begins the Motion on the left-flanke: But you must note, that the files become ranks with the facing.

For the reducement of this figure, if you will first face them, to their proper front, you may then com­mand the two inmost-files stand, the rest passe through to the right, and left inward, and take their places: Or if you please, make use, either of a Chorean, or a Macedonian Countermarch of Ranks by division, and with a facing, and closing their divisions, they will be perfectly reduced.

CHAP. LIV.
Of Countermarching to take the ground on the outside of the Flanks, and to direct their Aspects inwards.

Macedonian. The Command is, The outmost file of each Flanke face inward, the rest passe through to the Right, and Left, placing your selues behinde your outside men.

[figure]

[Page 141] THis Macedonian Countermarch, differeth nothing from that last shewed, but onely in the turning of the aspect inwards: whereas the other, directed their aspect outwards: The Motion is thus performed: The outermost-files, of each Flanke, face inward: the rest of the body, face to the right, and left, outward; those of the right flanke, passing through to the right, and placing them selues behinde their right-hand-men. Those of the left flanke passing through to the left, and pla­cing themselues behinde their left-hand-men: The Motion is begun, by the second file, from each flank. I might here shew these Countermarches, beginning their Motion from their middlemost-files; But I am willingly silent, hoping that these, may suffice to the courteous, not much forcing my selfe to give satisfaction to the curious. For the reducement of this Countermarch, having faced them to their first front, you may if you please, command the two in­nermost files to face outward, the rest passe through to the right, and left inward: placing themselues behinde their right, and left-hand-men; which being done, the whole body will stand faced to the right, and left outward; Then being faced to their Leader, they are reduced. If you would reduce it, by some other way, you may make use, either of the Countermarch, which is next before, or of that, which next follow­eth: Or of any other divisionall Countermarch of Ranks; (which doth not interchange ground). Our next two which follow, will be Bastard Counter­marches, with the which, we will conclude this our fourth branch of Discipline.

CHAP. LV.
Of taking the ground on the outside of the flanks; not altering the Aspects.

The Command is, The outmost-file of each Flanke stand, the rest passe through to the right, and left, and place your selues on the outside, of your right and left-hand-men.

[figure]

[Page 143] THis Divisionall bastard countermarch, produceth the same effect, which the other two next before it wrought; onely differing in the As­pect: for the Lacedemonian, turned the Aspect outward: The Macedonian, turned the Aspect inward; And this, keeps the Aspect still dire­cted the same way. He that knows every way, may when time serveth, make use of those wayes, which are most necessarie and sutable to his present occa­sion: The Proverbe saith, Knowledge is no burthen▪ The way to performe this Countermarch is as fol­loweth (according to the Command) the outmost-file of each flanke stands; the rest of the Body faceth to the right and left outward, the right flanke passing through to the right, the left flanke to the left; those of the right-flanke, placing themselues, on the out­side of their right-hand-men: in like manner, those on the left flanke, placing themselues, on the outside of their left-hand-men.

If may be reduced, either by any, of the foregoing divisionall Countermarches of Ranks, or else being fa­ced, to any of the flanks, then the rankes become files. And by divisionall Countermarches of files, you may reduce, divisionall Countermarches of Ranks, or by ranks, files; onely you must observe some fa­cings: Yet for this figure, if you please, Command the two innermost-files, stand; the rest, face to the right, and left inward, and so march into their places. The next shall be a Countermarch, of interchanging of Flanks.

CHAP. LVI.
Of Interchanging Ground by the Flanks, and bringing the innermost-files of Pikes, to become the outmost-ranks.

The Command is, Interchange Flanks.

[figure]

[Page 145] THis exchanging of Flanks, or Bastard Countermarch, is differing from all the other divisionall Countermarches of Ranks; for this transferres the right-flanke into the place of the left, and the left-flanke, into the place of the right. It is very apt, for to receive a sudden charge, from the horse, for as soone as they shall be commanded to interchange their flanks, they face to the right, and left inward, and then the innermost-files of the pikes begin the Motion; the rest of each flanke following orderly file-wise, the pikes porting so soone as they begin to move, and charge as they see occasion: IfNote that if y [...]u please, y [...]u m [...]y paste the Pikes alone through, and let the Mus­kettier, stand. But then there wil lbe a la ge distance be­tweene the Musketti [...]s in the midst need be, the pikes may charge at the foot, the Mus­kettiers giving fire, over their shoulders: If any ob­ject, that the Pikes have too large a distance, they may close at their owne pleasures, as soone as they have past through.

For the reducement, you may, if you please, inter­change ground againe: neverthelesse if you would reduce it, by some other way, Countermarch your Flanks into the midst, and then an intire Counter­march, either of ranke, or file, will reduce them.

I might have further enlarged my selfe, upon this subject, both in Command, and Figure; but it may be, that some will finde fault with these, which I have already penned, concluding them for nicities, and for no service; because they cannot presently apprehend, for what use, or service they may be fit. Notwithstanding I would intreat such (if any such happen to be my overlookers) that they would suspend their censures, untill they have fully en­formed [Page 146] their judgements. Yet thus much I will conclude with them, that Countermarches might the best be spared, of all the Motions, as being least be­neficiall, to this our Moderne discipline. And yet to very good use, many of them might serve, if our Souldiers were well practised in them. Neverthe­lesse such is the wilfull stupidity of the times, that many good, and usefull things are disreputed, and accounted of no use, because the Souldier wanting skill, cannot performe them, as they ought: which would the Officers take more paines, by often in­structing their Souldiers, the hardest Motions would become facile and easie. And to say truth, the grea­test fault is, want of skill in those, which should give instruction to others; and yet they will not sticke, to carpe at such, as shall shew more, than they, concluding such things for superfluous, and improper, which they themselues do not rightly understand: But lest I be taxed for digression, I will conclude this branch of Discipline with these few lines following.

SOme burthened are with more command than skill,
Which had they power suting to their minde,
You then should see Reason inthral'd to will,
Nor any 'bove their knowledge should you finde:
For rather than they'le study to learne better,
They wish all wanting; none to know a letter.
So be there many Officers in Bands
That neither know themselves, nor care for those
That skilfull are in Postures, and Commands,
[Page 147] Nor are they carefull which end formost goes.
They thinke, to dice, to drabbe, to sweare, and swill,
Is skill enough for them: Learne more that will.
And if that any man more forward be
For to instruct the Souldier (as is fit)
With such a fellow they cannot agree;
He is vaine-glorious, strives to shew his wit.
They will be sure to quarrell and deprave him,
And in their cups perhaps they'll—
Such honest hearts as spend both meanes and time
To practise others for their Countries good,
Why should this good be counted for a crime,
To those that for their Prince would spend their bloud▪
That Countrey sure will best be kept from harmes
Whose Subjects pleasure take to practise Armes.
But on this Subject I'le no longer bide,
Of Countermarches. Here I'le take my leave,
To shew the Wheelings, next I shall provide,
Which follows next of course, as I conceive.
And though with verse my Countermarches close,
Beginning Wheelings, I returne to Prose.

CHAP. LVII.
Of wheelings, their kindes, and uses with their severall words of Command.

THe next Branch springing from this root of Discipline, are wheelings; which are of two kindes, viz. whee­lings Angular, and wheelings on the Center, as also they are to be con­ceived, in manner of action, either intire or divisionall: the use of intire wheelings, is to turne the aspect of the front proper, to the right, to the left, or reere; either for the gaining of the Winde▪ Sunne, or some such like advantage; or to confront the enemy with their best souldiers. Most of the divisionall wheelings being indeed more properly doublings, ei­ther extending the length, or depth of the Battell: notwithstanding, because I wold not be taxed with innovation, or alteration, I have, according unto the usuall received way, placed them amongst the wheelings; and now I will shew their words of command, or direction. But before I enter uponNote that the distance for wheelings ought to be three foot betweene Ranke and File. them, give me leave to lay downe an observation or two, for the better instruction of the Souldiers in their wheelings. The first is, That before you enter upon your wheelings, you close both Rankes and Files to their order, which is three foot, both in ranke and file: [Page 149] The other, that upon all wheelings, you must be sure, to Note that upō the exercise of the motions whether it be distance, fa­cings, doub­lings, Coun­termarches, or wheelings, the Muskettiers ought to be all upon one and the same po­sture either po [...]ed or shouldered: the pikes in like manner either shouldered or advanced. observe your leader, and follow him, keeping your due distance; your Muskettiers being all, either poyzed, or shouldered: your Pikes ought to be advanced. The words of Commands, are as followeth.

Wheele your Battell to theRight,  
Left,  
Rightabout, 
Left 
Right, on the same ground;
Left, 
Rightabout
Left
Wheeleoff your Front by division.  
your Front inward to the Reere.  
Front and Reere into theRightflanke.
Left
your flankes into theFront, 
Reere, 
both flankes into the front and reere.  
your front and reere into both flanks.  

Observe that the first foure wheelings are angu­lar, the next foure are wheelings on the center, or more properly, on the midst of the front. But all the first eight be intire, the latter eight, are all di­visionall. You may also observe, that every follow­ing wheeling is a reducement unto that, which is pla­ced next before it, and the wheeling next before, may reduce that next following: as to wheele your flankes into the front, if you wheele your flanks into the reere, it is reduced; or to wheele front and reere into both flankes; if you wheele both flankes into the [Page 150] front and reere, they are likewise reduced, as before.

For the last eight wheelings, which are divisio­nall, I will pricke for each of them, his figure. As for the first eight, which are intire, I conceive them so easie to be understood, that I may spare the labour; yet I will endeavour to expresse them as well as I can in words: and first I will beginne with the wheelings anguler, and then with the rest, according to their places: and therefore note, that when you are Commanded, to wheele to the right or left, &c. and no other command added, it is to be understood, an anguler wheeling, and so to be performed.

CHAP. LVIII.
Of wheelings Anguler▪

The Command is, Wheele your battell to the right.

1 THis is an angular wheeling, which transferres the aspect or countenance of the front proper, into that part which was the right flanke: It also removes the Battalia from the ground wher­on formerly it stood, and placeth it on that part, before the front, the hindge or Axell tree of the mo­tion, is the right corner man, or right hand file-leader, [Page 151] who with a small motion, moveth to the right▪ eve­ry man, the more his place is remote from the right Angle, the more swift must be his motion; be­cause his arch-quadrant, or semi-circle, is larger in proportion: wherefore it must be the discretion of the Officers, so to instruct their Souldiers, that when they wheele to any hand, they may so moderate their motion, that they on the contrary flanke, be not forced to runne, but so orderly to containe themselves, that they may still preserve an order­ly and even front. For the reducement, wheele yourNote the di­rection for an­gular whee­lings. Battaile to the left, in the like manner, as it was wheeled to the right; neverthelesse you must then note, that it will not bring you backe into the same ground you formerly stood on; for it hath advan­ced you, the length of your Battalia, before the place of your first front. But if you would be redu­ced 2 into the same place, or plot you first stood on; then face your Battaile to the right, and being so faced, wheele your Battaile to the left, which be­ing performed, face to the left, and then they are compleatly reduced, both for aspect and place. The next Command is,

Wheele your Battaile to the right about.

This is also an anguler wheeling, and transferres 3 the aspect of the front, proper, towards the reere: It is to be performed in the same manner, as the wheeling to the right was; onely the motion is twice so much: Wherefore there ought to be the more care had, that so the motion may be orderly perfor­med: [Page 152] Note that wheeling to the rightabout will not be re­duced by wheeling back againe to the left about just into the same ground, if the wheeling be Anguler; but will be [...]wise the length of the battell removed to the right of your former stand­ing. by so much as every man is nearer, or fur­ther off, from the right corner man, by so much the more swifier or slower must he continue his motion, that so he may be sure, to keepe still, even in ranke with his right hand man. This motion being thus performed, your Battaile will be removed from its former station, taking in lieu thereof, the ground Diagonally opposite in the right Angle.

To reduce these to their former aspect; wheele your Battell to the left about, notwithstanding the ground you formerly did possesse, will be twice the length of your Battaile to the left, of your left flanke, if you would reduce them, as well to their first ground, as their first aspect; face them to the 4 right, and then wheele them to the left about, which being done, face them to the left, and they are perfectly reduced, as at first.

CHAP. LIX.
Of wheeling on the Center.

The Command is, Wheele your Battell to the right, on the same ground.

5 THis wheeling, is by some called a wheeling on the Center: by others, a wheeling on the same ground. I cannot absolutely maintain it to be either, for that it onely wheeles about the midst of the first ranke. Neither may it rightly bee [Page 153] termed a wheeling on the same ground, because it lo­seth ¾. of the ground it formerly stood upon. This wheeling is quicker performed, then the anguler wheelings: and may be done in farre lesse ground. For the left flanke advanceth forward, still whee­ling to the right, the right flanke contrariwise, fa­cing to the left; and so falling backward. If you have an odde file, then the middle file-leader must be the center or axelltree of the motion, if you have an even number of files, then the middlemost file-leader from the left. But if your wheeling be to the left, then the contrary. This by some is called the 6 Prince of Oranges wheeling. For the reducement, wheele your Battell to the left, on the same ground: and they are reduced as at first. Our next Com­mand is, to

Wheele your Battaile to the right about, on the same ground.

This wheeling is also a wheeling on the center, or 7 midst of the front: and transfers the aspect of the front proper, towards the reere, removing the Bat­taile from the ground whereon it formerly stood, and placing it on the ground before the front. It is performed after the same manner, as the last: one­ly the motion is double so much as the other. In this motion, on the left flanke, every man is to observe his right hand man; and the right flanke must keepe even and straight after their left hand man, which become their leaders file-wise, untill they have attained their ground: after which, they face as before: making an even front. [Page 154] For the reducement, wheele your Battaile to the left about, upon the same ground; and they will be re­duced as at first. I will next shew the divisionall wheelings, and intend to giue to each of them his figure: whereby they may appeare the more easie to such as doe not yet rightly understand them. The first shall be a wheeling off by division: as in the next Chapter.

CHAP. LX.
Of wheeling off, by division.

The Command is, Wheele off your front by division.

[figure]

[Page 155] THis wheeling off by division in greater bodies, may be usefull to meete severall enemies at one and the same time, with the front of your Battalia: and so consequently with your best Souldiers. But if you will wheele off your Battaile by division, and ioyne them againe when they be in the reere; then it brings all your Muskettiers from the flankes to the midst of your Battalia: and your Pikes on the out side or flankes. If any question the depth of the number of this figure, I have doubled files to make the figure more perfect. The way to perform this motion, is easie; for all the file-leaders of the right flanke, wheele about to the right: the rest of each file following their leaders: the file-leaders also of the left flanke, wheeling about to the left, in the same manner; and then joyne or close their divisions. This being done, if you would then reduce them, wheele them off againe by division, after the same manner; and they will be as before. But if you would doe it some other way, make use of this wheeling next following: which will also bring them as they were. The word of Command or direction fol­loweth, as in the next Chapter.

CHAP. LXI.
Of wheeling the Front inward, towards the Reere.

The Command is, Wheele your Front inward to the Reere.

[figure]

THis divisionall wheeling of your front inwards to the reere, is here placed as a reducement unto the other foregoing wheelings: and so it brings the Muskettiers to the flankes againe. But if you will doe it, the Company being first redu­ced; then it brings the Pikes to the flankes. Some say it may be good, if you be annoyd with horse in the Reere, upon a march; and that you have gained [Page 157] some side of a hill or other place of advantage: then to wheele your front inward to the Reere, to the enemy will make shew of disbandoning or flight. But contrariwise, you march toward him with a settled and orderly body: your Muskettiers being all in the midst, and so firing upon their enemy: the Pikes be­ing their flankers, thereby defending the shot from the fury of the horse. This motion will hardly be well done, if your body hold too large an extension of length. But at what depth soever, it is easie. The motion is to be performed as followeth. The right hand file-leader, with all the leaders of the right flanke, advance forwards, and so wheele about to the left: every file still keeping close to their right hand file. The left hand file-leader, likewise, with all the leaders of the left flanke, advance forwards, and wheele about to the right: every file of the left flanke, closing close to the left. Thus the outmost files of each flanke, will meete and become the innermost: the front falling perpendicularly to the reere. For the reducement of this figure, you may if you please, ei­ther wheele them off to the right and left, by divisi­on: or else wheele your front inward againe to the reere. These two last wheelings, have beene demon­strated with their files doubled: whereby the figures might be the [...]ore perfect, but with men, it would have beene needlesse: wherefore double rankes to the contrary hand, and they will be as at the first.

CHAP. LXII.
Of bringing the Flanks into the Front of the Battell.

The Command is, Wheele your Flanks into the Front.

[figure]
Wheele yourFlanksinto theFront,
WingsFront▪
FrontBattell,
FrontMidst,
FrontCenter,
ReereFlanks.

[Page 159] THis divisionall wheeling of the Flanks into the Front, is, pro­perly, a doubling performed by wheeling. It brings all your Muskettiers, from the flankes into the front. So that whereas this bodie, before, could do execution, but with 8. Musket­tiers at once; by this Motion they may powre on 16. shot together. If they were deeper before the Mo­tion began, then it would bring the more hands to imployment. If upon some passe, you should be chased in the Reere by horse; by this motion of wheel­ing your flanks into the front, you not onely secure your Muskettiers, but also barricado up the passe with your pikes; if it be not above fifty foot over Some call this, a wheeling on the center: because they wheele about the middle-men of the front. But I rather conceive it an angular; because upon the first Mo­tion of dividing, every division wheeleth about his owne angle, untill the outmost-file-leaders of each flanke, meet together in the midst. You may per­ceive how, by the figures of number, where the fi­gure 1. meets the number 16: 2 with 15, 3 with 14. and so for all the rest. Then being faced to their leader, every two files that met being now joyned, make one ranke. There must be the like order and decorum kept, in the motion of wheeling each flanke: as I shewed in the instruction of intire angular whee­lings. For reducement of this Motion, wheele your flanks into the Reere. Or else foure times the same, as I have seene some do: although somewhat the fur­ther [Page 160] way about. Divers men are diversly opinio­nated; concerning the best word of Command or di­rection, for this Motion. These I have known used which I have placed in the Margent, by the figure▪ And if any man like one better then the other, be it at his owne choice, either to use or refuse, while I passe to shew the next wheeling.

CHAP. LXIII.
Of wheeling the Reere into the midst of the Battell.

The Command is, Wheele your Flanks into the Reere. The Direction is, Face all about to the Right.

Wheele y [...]rFl [...]k [...]into theReere,
Wing▪Reere,
ReereBattell,
ReereMidst,
ReereCenter,
Front [...]lanks▪
[figure]

[Page 162] Vpon al whee­ling [...], you must obserue to fol­low your lea­der [...], which must be under­stood, aswell of those which b [...]come leaders accidē [...]ally (by reason of facings) as of those which be the [...]st and pro [...] leaders. As in th s wheeling ( [...]or example) where the Bringers up [...]te become the leaders of the M [...]on. THis divisionall wheeling of the Flanks into the Reere, is also a doubling, and performed as the other. And whatsoever might be said, in the behalfe of the wheeling of the front into the middest; the same may be also spoken, concerning the wheeling of the Reere into the middest. For this wheeling, brings your two out­most-files to be the first ranke; the Bringers up of the right and left-hand-files, meeting together: the brin­gers up of the left flanke, meeting face to face with the Bringers up of the left-flanke. And so being faced to their leader, they which before were complete files, are now become halfe-ranks: either to the right or left. But you must note, that before you begin to wheele, you must face your body about to the Reere: and then the action will be all one, as if you wheeled your flanks into the front. Wherefore I shall not need further to explaine it: having spo­ken fully to it in the precedent Chapter.

Note that the two m ddlemost [...]ringer [...] up [...]re the Hinge [...] of this wh [...]ling. For the reducement of this wheeling, the Comman­der being at his Front accidentall, may command them to wheele their wings into the Reere, and so passe through to that part, where his proper file-lea­ders are: and then face them to him, and they are reduced. Or else, when he hath past through to the reere, and faced his Company to him; then his pikes being formost, let him wheele his flanks into the front, who being faced to their leader, they are re­duced. For this motion, there are also divers and se­verall [Page 163] words of Command. And because it may be, that some will better approve of some of the other words of Command, then of this that I have made use of: therefore I have placed others in in the margent, That so any that will, may take their choice: while I passe to shew the next wheeling. Whose word of Command and direction, you shall finde over the figure of the next Chapter.

CHAP. LXIIII.
Of wheeling the right flanke, into the midst of the Battell.

The Command is, Wheele Front and Reere, into the right Flanke. The Direction is, Face all to the right.

This Figure stands as the Body is in Motion.
WheeleFront and Reereinto the 
the left Flankeright Flanke.
the right FlankeFront and Reere.
the right FlankeMidst. Center.

[Page 165] THis divisionall wheeling of the Front and Reere, into the right-flanke; dothNot [...], that if the length of your Bat [...]e [...], be double the num [...] r of your depth; as in this figure then this wheeling of front and reere into the right or left-flanke, doth qu [...] ­d [...]uple their forme [...] depth. If the number were equall, in lengto and depth; then by this wheeling, they would be but doubled. If the number of your length, exceed more then double your depth, by so much the more, will the exten­sion of the dep [...]h be, beyond quadruple, &c. quadruple the depth: as may appeare by this figure, which before the Mo­tion began, contained but eight in depth: But this wheeling being perfected, makes them 32. namely, if you direct the Aspect of the Bodie, either to the right or left; after the Motion is ended. If you obserue this wheeling, it doth divide the Muskettiers on the left-flanke: the one halfe of them, wheeling to the Front; the other halfe, to the Reere: all the Muskettiers of the right-flanke, wheel­ing together into the middest. The pikes are likewise divided; those that were the Front-halfe-files, are in the middest of the Front-division of Muskettiers; and those which were the Reere-division of pikes, are in the middest of the reere-division of Muskettiers. This wheeling may be to singular good use, for the ma­king of some formes of Battell. But I forbeare now to treat concerning figures and formes of Battell, re­serving them to be spoken of in their due places: and come now to shew the way how to performe the Motion. The Command therefore being given, to wheele Front and Reere into the right-flanke, then the first thing the Souldiers are to do, is to face to the right. That done, they wheele together about the fourth and fift men in the right-hand-file: which is the halfe-file-leader to the front, and halfe-file-lea­der to the reere. You may easily perceive how, by the figure: where the Reere-division wheeleth to the left; and the front-division, to the right: untill the bringer-up of the right-hand-file, meets in the midst [Page 166] with his file-leader: the second, with the seventh; the third, with the sixth; the fourth, with the fift. &c.

For the reducement of this figure of Wheeling, there are many wayes: according as the Body may be faced. But first conceive, as if they stand faced the same way as they were before this Motion began. And then the wheeling of front and reere into the left-flanke will reduce them; when they are faced to their leader. Or if you will, face them that way which they wheeled in the Motion; which was to the right: then wheele your flanke into the reere; when being faced to their proper front, they are reduced. And so, in like manner, should you face them to some other part; they might be otherwayes redu­ced. The next wheeling will be the same to the left, as this is, to the right: where notwithstanding that the Motion be all one, yet it shall differ in the pla­cing of the men. For before I begin the wheeling, I will passe through all the Muskettiers, from the left flanke to the right: by which meanes the Body will stand, as appeareth by the square figure following. From whence I will begin the next wheeling.

CHAP. LXV.
Of wheeling the left Flanke, into the midst of the Battell.

The Command is, Wheele Front and Reere, into the left Flanke. The Direction is, Face all to the Left.

[depiction of 'left Flank wheeling']

[Page 168] THis divisionall wheeling, of the Front and Reere into the left-flanke, is, in like manner, a dou­bling of the depth. For the nature of the Motion, it is altogether like unto the wheeling next be­fore: differing onely in the flanke; and after that the body is faced to the left, the wheeling is to be performed, as wheeling the flanks into the front. But by reason that before the Motion began, all the Muskettiers were on the right-flanke: by this wheeling, they are brought to the front and reere. For the Aspect being directed the same way, it was before the Command was given, the depth willbe 32, as in the other figure.

For reducement, the ordinary way is to wheele the front and reere into the right-flanke. O [...] if upon any occasion, you have faced your Body to the same way they have wheeled (which was to the left-flanke) and would give your Command from thence; Then let them wheele their flanks into the Reere. This done, the Commander passing to his first front, and facing them to him: they are as when this last wheeling began. Then cause the foure files of Maskettiers, to face to the left; and to passe through to their places. Lastly, do but close them to their due distance, in ranke, and file: and they are perfectly reduced.

CHAP. LXVI.
Of wheeling Front and Reere, into the midst of the Battell.

The Command is, Wheele both Flanks into the Front and Reere. The Direction is, Halfe-files, face about to the Reere.

[figure]

[Page 170] THis divisionall wheeling of both flanks into the front and reere; doth double the depth: making them from 8 deepe, 16. It doth likewise transferre the Muskettiers, from the flanks into the front and reere: making a division between the front halfe files, and reere halfe files. So that of one body, flankt with Muskettiers, it maketh two, each having their Muskettiers in front.

This figure, (as most others, as well facings, dou­blings, counter-marches and wheelings) is here set forth as the motion of each presents it selfe in the execution; few of them being shewne, as they be when they are executed. And I conceive it the better way, as well for expression, as apprehensi­on: to shew the worke as it is in doing, rather then absolutely performed.

For the way how to performe this wheeling, take these directions following. The Command being first given, (as aforesaid) the first thing the Souldi­ers have to doe, is for the halfe-files to face about, and then the front halfe files, and reere halfe files wheele at one and the same time: The front division, wheeling about their two innermost file-leaders, which are figured with the numbers of 8 and 9. untill the file-leaders of the right flanke meete toge­ther in the midst, with the file-leaders of the left flanke: as you may easily perceive by the figure shewing the motion; the rest of their divisions, or­derly following them. The halfe-files, also being faced about; the bringers up, in like manner, wheele together: being now the leaders of the motion, in the reere, as you may perceive. This being done, [Page 171] if you please you may face them all to their leader, (whom suppose to be at the place of his first front) and then command them to close their divisions: which being performed, all your file-leaders are in the two innermost files of the front division, file-wise, and all the Bringers up, in the reere division of the same files.

For the reducement of this figure, if you will, face them to either of the flankes, and command them to wheele both flanks into the front and reere, when facing them againe to their proper front, and clo­sing their division, they will be as at first. But if you would make use of some other wheeling, to reduce it, then take this in the following Chapter.

CHAP. LXVII.
Of wheeling the flanks into the midst of the Battaile.

The Command is, Wheele front and reere into both Flanks. The direction is, Face to the right and left.

[figure]

[Page 173] THis divisionall wheeling of the front and reere into both flankes, may also be termed a doubling of the depth: by reason that from 8 deepe, it maketh them double numbers. By this motion, the Muskettiers which before were flankers, are now transferred into the midst, betweene the front and reere of the Pikes. And whereas in the o­ther figure, the wheeling was about the two middle­most file-leaders, and Bringers up; this wheeling con­trariwise, is about the two halfe file-leaders of the outmost files of each flanke. In the other wheeling, the file-leaders and bringers up, made the innermost file: in this, the innermost file of each flanke, as you may easily perceive by the figure. This motion being performed, it leaves a large Intervalle (or division) from front to reere, betweene the flankes: which if the Commander passe into the midst, betweene each division, and face them all to him; causing them to close their divisions, and to march forth in­to his first place, (directing their aspects the same way) then will the Pikes be in the front and reere.

For the reducement of this Figure (of wheeling) to its former posture; you may face the body to one of the flanks. Which being done, command them againe to wheele front and reere into both flankes; when being faced to their former front, and ha­ving closed their division, they are reduced. But if you would make use of some other wheeling, for reducement; then wheele both flanks into the front and reere; and they are as at first: having faced to their leader, and closed their division. And thus as briefly and as plainely as I could; have I runne [Page 174] through the severall motions and grounds; for the disciplining of a foot-company. And although I nei­ther can, nor hope to give satisfaction to all; yet I shall intreat the better qualified, that where I am wanting, there they will supply my defects with their goodnesse. Or if it so happen, that I under­goe the censure of needlesse superfluitie: I would have such to make use of so much of it, as they shall thinke fit for their owne turnes: and to leave the residue unto such as may have opportunity for to use it.

THus Courteous Reader have I past the grounds
And various motions of the Infantry,
Where thou maist gaine the skill, cost others wounds,
Though from a young one of th' Artillery.
Reade and consider, if thou nothing gaine,
I aske as little from thee for my paine.
If thou the distances dost well peruse,
The severall facings and the doublings too,
The Counter-marches which of course ensues,
And then our wheelings which we lastly doe.
These being practis'd, learn'd, and understood,
The benefit turnes to thy Countries good.
These, like the vowels, are in number five,
With which me spell all words that can be nam'd▪
So with these motions we all formes contrive,
And from these grounds are all our figures fram'd.
[Page 175] Then frame thou no excuse, but learn to know them,
And with as free an heart as I doe shew them.
Now next of all I should some firings show,
But lest perhaps I hold you over long,
I thinke it fit some respite to be stow,
Lest that our Souldiers thinke I doe them wrong.
So please the Reader but to pause the whiles,
And see our Leaders exercise their files.
For now each Leader is so courteous growne,
He strives to bring another to his place.
But they as modestly would keepe their owne,
And each prefers his follower to the grace.
So please you then but winke at the digression,
And you shall see each Leader by succession.

CHAP. LXVIII.
Of making men file-leaders successively, the files being eight deepe.

IN the making every man in file, suc­cessively leader according to their first standing: may as well and easi­ly be done in great bodies, as by sin­gle files. Yea and with the same words of Command and direction, as you may per­ceive by the Table, where the figures of number shew the succession of each mans leading. The words of Command which produce each leader, being placed in the Columes beneath. In the first Colume of the Table, the file stands as at first; with his proper file-leader in front: each man having his right place. The rest of the files, demonstrating the places of the men, according to their standing; upon the making of every severall file-leader. The Com­mands are figures, which produce the like leaders.

[Page 177]

The front of each file, as they come to be File-leaders; successively.
12345678
21436587
34127856
43218765
56781234
65872143
78563412
87654321
The severall words of Command, which produce each File-leader.
2Ranksto the right double.
 Files
3File-leaders and half-file-leaders stand, the rest passe thorough to the right, and place your selves before your Leaders. 
4Ranksto the left double.
 Files
5The first Ranke stand, the rest passe thorough to the right, and place your selves before your Leaders. 
6Ranksto the left double.
 Files
7Countermarch Front & Reere into the midst, then face to your Leader. 
8Ranksto the left double.
 Files
0Then face about or Countermarch your Files, and they are as at first. 

[Page 178] The first, are the proper leaders of the files. For to make the second leade, if there be but one file, then file ranke two to the right: if there be more files, than rankes to the right, double, and files to the right, double. By which meanes, the second man is become leader of his file: every man being dispo­sed, as you may perceive by that file, whose leader is the figure of 2. To make him that was the third man, leader, let file-leaders, and halfe-file leaders stand: & the rest passe through to the right, & place themselves before their leaders. Thus will the file stand like that, led by the figure of 3. For to make him that was the fourth man leader; Rankes to the left, double; and files to the left, double: whereby the file will stand like that, led by the figure of 4. For to make him that was the fift man, leader, let the first ranke stand; the rest passe through to the right, and place themselves before their leaders: by which meanes the file will stand like that, led by the figure 5. For to make him that was the sixt man, leader; double your rankes to the left, and files to the left, double: and then the file will stand, like the file led by the figure of 6. For to make him that was the seventh man, leader of the file; Coun­termarch front and reere into the midst, and face them to the former front: whereby the file will stand like that led by the figure of 7. For to make him that was the eighth man, leade the file-ranks to the left, double; and files to the left, double; and the file will stand like that, led by the figure of 8. For to [Page 179] reduce them, cause the first ranke to stand; the rest to advance forwards to the right, placing them­selves before their leaders.

CHAP. LXIX.
Of making men file-leaders, successively: the files being but sixe deepe.

SOme will be inquisitive to know for what use the making of leaders by suc­cession, serveth? or whether it be not a meere Curiosity? to which I thus answer. That it is not only plea­sant, but profitable. Pleasant to the lea­der of a file: who having sufficiently exercised his file in Postures, to give some time of respite, or delectation, for the recreating of their almost ty­red spirits, brings each man, successively, to leade the file by proper words of Command. And lastly, re­duceth each man to his former standing. It must needs be profitable and much availeable in disci­pline, when the skilfull Commander can thereby (with much ease) change and interchange: bring what rankes he pleaseth to lead in front; and ex­change them afterwards for others; yea, and lastly, at his owne pleasure, bring the proper file-leaders [Page 180] againe into their places. This following table, shewes each mans severall place as they stand; still being altered, according to their various Leaders. By the figures of number (which are placed over the heads of those Columes, wherein are writ the words of Command) understand that those words under the figure of 2. are to make the se­cond man, file-leader. Those words, under the figure of 3. make the third man, leader. And so forward for the rest.

[Page 181]

The front of each file, as they come to be Leaders.
123456
212565
346134
431643
565212
654321
The words of Command, which produce each severall Leader.
 Files
2Ranksto the left double.
3Half-files double your Front to the right, Files to the right double.
4Facc to the Reere, or let the first ranke stand, the rest passe thorough, &c.
5Ranks to the right double, Files double your depth to the right.
 Files
6Ranksto the left double.
7Face to the Reere, and they are reduced.

[Page 182] The first man, is the leader of the file. For to make the second man, leader; Command, file ranke, two to the left. If there be more files then one; ranks to the left, double; and files to the left, double; which makes the second man, leader; every man in the file being disposed, as you may perceive by that file, led by the figure of 2. For to make him that was the third man, leader; command halfe files, double the front to the right, and files to the right, double; by which meanes, the file will stand like that, led by the figure of 3. For to make him that was the fourth man, leader: Face to the reere, and then hee leads. But if you will keepe the same front; com­mand the first ranke to stand, the rest to passe through to the left: placing your selves before your leaders. Thus will the file stand like that, led by the figure of 4. For to make the fift man, leader: command, rankes to the right, double; and files to double their depth to the right intire: by which meanes the file will stand like that, led by the figure of 5. For to make the sixt man, file-leader: cause rankes to the left, double; and files to the left, double; and then the file wil stand like that, led by the figure of 6. For to reduce them, there needs no more but face to the reere: notwithstanding if you would have the front the same way, the Command is, the first rank, stand; the rest passe forwards to the right: placing your selves before your leaders.

For to make sixe men, successively leaders, by sixe words of Command, besides Facings.

The first is leader: for the second file, Ranke 2▪ to the left, and files to the left, double. For the third, Countermarch front and reere into the midst: and face to that part which was the reere. For the fourth, face about to the right. For the fift, countermarch front and reere into the midst, and face to that which was the reere. For the sixt, ranke two to the right; and files to the right, double; face them about, and they are re­duced.

CHAP. LXX.
Of drawing the Files againe into a Body: and preparing them for a skirmish.

BY this time (me thinkes) I heare the Drums beat a Call: which summons each file-leader to his place: every man observing his order, both in ranke and file. The Officers having taken their due places; the Captaine and Ensigne in the front of Pikes, the Lievetenant in the reere; the Serjeant on the flanks, the Drums on the front and reere Angle s of the Pikes: as you may perceive by the square figure next following. [Page 184] Now the Drums beat a march, the Ensigne flying at the head of the Pikes; the Pikes and Muskets shoul­dered, marching at their distance of order in file, at open order in ranke: presently by a signe from the Captaine, the Drums beat a preparative: the Ensigne furl-up, retiring into the midst betweene the Pikes; the Pikes advance, the rankes close forwards to their order; the Muskettiers makes ready, and every man prepares himselfe for Battell or Skirmish. And here the Eyes of the Drum must be very vigilant, to ob­serve his Captaine or Commander; that by the least signe, either of his hand, leading-staf [...]e, or whatso­ever else he carries, hee may either continue his charge, retreat, or else charge home: and every Soul­dier ought to be so well trayned and practised, that in the time of Battell, he may receive ample instru­ctions from the sound of the Drum.

The Body drawne into a square: with the Officers in their places.

[figure]

[Page 185] Thus many Officers may serue for a larger Com­pany, if the souldiers be expert and skilfull: and to the contrary, they are all too few, if they be raw and unexperienced. I have seene some Companies, which have been so absolutely ignorant, that each man would have needed an Officer, to have kept him orderly in his place. Neverthelesse I make no doubt, but that by the carefull oversight of the Lord Lieutenants, the good assistance of their De­puties, and the diligence of the Captains, and their Officers, this fault will quickly be amended. And this might easily enough be done, if that those which are owners of Armes, would but meet one houre or two in a fortnight (at their best leisures) and practise the postures of the Pike & Musket first, and the motions, and firings, when they are more expert. If any shall object, That how ever this may be done in Townes and Cities, yet it cannot be in the Countrey Villages. I answer, That if they meete not above foure, sixe, or eight in a place, al­though they have no Officer to instruct them, yet by conferring, and trying, and often practising, they will begin to carry their Armes with more ease; and to use them with more delight. Neither need they to be altogether ignorant, seeing there are divers printed portraitures of the postures of each Armes: as also books, whereby they may have very ample instruction. By which having attained some little skill; they will not be contented, untill they have better improved it by the instruction of their Officers: after which they will proue better proficients in one houre, then as they were before, in a yeare.

CHAP. LXXI.
Of firing by forlorne files. The manner, and use.

BEfore I enter upon formes and figures of Battel, be pleased to observe with me, that all firings, are either direct or oblique: notwithstanding that the formes are full enough of varietie, occasioned (most times) by the scitu­ation of the place; the order of the enemy, and the number of men: with other Politicall observations, for the gaining of winde and Sunne. For the manner of firings, they are sometimes advancing against an enemy: sometimes receiving the enemies charge up­on a stand; or else retreiting. Otherwhiles, we give fire in the Reere, marching from the Enemy: or in Flanke, marching by an enemy: and it may so fall out, that the enemy may charge in severall places at once; as in Front, and Reere; or in Front, Reere, and Flanke. Of which particulars, I will severally treat, desiring to give content to all, not making the least question but that benefit may accrue unto some. And therefore hoping that the courteous and best qualified, will accept of my good meaning; and not refuse my cates, although presented unto them in earthen vessels: whereby I shall be induced with more willingnesse, to proceed in my intended dis­courses, so you be pleased to favour me with your [Page 187] better opinions; neither rashly condemning me of prodigalitie, for enterprising a worke of such conse­quence as this; nor too suddenly accusing my sim­plicitie, for preferring my rush-light before the Sunne; when others suffer their Torches to burne out in darke lanternes: whom I confesse to be farre more able (were they but halfe so willing) to have imparted of their Talents, to the benefit of their Countrey. But seeing that they will not vouchsafe it, and that I, like bold bayard, have adventured thus farre; I shall (with your good favour) proceed. And first I will begin with firings in front; advan­cing, and standing: and so to the rest. And for the more cleare expression of each firing, I will deli­ver them both in words and figures. The first where­of, shall be a firing by forlorne files: which com­monly is used in our exercise, two manner of waies: One way is, for the two outermost-files of each flank of Musketiers, to march forth, being led on by the two junior Serjeants, so farre as by the superior Commander shall be thought fit; who being there to stand, the formost ranks are to give fire; wheeling off, both to the right, or to the right and left (if it be so commanded) and to place themselues in the Reere of their owne files, the rest of the ranks firing, and doing of the like, untill they have fired once or twice over, according to their directions. This done, the next two outmost-files of each flanke, are to march forwards unto the place assigned▪ and to do the like: those files which formerly faced, in the meane time trooping backe, and placing themselues next the pikes, on the inside of the divisions of [Page 188] Muskettiers: the rest of the Muskettiers (in like manner) marching up, and firing: still placing them­selues next the pikes, as aforesaid. When they have fired all over, and placed themselues according to these directions: they are reduced, as at first. A se­cond way of firing by forlorne files, may be after this māner. The outermost files of eachflank, are led forth by the Serjeants; according to the charge untill they have brought them unto a fit place for execution: and then they command their files to ranke inward, and to present, and fire all together: as you may plainly perceive by the figure following.

[figure]

[Page 189] The first two files, having ranked i [...]ard, presen­ted and fired, are to wheele off to the right and left: following their leaders in single file, and placing themselves on the inside of their divisions of Mus­kettiers next the Pikes; the next outmost files, which followed the first in the reere in the meane time ranking inward, firing and wheeling off, as before, and placing themselves next the Pikes. And so for­wards for all the rest of the files: still marching up, and doing the like, so long as the Captaine or Commander shall fee fitting. These kinde of fi­rings (and all such like) are either for the begin­ning of skirmishes, before the Bodies come within shot one of another, or to provoke the enemy to battaile, to draw them from their Trenches, into some ambushment, and other such politicall ends, the number of men which march forth upon such designes, nor the manner are not alwayes certaine, but consists sometimes of more, sometimes of fewer, according to the number, time, and place.

CHAP. LXXII.
Of firings by two Ranks, ten paces advanced before the front: Next, even with the front; and lastly, even with the halfe files.

Advancing of two rankes to fire, ten paces before the front, is most commonly used, when one or both Battailes march against each other: the Muskettiers being led forth by two rankes together, ten or twenty paces, before the front of the body; that so they may come neere e­nough to doe▪certaine execution. A Serjeant from each flanke leading up the two foremost rankes, (ac­cording as they shall have order) the first ranke of each flanke is to present and give fire, wheeling either all off to the right, or to the right and left, as you may perceive by the following Figure.

[figure]

[Page 191] The first ranks having presented, fired, and whee­led off, (as aforesaid) are to march close downe in single file, within three foot of their owne flankes, untill they come to the Reere of their owne divisi­ons: where every man is to place himselfe in the reere of his owne file. The second ranke being at the distance of three foot, behinde the first ranke, when they first tooke their ground: they likewise are to rest their Muskets, mounting their muzzles cleere of their Leaders, and so to stand with their matches cock [...], and pans guarded, that so they may levell and fire as soone as their Leaders are cleere of them, and wheele off, in like manner placing themselves as they were before. The next two rankes are to beginne to advance forwards, when they see the last of the two former ranks, presen­ted ready to fire. And they also having fired, wheele off as the others did before them. And so, succes­sively the rest of the ranks advancing, fire and wheeling off againe, placing themselves according to former directions. This way, they may give fire, once or oftner over, as the enemy doth ad­vance; or the Commander shall see fitting. All this while that the Muskettiers advance so farre before the front, (if the body be upon march) the Pikes may be shouldered: but when the bodies come within twelve score, or lesse, then it is fit that the Musket­tiers give fire even with the front of the Pikes, and that the Pikemen, advance their Pikes, and close forwards to their distance of three foot, that so they may be even in ranke with their Muskettiers, as you may perceive by the following Figure.

[Page 192]

[figure]

Now the Pikes being advanced, and the rankes closed forwards to their due distance of order, the Muskettiers are to present, even with the front, every ranke successively moving forward, untill they come to be even in ranke with the first ranke of Pikes, there to give fire, and to wheele off to the right and left, trooping, file-wise, downe close to their owne divisions: and taking their places in the reere, as in the former figures. The first ranke of Muskettiers having fired, and wheeled away, the next ranks are to move forwards at threeThe three motions are, Blow your Coal [...], Open your Pan, Present Breast high. You are to blow your Coal [...], stepping forwards with your left foot. Open your Pannel stepping forwards with your right foot▪ Present, stepping forwards with your left foot. The [...] a [...]e to bepetfor [...]d, hand and foot together, by every one that advanceth [...] to [...]iv [...] fire, without expecting anydirecti [...] in time of Skirm s [...]. motions, into their places; and there to give fire after the same manner: wheeling away againe, and placing themselves according to former directions, every ranke still making good their Leaders ground. In [Page 193] this sort the battell may be continued, untill they have fired once, twice, or oftner over; and that the Bodies become so close together, that the Pikes be­gin to porte, and so at length come to push of Pike. Which done, the Muskettiers are to give fire, ei­ther retreiting, or else not to advance further, then the halfe files of Pikes. For in that place (the bodies being come so neere together) they will doe as much execution, as if they were even with the front. The manner of the standing, you may perceive by the following Figure.

[figure]

The Pikes being now come to push, the Musket­tiers are to advance no further than the halfe files of Pikes: that (so they may doe execution with their [Page 194] shot, and be out of danger of the Pikes. This ha­ving attained, they are there to present, and give fire; every ranke still moving forwards, and main­taining his leaders ground. After they have perfor­med their firing, they are to wheele off by division, as in the former Figures: still placing themselves in the reere of their owne files, alwaies taking their directions from the Drum, either for charging or retreiting, &c.

The battell or charge being ended, the reduce­ment is easie. The leader of each file, being in his place at the head of his file; command the Musket­tiers to march up, even with the front of pikes; and then they will be as at first.

Obserue withall that when the firing is to be performed, even with the front; then the Musket­tiers are stil to make good their leaders ground. The want to be in the place of most security (which is the Reere) as you may perceive by the pricks, which I have designed, for noting out the empty roomes of such, who have closed forwards to make good the ground in the front: the others that last fired are wheeled off, and trooping downe into their places. When the firing is even with the halfe-files, they are to do the like: unlesse the Drumme beat a retreat; for then, the Muskettiers neither advance, nor re­treat: but every rank giving fire on the same ground, they stand: and then wheele off againe, that their fel­lows may do as much. Neverthelesse when the forlorne files march forth, or that two ranks march forth, ten paces (or more) before the front: then they are to give fire, as upon a retreit: unlesse the [Page 195] enemy flye. I will now shew some other wayes of firing in front; before I shew the firings in the reere. The first whereof, shall be the horne Battell: as in the Chapter following.

CHAP. LXXIII.
Of the Horne-battell; how to make it: and to reduce it by firing.

THe Horn-battell may be for the same occasion and use, as the firing by two ranks ten paces advancing before the front: and is by some held more ser­viceable, because that the mus­kettiers do their execution more roundly, without any intermission of time: and keepe themselues without stragling from their bo­dies. Besides, the wings of Muskettiers being so ad­vanced, are more apt for over-fronting, and more easily to be wheeled; whereby to charge the enemy in flanke; each of these wings, or divisions, are to be led up by a Serjeant (or some other superiour Officer) unto the place appointed by the Chiefe. But because that it may be performed in time of exercise, by the intelligible Souldier, observe the Command which produceth this following figure.

Pikes, stand; Muskettiers, march; untill the Bringers up, ranke with the front of Pikes.
The Horne-battell.

[figure]

The figure being perfect, the firstranke of Mus­kettiers, present and give fire wheeling off, either all to the right; or to the right and left (according as they shall have direction) and placing themselues, orderly, in the Reere of their owne files. The next [Page 197] ranke (after the same manner) firing and wheeling off, and placing themselues behinde those, which were their leaders. Thus is every rank, successively▪ to do the like: untill they have all given fire. If the Commander would still preserve, and continue the same figure; then let the Muskettiers still move for­wards, into the ground (or place) of them that fired before them: and the forme will be still the same. And if by the Chiefetain it be found necessary, that after once or twice firing over, the shot should flanke their pikes; then the Muskettiers, must not advance into their leaders ground; but, to the contrary, every ranke is to present and fire on the same ground they stand: and that so soone as they are cleere of their leaders. Or if need be, the pikes may advance and march up, to make their front i [...]tire: which being done, the file-leaders of Muskettiers being in front, they are reduced.

CHAP. LXXIIII.
Of the Demie-hearse Battell: The use of the figure; how to make it, and to reduce it by firing.

THe next firing in Front which I present un­to you, is the Demie Hearse: which is a fi­gure most firme, most sollid, and most sta­ble, yea, and doth as much execution, as any of the former: and that with halfe the danger. For the pikes in the former figure, they either ranke even with the front of Muskets: or else, the division of Muskettiers being open, they become liable to the danger of the enemies shot: themselues not being able to do any thing, either offensive or defensive. But, to the contrary, in this figure, they are securely covered by their owne Muskettiers: untill they ap­proach nearer to the enemy. Whereby they may be able to do some service; either by sending their showres of arrows amongst them, for bringing their array out of order, or else, by closing neerer, come to the shocke, and so try the fortune of the day. But not to hold you longer in circumstance, take the words of command: which produce the figure, as follow­eth.

Pikes, stand, Muskettiers, advance before your Front of Pikes: and close your Divisions.
The Demic-hearse.

[figure]

For the firings on this figure, they may be divers; yet I shall content my selfe onely to shew two of them: The first is, that the Muskettiers may at the discretion of the Commander, give fire in front: and so wheele off by division (or all to the right, as shall best please him that commands in Chiefe) placing themselues in the Reere of their owne divisions and files of shot, which is just before the front of pikes. [Page 200] The next ranks then moving forwards into their lea­ders ground, are to present, fire, wheele off, and place themselues after the same manner: the rest of the ranks of Muskettiers, doing the like, untill they have all given fire: which firing, doth nothing alter the forme or figure of battell. Having fired once or twice over this way, the second firing shall serue for reducement: which is indeed the firing intended to be exprest by this figure. And that I may by words, the more clearly explaine the worke, take these directions following.

The first ranke having given fire, are to wheele e­qually off by division: each part falling file-wise downe, close by their flanks of Muskettiers: untill the leaders of the ranks of Muskets come downe as low as the first ranke of pikes; which being performed, they are to face outwards, and to move so farre forth in a strait line, untill they have ranked even with the first ranke of pikes. But herewithall are they to observe, that they must leave an Intervall betweene the innermost-musket of each flanke; and the outermost-file-leader of the pikes. So soone as the first ranke hath given fire and wheeled away, the se­cond ranke is to give fire, wheeling off, as before, and passing downe betweene the Intervals on the flanks: placing themselues after their leaders. The same is every ranke successively to do, untill all the Mus­kettiers are drawne from before the front, and pla­ced on the flanke of their pikes. But when there are not above two ranks of Muskettiers to give fire, then the pikes may port; and when the Muskettiers have fired, and are wheeled away, they may charge. And [Page 201] lastly, the pikes being re-advanced, the body stands reduced, as at first.

CHAP. LXXV.
Of giving Fire, advancing, by way of Introduction: with the beneficiall use of the Bow and Pike.

I Shall next offer to your perusall, a figure of Introduction: which is a pas­sing through or betweene: Being a fi­ring by way of advancing against the enemy, and of gaining ground. I will not dispute how usefull it is; but sure I am, it is over-ballanced with danger. As for such whom I haue seene to practise it, they have rather used it for varietie, in a well experienced Company, then for any knowne excellency it hath in it selfe. But if these lines happen to be over-lookt by any, that preserues a better opinion of this firing by introdu­ction, then I do: I shall be willing to leave them to their owne liking, while I in the meane time pro­ceed to shew the manner of the execution, which is usually one of these two wayes. The first, when the Motion is begun by the second ranke from the front. The other, when it is begun by the Bringers up. Ne­verthelesse you must note▪ that your files of Mus­kettiers must be opened to their open order; before the firing begin: that so, the Muskettiers may passe betweene the Intervals of each file, to give fire in [Page 202] the front. And therefore take the words of Command and Direction; which will produce this Figure following.

Muskettiers, make ready to give fire by introduction to the right.
Files of Muskettiers, open by Division to your open order.

[figure]

This firing by introduction may be thus perfor­med. The Pikes being flankt with their Musket­tiers, the first ranke of each flanke, present and give fire: having fired, they stand and make ready againe in the same place. The second ranke passing for­wards before the first, doe there fire and stand: the third rank then passing forwards after the second, [Page 203] and standing even in ranke with them that first fi­red; that so soone as the second ranke hath fired, they may quickly step before them, and fire in like manner. In this firing, still the ranke which is next to fire, stands even in ranke with them which last fired; untill those which stand presented, have like­wise given fire: after which they then passe be­fore them; the Ranke which was their next fol­lowers, passing forwards and ranking with those which last fired: every man following his Leader successively, untill the Bringers up give fire, & stand, and then the Figure will become a Horne battell. All the while that this firing by Introduction, is con­tinued, the Pikes may be shouldered (if there be no feare of horse) or otherwise at discretion. If you continue this firing twice over; the Muskettiers will have their right places: which being done, march up your Pikes, to ranke even with your Muskettiers in front, and they are reduced. For the other way of firing by introduction, the first ranke (or file-leaders) are to give fire as before, and to stand, the last ranke (or bringers up) in the interim of their firing; marching up, and ranking even with the second ranke: the rest following their Bringers up; as they do when Bringers up double their front. The first ranke having fired, the Bringers up step immediately before them; present, and give fire; the rest stil, successively, doing the like, untill every rank have given fire once over. Observe withal that the file-leaders are to give fire twice over: being the first & the last & then to stand, the Pikes marching [Page 204] up, even with their front of Muskettiers. And thus they are reduccd, as at first. The Pikemen, all the time of this firing, doe no service: Notwithstan­ding, if one halfe of them had bowes fastened unto their Pikes (being able and well practised men) they might, whilest the Muskettiers are in firing, be dealing of their doles about: and although their arrowes did not happen to wound mortally, yet the whisteling noyse, the terrour of the sight, and the severall hurts (which could not chuse but be many) would be a great abatement to the stoutest courages. And great pitty it is to see, the lusty Pike-man poorely to droppe downe by the Mus­ket-shot; himselfe not being able to hurt his enemy at that distance, nor defend himselfe.

CHAP. LXXVI.
The way to make the Diamond Battell: severall waies to fire upon it: with divers other figures and firings, which are thereby produced.

THe Diamond Battell is also a firing in front; though more for shew, then moderne service; yet because that some hold it in venerable respect, I thought fit to place it amongst the rest; leaving every man to his liking, either to use [Page 205] it or refuse it. It may be that some will looke, that I should make the Sheere Battell; the Wedge, the Saw, and many such like: which might be made either hollow or sollid. But I shall intreate such to spare me; for I would not willingly spend time to so small purpose; chusing rather to insist on Fi­gures; more profitable for them, and commen­dable for mee. Yet if any man have a minde to practise any of them, by observation of this Dia­mond Battell, he may easily make them. But not to hold you longer with circumstance, the words of Command, and direction, which are for the ma­king of this Diamond Battell, are as follow.

First cause your Muskettiers of the right flanke, to open to the right, to a sufficient distance: for receiving the Muskets of the left flanke.

Then command the Muskettiers of the left flanke, to passe through into the space of ground on the right.

This being done, for to make the Figure, Command.
Files of Muskettiers, ranke 1. 3. 5. 7. &c. by increase, to the left.
Files of Pikes, ranke by decrease after your Muskettiers.

[figure]

[Page 207] The Muskettiers may fire on this figure, divers waies: though I onely intend to speake unto two of them. The first, is the most usuall way: and that is, the giving fire in ranke; the first man (or poynt of the Diamond) first giving fire: then wheeling off to the right, and placing himselfe just behinde the single Pikeman, in the reere. Then, the next ranke being three men, give fire; wheeling off by division: and placing themselves in ranke, behinde the single Muskettiers, as they were before the firing began. This done, the ranke of five Muskettiers, gives fire; wheeling off, in like manner, by division▪ ever ob­serving, that where the number is odde, & they com­mand to wheele off by division; there the greatest number, alwaies goes to the right. And so, in like manner, the rankes give fire, successively; and place themselves after their leaders, as before. When all the Muskettiers have given fire, and are wheeled off; then charge Pikes, which will be fifteene in the first ranke; the rest decreasing, Having advanced your Pikes, your figure will stand like two wedges, with their poynts ioyned, as you may perceive by this Figure next following.

[Page 208]

[figure]

If you would reduce your men from this Figure, without firing, (your men being sufficiently ex­pert) let the Muskettiers stand, and Pikes face to the reere: and so the wedges will stand faced in oppositi­on. Next, command them to interchange ground: the Muskettiers advancing forwards, into the ground of the Pikes, and the Pikes, moving into the ground of the Muskettiers; and then by facing the Pikes to the former front, the body will stand in forme of a Dia­mond againe.

If you would give fire from this Figure (all the [Page 209] Muskettiers being in the reere) the body must face about: and so the firing will be contrary to the for­mer. But if you wheele them about, they may give fire the same way. Howsoever, they having given fire, are to wheele off by division, and to place them­selves in the reere of the Pikes, even in ranke again, as they were when they gave fire. Thus having all fired ouer, and wheeled away; the Pikes may charge: and being againe advanced, the body will stand in forme of a Diamond▪ and this I pray you to con­ceive, for I intend not to remake the Figure.

The second way of firing on the Diamond figure, is by way of Countermarch▪ and is an oblique firing. For whereas in the other firing by ranks (in the Diamond Battell) each ranke fired by increase of two (beginning with one, and ending with fifteene in a ranke) this firing, contrariwise, begins with 15. and ends with 1. still decreasing 2. For this firing, your files must be at open order, because the Muskettiers must countermarch downe betweene the Intervals of their owne files to the right: every Muskettier that findes himselfe without a leader, being to pre­sent and give fire: and then to countermarch to the right, and to place himselfe in the Reere of his own file, behinde the pikes. When the first 15. have fi­red, then the next 13. present, fire, and countermarch, still placing themselues in the reere of their owne files. Next there fireth [...] th [...] 9. &c. for still there fires [...]o many, as are [...] of any leaders. And in this manner of firing, they that fire together, stand neither in ranke not file, bu [...] o [...]liquely. When all the Muskettiers have fired▪ and [...]e [...] into [Page 210] the Reere of their owne files; let the pikes charge: and so the forme of your battell, will be like a long wedge: as you may perceive by the following fi­gure, where now your Ranks are become 2. and 2▪ of a number.

[figure]

Your men standing in forme afore-shewed, if you please yet to be more curious, face them all to the Reere: and command your Muskettiers to march ten or twelue paces. Your pikes to stand, and your Mus­kettiers will present you with an hollow wedge▪ and [Page 211] your pikes with a sollid wedge. Lastly, to reduce all these severall formes into the first proper square bat­tell: first, let the sollid wedge, close forward, into the hollow of the other: then, let the Muskettiers make ready, present, and fire, as before. That is to say, e­very Muskettier that finds himselfe without a lea­der, is to give fire, and to countermarch to the reere of his owne file, the rest doing the like, successive­ly. When they have all fired, and are counter­marcht cleere, let the pikes charge: and then your body will have the form of a Diamond againe. Next, face them all to the Reere; and command, Ranks, file 8. to the right. Which being done, passe through the Muskettiers which belong to the left-flanke, in­to their places; and close the Muskettiers of the right-flanke to their due distance: and so they will stand, all properly reduced.

CHAP. LXXVII.
Of the Convex Halfe Moone; The use of the Figure: and of severall wayes of firing upon it.

THe Convex halfe-moone, or semi­circular Battell, is a forme both good and usefull; which the time, the number, and place (with other circumstances) may make either beneficiall or prejudiciall. Wise Captains and Commanders [Page 212] ever foreseeing with providence, what formes or figures may be most profitable and available, for the present service. This Convex figure may be usefull, either at the landing of souldiers in an enemies Coun­trey, or for necessity (the enemy being more able in horse) making use either of hedge, ditch, wood, creeke or River; to secure the Reere. For the figure it selfe, it may be made many wayes; either with the Mus­kettiers outermost, or innermost, or lined, &c. as plea­sest he Commander. It may also be made in a Regi­mentall way, or after the way of a small and private Company: But because I have onely in this my smal Treatise, taken upon me to shew the postures, moti­ons, and figures, which are most usually done in a small Company (although many of them, yea the more part, may be very fit for larger Bodies) I shall content my self to saile in so small a bottome, not desiring to put on more saile then will suffice for the bearing of so small a burthen. Wherefore my request shall be, that every courteous and skilful Pilot that shall come aboard this small Barke; will be pleased neither to launch it into the maine, lest it be swallowed in the Surges▪ nor to expose it to the dan­ger of shelues, rocks, and sands; lest it suffer ship­wracke for want of good guidance, but so to steere it, that it may safely arrive at its [...]sir [...]d Harbour: wherein they will both honour [...] ex­pressing their vertues, and g [...]tifie [...] by apply­ing each motion, figure, and forme, to his right use, and true intention. I will now shew, how the figure is to be made, which is as follow [...]th▪ If yo [...] Bat­tell be in forme of an Hearse▪ then [...] them to [Page 213] the right or left about; untill they have atteined this figure. But if in a square, then observe these fol­lowing words; which will produce the figure.

Wheele your Flanks into the Front: then face the Body to one of the Flanks: and wheele your Bat­tell into a Convex Halfe Moone.
The Convex Halfe Moone.

[figure]

Having brought your Souldiers into this Convex forme, you may face them all inward, for speech; or outward for fight. Then let the Officers make Inter­vals for the Muskettiers; and let the outermost Arc, [Page 214] or first ranke of each division, present, and give fire: those of the right flanke, wheeling off to the right; the left-flanke, to the left; placing themselues in the Reere of their owne divisions of Muskettiers; still making good their leaders ground. The rest of the ranks are to do the same: untill they have all given fire. Neverthelesse, if your enemy be too potent for you by reason of his horse, your Bow-pike-men need not stand idle; although they stand behinde their Muskettiers: for that they may plie them faster with their shafts, then the others can with their shot. But if the horse be so violent, that the Musket­tiers may not abide them; then let them give fire, and wheele off by division, as before: passing quite through their Intervals, and placing themselues in the Reere of their pikes: every ranke making good their leaders ground. Thus also are the rest of the Muskettiers to give fire, placing themselues in the concave part of the Body, as aforesaid: following the pikes which now make good the Muskettiers ground. If need be, the pikes may charge over-hand: or if occasion serves, at the foot, drawing forth their swords, over their left armes; and couching downe their heads: by which meanes the Muskettiers may give fire, over their shoulders. For the first ranke having fired, may kneele downe on the ground, and charge againe: and so the second ranke may give fire, and kneele in like manner: making ready againe. And so in like manner for all the rest: all giving fire, and kneeling on the ground; that so the next ranke behinde may give fire over them. Thus con­tinning the firing, untill all the Muskettiers have gi­ven [Page 215] fire. Neverthelesse if need be, the first ranke may rise with the rest, and give fire over again, as before. And so the Battell may be continued; the Pikes still keeping off the horse.

For the reducement of this figure, & to bring every man to his place: let your Muskettiers (either firing, or passing through) be brought into the places they were in, before they first gave fire. Then face the whole Body to one of the flankes; and march them untill they have evened their rankes, and straitned their files. This done, then if all your Pikes be on the right flanke; wheele your right flanke into the midst; if on the left flank, wheele front and reere into the left flanke. This being done, let the Commander passe to his proper file-leaders; and face the whole Body to him, and they are reduced as at first.

CHAP. LXXVIII.
Of Extraduction: the severall uses, firings, and Reducements.

THe next Firing which I shall take upon me to demonstrate, shall be by way of Extraduction: which is also a firing in Front. It may be to singular good use, in a strait or pas­sage [Page 216] sage where your Wings and Reere may be secured: your enemy being supposed to be too powerfull for you, either in Horse or Foot, or both. Having gotten into some strait, there fill the mouth of the passage with your Pikes: and if the length of your Company be not sufficient to do it, then double your ranks (as in this following figure) and let y [...]ur pikes either order, advance, port, or charge: according to the occasion; your Muskettiers being in the Reere, may march up into the Front, and fire. But before I shew the firing, observe these following directions, which produce the Figure.

Pikes stand, Muskettiers face to the Reere, and March u [...]till you are cleere of your body of Pikes;
Then face inward, and close your division: that being done face to your Leader, and double your Rankes.

This being performed, the Pikes are all in front, the Muskettiers in Reere.
A firing by Extraduction.

[figure]

[Page 217] Having ordered your ba [...]tell in this manner, let the first rank [...] [...]f Muskettiers (which are those that follow next after the Pikes) face to the right, and march forth (file-wise) to close by the right flanke of Pikes, untill he that is the leader of them, be come into the front of Pikes, then hee is to leade them quite crosse the front of Pikes; untill he have attai­ned the further part of the front to the left; which being done, they are all to stand, present, and give fire. You must note withall, in this firing, that hee which was the right hand man of the Ranke, and was the leader of the [...]tion, now becomes the left hand man, when he gives fire; and that having fired, they are to wheele off to the left, close to the left flanke of Pikes, and so to fall in the reere of the Muskettiers. In the interim, whilest that the ranke which first fired, is wheeling away, the second rank is marching into their places to give fire. And in this manner they may maintaine their Battaile, so long as they please: the Pikes either porting or charging all the whiles. The Muskettiers in the time of their crossing the front, are to couch, or stoope under their Pikes; that so they may be no impediment to the Pikes in their charge. There is another way of firing [...]y Extraduction, which is, that the right hand leader of Muskettiers, placeth himselfe before the right file­ [...]eader of Pikes: the rest all falling beyond him: neverthelesse because I conceive it not to be so good a way as that already shewne, I will not trouble you with it: but come immediately to the [...]educement of this, which is as followeth. Com­ [...]and your Pikes to stand, and your Muskets to [Page 218] double their front by division: but if you want room to doe it, then first double your files [...] the contrary hand of that, which you doubled your rankes; and so hauing doubled by division, as aforesaid, they will be reduced, as at fi [...]st.

CHAP. LXXIX.
Of the Broad-fronted Battell: with the wayes of firing upon it.

THe broad-fronted battell, must needs be of speciall use; for many occasi­ons, either offensive or defensive. Which because it is so apparant to all, I shall not need to stand to rea­son with any; rather desiring to shew the manner of making and reducing it: which is [...]s followeth. Cause your Pikes to stand, and your Muskettiers to march: untill the reere ranke of Muskettiers be advanced a little before the first ranke of Pikes; then let the Muskettiers face in­ward, (or in opposition) and close their divisions; and then face to their leader. And if you would bring more hands to fight, double rankes to any hand, and the body (for forme and number) will stand like the figure here next following. But the speediest way, and (I thinke the best) I am sure with expert Soul­diers, is to wheele both [...]lanks into the front, which is the way intended by this Figure. For the man­ner [Page 219] of the firing it selfe, you may partly perceive that there are intervalles made for each division, to wheele off to the right, that so they may either fall in the reer of the Muskettiers, & there continue the firing; or else fall in the reer of the pikes, & be ther­by secured from the horse. It may be done, one or both wayes: according to the occasion or discretion of the Commander. Neverthelesse, before I shew the firing, observe these words of Command, which produce the Figure.

Wheele your flanks into the front,
Face to your leader.

The broad [...]onted Battell.

[figure]

The first ranke having presented, and given fire, let them wheele off to the right: all passing down the Interual [...]es to the right, and placing themselves in the reere of their owne divisions of Muskettiers. The Muskettiers making good their leaders ground; and the next ran [...]es firing, wheeling off, and placing [Page 220] themselves as before. Having fired once or twice over this way, a second way may be, to place themselves in the reere of their Pikes; either stan­ding, or advancing: the Pikemen in the meane time, clouding the cleere skie, with their ayrie Armorie. The Muskettiers having all given fire, and placed themselves in the reere: if need bee, the Pikes may close their divisions, and charge over hand: and if the enemy shall still presse forwards, the Pikes may charge at the foot: the Muskettiers gi­ving fire over them, &c.

For reducement, there are divers waies by firings; but because I would make every thing so plaine and easie, that those that reade for instruction, may receive benefit, it hath caused me to reduce each fi­gure by it selfe: and not to multiply one upon ano­ther, whereby to make them too ambiguous. And therefore, if you make this Figure by wheeling your flankes into the front; and then fire, as aforesaid: the reducement may be, eitherNote that the second firing will cause the body to f [...]ee to the reer, which then becomes a front acciden­tall, and is the cause that the same command reduceth the figure which first made it. to fire them over a­gaine, and so to fall into their former places: and then to wheele your flankes into the front againe, and lastly, face about to the right: and they will be as before. Or else, if you would reduce them with­out giving fire over againe, then command your Muskettiers to double your front by division: that done, wheele both flankes into the reere: then face to your leader, and command your Muskettiers to double your front by division againe: and they are as at first. If I should proceed to shew the many and sundry wayes of firings, which may be done in front: my Booke had need to have as many [Page 221] leaves, as lines: and yet all too little. But that I may keepe my selfe to my promise, and my Booke to its compasse: I will next come to shew some fi­rings in the reere: and amongst my divisionall firings, I shall insert some other sorts of front firings, which here I have omitted.

CHAP. LXXX.
Of dismarching, or firing in the Reere: the severall wayes, and how they ought to be performed.

HAving so long maintained Battaile in the front, I will now face them a­bout, and see how they will behave themselves upon their firings in the reere. Which kinde of firings, may be very beneficiall and serviceable, many wayes. For by keeping an orderly march, and firing in the reere, the eager enemy, (by a too hasty pursuit) may be disordered. Or if it so happen (as many timesit doth) that you have a disadvantagious place to im­battell on; by this firing you may march away: still preserving your order and array, untill you have brought your adversary into some ambushment, or such like inconvenience. For the manner of comming of the firing, it must either be by facing about, wheeling about, or countermarching: the Pikes are to be shouldered. The figure followeth.

A firing in the Reere.

[figure]

The Bodie being upon a march, if the enemy ap­peare in the Reere; let the last ranke of Muskettiers, face about, and give fire, wheeling off, by division, file-wise marching up toward the Front, and there placing themselues before the foremost ranke of Muskettiers: (the outmost man of each ranke, beingNote upon all firings in the Reere, Blow your colt; stepping forwards with your right foot. Open your p [...]n, step­ping forwards with your left foot present to the R ere, stepping for­wards with your right foot the leader up of those which have fired) where first taking their places on the outside, the rest wheeling about them, and ranking even with them on the in­side; ever observing, that they ranke even with the second ranke of pikes. The rest of the Muskettiers al­so doing the like: and in this manner to continue the firing, as occasion shall require. Neverthelesse, of all the figures and firings, that ever I have seene, this hath beene the worst performed in all places; which might easily be amended, if the Souldiers would observe this following order in their execu­tion: namely, when the last ranke of Muskettiers [Page 223] have presented to the Reere, and are giving of fire; the ranke which marched next before them, do then blow, open, and present, at three motions▪ still keeping along even with the Body, untill that, (lastly) they present to the Reere; by which time, the ranke that last fired, will be wheeled away. The next ranke, so soone as the other hath presented, is likewise at 3. motions, to do the same: and so, successively, for all the rest; every ranke observing, upon each ranks firing, to loose one; and to march one ranke neerer, to the reere of the Battell: that so that part, may still be kept absolute.

This giving of fire towards the reere for service, is to be continued; according to the qualitie of the place, the occasion for fight; and the discretion of the Commander. In exercise, we commonly do it but once over; and then (if you please you may make Alte) and face your Bodie about, giving fire over a­gaine: and charging your pikes upon it: if need so requireth. Notwithstanding, if the horse shall still continue to pursue you in the reere, you having gained some strait or place of advantage, may wheele your flanks into the Front, then face to the reere, and with your charged pikes, defend your Muskettiers: which (the body being so wheeled) will be in the reere. The body standing in this forme, the Musket­tiers may sleeve up by way of Extraduction. The manner, you may perceive in the Chapter which treats of that figure. If the horse still presse for­wards, cause the pikes to charge at the foot; the Mus­kettiers giving fire [...]ver them, as in the Convex halfe Moone. Lastly, to reduce them, having thus fired, [Page 204] command them to wheele their flanks into the fron, and to face about after their proper file-leaders, and they are reduced.

Sometimes, we give fire in the reere: having all our Muskettiers marching in the reere of the pikes. For the manner of the motion, it is as before: but for pla­cing of the men, after they have fired; it may be different. As, to wheele off by division, placing them­selues in the front of the Muskettiers, next behinde the reere of pikes. Or if the body be large, to wheele all off to the right, through Intervals▪ and so to march into the front of pikes. Or else, they may wheele off by division, flanke their pikes, and so fire over againe, as before. If you have brought your Mus­kettiers (by firing) to the Reere, before the front of pikes; then to reduce them, you may either wheele the body about, and give fire in front, causing your Muskettiers to fall off by division, and to flanke their pikes, as you may perceive by the figure of the Demie-hearse. Or else, if you will reduce them with­out a firing, cause your Muskettiers to open to the right and left: and the pikes to march up in the miast: after which, facing all to your Leader, they are as at first.

I might have shewne a Figure for each of these severall firings in the reere: which would have de­livered them with more variety: but I conceive that this here already exprest, may suffice: especi­ally this being the ground of what may be spoken. Concerning firings in this nature, many men are of many mindes, about this firing in the reere. Some will have it, that the last ranke, shall at one motion, [Page 225] face to the reere: and there present, and give fire. Others will have it at two motions; but either of them have their inconveniences. For however they pretend a more sudden execution, they are de­cerved: for would they make tryall, by causing the Muskettiers of one of the flanks, to give fire at one motion; and the Muskettiers of the other flanke, at three motions, (as I have here set downe) they should soone finde, that the firing upon three moti­ons were the best: and that the other would be cast so farre behinde their body, that they would be in some danger to be cut off. Besides this, they are longer in clearing themselves from their owne men, which all the whilst must stay, untill they are mar­ched off: or else kill them, in stead of the enemy, whereas in this other firing upon three motions, they still keepe along with their Body, doing their executi­on more suddenly and more safely. Neverthelesse, there be many so much wedded to [...]heir own wil­full opinion, that they will more willingly persist in knowne errour, then be seene to alter what they have seemed to maintaine. But leaving such to steere by their owne compasse, I will here conclude my firing in the reere. And the next I shew, shall be firings in flanks: to which purpose, I passe all my Muskettiers to the right flanke. The words of dire­ction for it, are these.

Muskettiers of the right flanke, open to the right, or face to the right, and march. When they have ope­ned to a sufficient distance, then stand.

Muskettiers of the left flanke, passe through betweene your rankes of Pikes, to the intervalle on the right flanke: then stand, and face all to your leader.

CHAP. LXXXI.
Of firings in flanke, in generall; and more particularly, of the gathering firing.

THe Muskettiers being all on the right flanke, (as in the last Chapter is directed) it would be needlesse to make a Figure, whereby to demon­strate the standing of the body▪ see­ing that none can be so ignorant, but must needs know that all the Muskettiers being upon the right, the Pikes must be upon the left. Neverthe­lesse, I shall endeavour to shew what is meant by firing in flankes. Which (for the generall) are of these two kindes. The first is, when the enemy skir­m [...]sh with us in flanke as we march: the other, when as by some sudden attempt or ambushment, the whole body is engaged, and so forced to stand, and to face to the right, or left; or both. By which facings, the flanks become fronts accidentall, and their firings wil be after the same manner of the firings in front. Wherefore seeing I have already spoken suffi­ciently of them, I will now shew firings in flanke, marching: the particulars whereof, are as fol­loweth. The first is for the outmost file to give fire, and stand untill the next file have fired, which by some is called the gathering firing. Secondly, firings in flanke, and leading them up, between the Muskettiers and Pikes firing; in flanke, being led off [Page 227] by the bringers up: firings in flanke, sleeving up on the contrary flanke of Pikes: firing in flanke, and drawing them up betweene the innermost files of Pikes. All these firings in flanke, are to be perfor­med upon a march, the Pikes are to be shouldered. Our first firing in flanke, followeth.

The Command is, Muskettiers, give fire to the right: and gather up your files.

[figure]

[Page 228] This kinde of firing on the flanke, I have seene and knowne used, by many good and able souldi­ers. Neverthelesse, in my opinion, the men stand in a great deale of danger, when having given fire, they can doe no good; but stand like so many markes for their enemies shot. Notwithstanding, it may be that such whom I have frequently seene to use it in their practise, may be able to render good reasons for the service; though as yet I can­not conceive it. I will therefore surcease any fur­ther prosecution my opinions, and shew the man­ner of execution: which is to be performed as fol­loweth. The Command being, to give fire to the right, presently the outermost file to the right, faceth outward, and presents: the rest of the body, still marching forwards. Then the presented file, gives fire, and stands facing againe to their first front. By thattime, the body will be marched cleere of the standing file, then the next outermost file, presents and fires; in like manner: the body marching as before. Having fired, they in like manner face to their first front, and stand; a Serjeant leading up the file, that first fired on the out side of the file that last fired. Then they both stand together, untill the third file hath given fire after the same manner. And then the Serjeant leads up the two files, even with the third, which last fired. And after this manner, the [...]es of Muskettiers face to the flanke: and give fire, s [...]c [...]essively: and stand, untill the Serjeant leads up the rest of the files which fired, even with the front of the file, which last fired. Thus having all fired [Page 229] over, they are to march up againe, even with the front of Pikes, and this reduceth them, as at first.

CHAP. LXXXII.
The second manner of giving fire to the flanke.

IF you would fire in flanke, a more secure way, then that last shewne: take this way of firing. And this shall be full as serviceable, for mat­ter of execution, and shall farre pre­cede it, in way of preservation: both in securing the Muskettiers (after they have fired) from the danger of their enemies shot: as also in continuing the body intire, without separation. It is especially usefull, when two enemies are divided by a River, or by some such like meanes secured from the incursi­ons of the horse. For then, by this way of drawing the Muskettiers up betweene the innermost file of Mus­kettiers, and the outermost file of Pikes to the right: your Battaile may be continued, according to the occasion or the Commanders discretion. The Figure followeth. The Command is,

Muskettiers, give fire in flanke: marching up betweene the Pikes and Muskets.

[figure]

The way to performe this motion of firing, is as followeth. The outermost file being commanded to face to the right, and present: the rest of the body marcheth away (as in the other Figure) and the standing file, gives fire. This done, and that the body is marched cleere of the standing file; the next file presents to the right: & the file that first gave fire, faceth to the first front, and is led by a Serieant, crosse [Page 231] the reere of Muskettiers, and up betweene the Mus­kets and Pikes; the Muskettiers are still to open to the right; as they march, that so there may be room for one file to march up betweene them, and the pikes. And so (successively) each file having fired marcheth up next unto the right flanke of pikes. When all your Muskettiers have given fire once over, they are reduced as at the first. The battell may be continued, at discretion. The next firing in flanke (for the matter of firing it selfe) will be all one with this: but for the manner of the wheel­ing off, and placing them, it will differ.

CHAP. LXXXIII.
A firing in Flanke, led off by the Bringers up.

THe next firing in flanke, which I propound to your perusall, will be nothing differing for manner of execution, from the firings in Flanke; formerly shewed. The onely difference arising betweene them, is, that the other files of Muskettiers, after that they had gi­ven fire, were led off by their proper file-leaders; and this, to the contrary, must be led off by their Bring­ers-up. And this, indeed, if the body be upon a slow march, is the readiest and quickest way: and doth [Page 232] more speedily secure the Muskettiers, after that they have given fire. The words of Command and dire­ction, which produce the firing, are as followeth.

Muskettiers, give fire to the Right: wheeling off, after your Bringers up; and placing your selues betweene your Divisions.

[figure]

For the manner of execution, or way to performe this firing, it is as followeth. The body must be con­ceived to be marching; upon all these firings in flanke: and that with their pikes shouldered. This be­ing presupposed, the Command being given, the outmost-file presents to the right, and gives fire: then faceth to the right, after their bringers up; who lea­deth them off, crosse the reere of Muskettiers, march­ing [Page 233] them up betweene the divisions, the bringers up supplying the file-leaders place; and marching even in ranke in the front, with the file-leaders; the file-leader of the same file, becomming the bringer up in the Reere. The files of Muskettiers, or Pikes (accor­ding as the command shall be given) are as they march, to open; thereby giving way to the Musket­tiers, after they have fired; to come up betweene the divisions, and so soone as the first file that fired, is cleare from the right flanke; the second file, presents and fires: in like manner wheeling off, as before, and marching up betweene the Pikes and Muskettiers; every file, successively, giving fire, and wheeling off as aforesaid. This firing may be performed, once, twice, or oftener over: according to the discretion, of the Commander. Neverthelesse, if it be twice per­formed, the men are reduced as at first; every man hauing his right place. If you fire them but once, or thrice (or any odde number of times) over, then you must countermarch your files of Muskettiers to reduce them. There is another way for the bringers up to wheele off: and each of them to leade off his file; untill he comes to the Reere of the division which is betweene the Muskets and the Pikes; and there he is to stand, and ranke with the bringers up, the rest that follow, passing on forwards, by way of Introduction, and every man ranking before him, that was his leader in the wheeling off; untill the pro­per file-leader be come into his place againe. And after this way, they may give fire; each firing being his owne reducement.

CHAP. LXXXIIII.
The difference betweene Firings in Flanke, marching: and of bringing the Muskettiers on the outside of the Pikes.

ALL, or the most part of the firings in flanke, which are performed march­ing; in point of execution, are the same: the especiall difference be­tweene them, being [...]ither in the manner of the wheeling off, after they have fired, or in the materiall placing them, where­by to make them more offensive or defensive. And all this appeareth by this next following firing: which is to be used at such time and place, when as there may be doubt of the enemies horse: And, therefore, for the more securitie of the Muskettiers having fired; they are to be drawne up on the outer­side of the left flanke: if haply there may be some hedge, ditch, river, hill, marish, wood, or such like convenient safeguard; whereby to shroud them from the furie and violence of the horse; that so the pikes making Alt, and facing to the enemy, may charge, and with their armed points (strongly and closely coucht) receive and abate the furie of the first shocke. And if need be, the pikes may all charge at the foot, closely serried together, with their swords drawne, and the Muskettiers may give fire over them. The manner, you may perceive in the [Page 235] figure of the Convex halfe-moone. But lest I antici­pate my selfe, in shewing the use: I will returne to shewth e manner of the firing, intended by this fol­lowing Figure. Onely first take the words of com­mand and direction, which are as followeth.

Muskettiers, give fire to the Right: placing your selues on the outside of the left Flanke of Pikes.

[figure]

The ovtermost files having presented to the right; the rest of the body continueth the march, whilest they in the meane time, are giving fire. Which be­ing done, and the body cleere, the next outermost file, [Page 236] presents, the file that last fired, in the interim, facing to the left after their proper file-leader; who leadeth them crosse the reere (both of Muskets and Pikes) a pretty round pace; sleeving up on the out side of the left flanke of Pikes. The next file having, in like manner, fired; doth also troupe up on the out side of the file, led off before every file; giving fire, and do­ing the like. When all have given fire, and are clee­red away, then the Pikes may charge. Which is very necessary; if but to accustome the⊙ Souldiers unto in times of exercise, both for charging on, and for retreiting, as also to push with their Pikes, that so by practise they may be able to doe it, orderly, either way: still keeping their order and array. Ha­ving given fire upon the right flanke, and drawne all your Muskettiers in this manner to the left flanke, if you will cause them to give fire on the left flanke, and bring them backe againe to the right flanke: they will be reduced. Or if you would reduce them without a firing, then either passe your Muskettiers through between your rankes of Pikes, or else, let your whole division of Muskettiers, bee drawne crosse either the front or reere of Pikes, into their places: or by division (if you please) your Musket­tiers▪ also, may give fire in flanke: the first fire, slee­ving on the left flanke: the rest of the files, still fal­ling betweene the Pikes: and the Muskettiers which wheeled off the last before them. And this is also a very good firing, and may be reduced with doing the like backe againe: and many other waies, they may also fall off after the manner of the figure last shewn: being led by their bringers up, either [Page 237] into the front, or else after the manner as is discour­sed in the latter end of the last Chapter. But I en­deavour, all I may, to contract my matter; left my volume should exceed my intent. And therefore I will shew but one firing more in flanke, upon a march: wherewith I will conclude these sorts of firings.

CHAP. LXXXV.
Of Firing in Flanke: and placing the Muskettiers in the midst of the Battell of Pikes: with other firings from thence proceeding.

FIring in Flanke, and bringing them off betweene the midst of pikes; is to be used at such time, when as you would secure your Muskettiers: the place (otherwise) affoording no na­turall convenience of succour, such as I have former­ly spoken of: and therefore by this manner of fal­ling off, where we want naturall assistance in the scituation; there, art ought to supply us, namely, by contriving to bring up the Muskettiers betweene the pikes; and so to defend them from the furie of the horse. And, if need be, you may draw 3. or 4. files of pikes (more or lesse, according to your num­ber or the danger) crosse the Muskets, both in front and reere, which are in the midst betweene the pikes, which will as well preserve the Muskettiers [Page 238] in front and reere, as in flanks. But leaving further to discourse, what may be done; I will now shew how this is to be done. Onely first take the words of Command and direction for the firing, as fol­loweth.

Muskettiers, give fire to the Right: Marching up betweene the midst of Pikes.

[figure]

The Command being given, for the outermost-file to present to the right (as formerly in the other fi­rings in flanke) the rest of the body still marcheth on▪ untill that the outermost-file hath fired, and is faced to the left againe: following their leader. He now leading them off to the left, marcheth up betweene the middlemost-files of pikes: who are then to open [Page 239] to the right and left: so to give them roome, to march up betweene them. In the meane time, the next file having given fire, wheeleth off: in like man­ner marching up on the left of the files, which fired last before them. And so, successively, for all the rest of the files of Muskettiers, all which are to give fire, and to wheele off, as before: placing themselues still on the left of the files which last fired. Wherein is still to be noted, that the files are still to open to the right and left: and that for the receiving of the Muskettiers, after that they have given fire. This firing (as all other the firings in flanke) may as well be led off by their Bringers up, as by the file-leaders: and then the reducements will be answerable. The Muskettiers having all fired; the pikes may charge, at discretion. The Bow-pike-men, which are in the reere of the Muskettiers, in the meane time not spa­ring to send their showers of arrows, amongst the thickest of their enemies, and if need require, the front of pikes charging at the foot, with their swords drawne; the Muskettiers may give fire over them, ranke after ranke; for the formost ranks having fired, may kneele upon the ground; and there make ready againe: untill the other ranks behinde them, have likewise given fire. After this manner, the Battell may be continued: according as occasion shall re­quire. For reducement, and to bring the Muskettiers into both flanks againe, as they were before I be­gan these firings in flank, command your pikes to face inward; and your Muskettiers to the right and left outward, and so to passe through and interchange ground; then facing them to their leader, they will [Page 240] be reduced, as at the first. I would have the inge­nious Reader to conceive, that all these firings in flanke, may as easily be performed to the left: and with the same words. Onely the words of right, must be changed for left: and left for right. I might have further enlarged my selfe upon Firings in flanke: but these already exprest, may suffice for to in­struct the ignorant. As for the skilfull and experter sort of Souldiers, I shall rather request their appro­bation, then presume to write ought, which may seeme to passe me with the least conceit, tending to their instructions. Wherefore, for the further prosecution of my intended discouse, I will next shew some divisionall firings. And (for methods sake) I will first begin with Firings in [...]ront and Reere: which may be performed either upon a march, or stand. And to that end, suppose your Muskettiers to march all in front, and reere. Neverthelesse, be­cause it will not be amisse, to shew with what words of command, or direction the Muskettiers may be brought thither: therefore take notice from what part of the body they are brought. And if they be in the midst (as in this last figure of Firing in flank) then command the halfe-files of the Muskettiers, to face about: which done, let the pikes stand, and the Muskettiers march; untill they are cleare both of front and reere of pikes; then let them stand; and face to their leader: which being done, your battell will stand in forme of an hollow square. In which hollow, may be conveyed any carriage, or such like. But if you will not have your battell hollow, then command your pikes to close their divisions; and the Musket­tiers [Page 241] will be all in front and reere. If your Musket­tiers be on the flanke, and you would bring them into the front and reere; then after the same manner let the halfe-files of Muskettiers face to the reere: and then both halfe-files of the front & reere, march untill they are cleare of the Angular pikemen. This done, let them face in opposition, and close their divi­sions: after which, having faced all to their [...] they will be rightly placed: namely, the [...] of Muskettiers before the front o [...] [...]ikes; and the reere-halfe-files of Muskettiers behinde the reer [...] of pikes. Thus will the figure of battell be in f [...]me of [...]n Hearse; and the Muskettiers, be ready to give fire to the front and reere: either marching, or standing. But before I begin my divisionall firings, I would intreat you not to expect, that I should reduce eve­ry particular firing, so soone as it is performed; as I have done by these hitherto shewed, but rather let it be sutable to your likings, that I reduce firings by firings: sometimes giving fire upon a march: sometimes upon a stand: sometimes, to the front and reere; sometimes, to both flanks. I do the ra­ther desire to go on in this way, because thereby I may expresse farre more matter, in fewer lines and shorter time.

CHAP. LXXXVI.
Of firing to the front and reere, upon a march.

THe Muskettiers being all placed in the front and reere, (according to the directions in the last Chapter) I will now shew the manner of firing to the front and reere, upon a march. Which however that it may bee rare, and seldome usefull in service: yet it must needs be excellent for practise. For by the often using it, the Souldier may be made capable of any firing: The Pikes, (you are to understand) are to be shouldered. The Command for the firing is.

Muskettiers, give fire to the front and reere: and flanke your Pikes.

[figure]

The Command being given (as above said) to give fire to the front and reere; the first ranke presents; the last ranke, faceth about to the reere, and doth the like: and so both giving fire together, wheele off by division. The one halfe of the ranke, following af­ter the right hand man of the same ranke; the other halfe, after the left hand man, who leads them close downe by the side or flanke of the Muskettiers, untill they come to the Pikes. The first ranke of Muskettiers, now ranking even with the first rank of Pikes, the last ranke of Muskets, with the last ranke of Pikes, leaving a sufficient intervalle be­twixt [Page 244] them and their Pikes, for the other Musket­tiers to march betweene. And here you must note, that he that was outermost when they gave fire, must likewise be outermost, when they have taken their places on the flanke. The first and last rankes ha­ving fired, and wheeled off, the next rankes, (the bo­dy marching on, three or foure steps) are in like manner to present, and give fire: wheeling off by di­vision; and passing betweene the divisions: there placing themselves; they of the front division, be­hinde those which fired last before them; and they of the reere division, before them which fired last, behinde them. And so they may continue to give fire after the same manner; untill they have all gi­ven fire, once over. Then may the body make a stand, and the Pikes charge to the front and reere, if need be. Or if the Commander would continue his firing to the front and reere, still upon the same figure: Then let the Muskettiers of the front, place themselves (after they have given fire) behinde the Muskettiers of their owne division▪ those of the reere division placing themselves betwixt the reere of Pikes, and the Muskets of their owne divi­sion: and so the body moving but flowly forwards, they may continue the firing. Having given fire to the front and reere, and flanked their Pikes: if the occasion offer, or the Commander please: they may give fire to the front and reere, upon that Fi­gure which indeed I hold the better, as you may perceive in the ensuing Chapter.

CHAP. LXXXVII.
A second way of firing to the front and reere.

THis second way of firing to the front and reere upon a march, may easily be performed; if the Souldiers bee well and often instructed. Without which, all matters in the Art militarie will seeme difficult: and by which, all things will be made facile and easie. I could in­stance in divers motions and figures, by some repu­ted superfiuous niceties, which were the true uses knowne to the Commander, and the way to exe­cute, to the Souldier, would be found to be of singu­lar good service. Neverthelesse, because to the ignorant nothing beyond their capacities may seeme excellent; many good and serviceable moti­ons are slighted, and not accounted fit for service. But I could well wish, that some good course might be taken, that the Souldiers of our trayned Bands might have a little oftener practise; that so they might be able (at least in some reasonable way) to understand and exercise, what shall bee commanded them. But I have strayed from the matter. And therefore take these words of Com­mand and direction: which being orderly executed, produce this following firing.

Muskettiers, give fire to the front and reere; placing your selves betweene your Divisions.

[figure]

The way to performe this firing, is as followeth; the Command being given, the first ranke presents to the front, the last ranke of Muskettiers, facing a­bout, and doing the like, towards the reere: This done, they both give fire; wheeling off by division; and place themselves betweene the Muskettiers of their divisions. Those, namely, which were of the front halfe files, falling into the reere of their owne division; those of the reere halfe files (contrariwise) falling before their halfe file leaders, and ranking e­ven with the halfe file leaders of Pikes; the next rankes, successively, firing, and wheeling off, after the same manner. Having fired, once over, they are re­duced, every man to his place. These two last fi­rings [Page 247] to be performed upon a march, would seeme very difficult to unexperienced Souldiers: but by often exercising, they may be made capable of these, or of any other.

CHAP. LXXXVIII.
A firing to the Reere and right flanke, marching.

HAving shewed firings in front, reere, and flanke, (some marching, some standing) I will shew one firing to the reere and right flanke, upon a march, which (without question) must needs be very serviceable at such times, as the enemy shall skirmish with the body, to annoy them in their pas­sage▪ in flanke and reere at one time. I shall not need with arguments to inforce the usefulnesse of the firing, for none that knowes any thing in the Art military, but will ingeniously confesse that for some services, it must needs be necessary. You may (if you please) give fire to the flanke and reere: your Muskettiers being in their ordinary places, on the flankes of their Pikes. Neverthelesse, a secu­rer way for the Pikes, will be to draw the Musket­tiers from that flanke, which is in least danger; crosse the reere of Pike-men. And this shall be the way I will observe in this firing. The words of Command and direction for this firing, are as fol­loweth.

Muskettiers, give fire to the right and reere: placing your selves betweene the Pikes, and your owne divisions.

[figure]

The Command being given, to fire to the reere and right flanke; the outermost file of Muskettiers, presents to the right: and the last rank of Muskettiers presents to the reere, and so both give fire. The rest of the Body, in the meane time, marching a reasona­ble pace. The right hand file, and last ranke having fired; the file faceth to the left, after their file-lea­der; and so marcheth up between the Muskettiers of the same division, and the Pikes; the ranke whee­ling [Page 249] off to the right, and placing it selfe next after the reere of Pikes, and before the first rank of Mus­kettiers of the same division. If you please, you may make an Intervalle betweene the Muskettiers: that so part may wheele off to the right, on the out side, and the other part wheele off to the right, and march up betweene the Intervalle into their places. The first file and ranke that presented, having given fire, and wheeled cleere off the body, the next file and ranke, present and give fire: after the same man­ner, wheeling off, and taking their places, as afore­said; and so successively, the rest (both files and rankes) give fire, observing the same order. And having given fire, once, twice, or oftner over, they are still reduced to the same they were before the firing began. Then draw your Muskettiers from the reere, to the left flanke againe; and they will have their places as at first.

CHAP. LXXXIX.
Of firing to both flankes, marching.

TO give fire to both flankes, upon a march; must needs be a serviceable firing, without exception: the time, number, place, and strength of the enemy, being alwaies to be conside­red. which may sometimes cause the Muskettiers (having fired) to march up betweene their owne di­visions, and the Pikes, as in this Figure. Or (some­times) betweene the midst of the Pikes, the better [Page 250] to secure them. Divers other such like waies there likewise be, at the discretion of the Commander: and as the present occasion shall require them. But because I insisted (somewhat largely) upon the firings on the right flanke; I shall not need to shew them againe, by division on both flankes; but will conclude them all in this one. The words of Com­mand which produce the Figure, are as follow.

Muskettiers, give fire to both flankes; marching up betweene the Pikes and your owne divisions.

[figure]

The Command being given, the outermost file▪ (on each flanke) presents outward: the [...]est of the body still continuing the march. The presented files (in the interim) giving fire; then facing after their pro­per file-leaders, who led them up betweene the Mus­kets of their owne divisions, and the Pikes,) in the time of their wheeling away) the next two outermost [Page 251] files present, firing after the same manner, and lea­ding up as before. The rest (successively) doing the like, untill they have fired all over: which brings them to their former places. The firing may be continued at discretion, each firing being its owne reducement. Neverthelesse it may so fall out, that either through the fury of the enemy, advantage, or disadvantage of ground (or some such like acci­dent) the body may be forced to make Alt, and to face to both flanks; and so with fronts accident all, to maintaine the fight, standing. To which end, the firing in the succeeding Chapter, shal be of that sort. Therefore suppose the body faced to the right and left, preparing to give fire.

CHAP. XC.
A firing to both Flanks, standing.

FIring to both flanks, upon a stand, is a good and serviceable firing. And although it shew but thinne, in the figure▪ yet it may be substantiall and usefull for the field: especially if there be a larger proportion of number, then I have made use of in my formes and figures of Battell. The words of command and direction, which produce the figure, are as fol­loweth.

Advance your pikes, and stand. Face to the Right and Left. Muskettiers give fire; and flanke your Pikes.

[figure]

The bodie being faced to the right and left, the formost ranks of Muskettiers (which were the outer­most-files) present and give fire; and then wheele off [Page 253] by division; ranking even with the formost ranks of pikes, and leaving sufficient Intervals for the rest of the Muskettiers to march betweene them and the Pikes. The next ranke presenting and firing, after the same manner, but not advancing forwards: onely firing upon the same ground; and wheeling off by division: afterwards passing downe betweene the Intervals, and so ranke after their leaders. It is herewithall to be noted, that they that were outer­most, when they gave fire; are likewise to be so, when they have taken their places. If these instru­ctions be not sufficient, utrne backe to the figure of the Demie-hearse: where the manner of the execu­tion is all one with this. All the ranks of Muskettiers having fired, and wheeled off, as before; the pikes (if need be) may charge, and the Muskettiers give fire, over againe: wheeling off outward, and placing themselues in the reere of their owne divisions. Ha­ving advanced your pikes, and faced your body to thefirst front, all your Muskettiers will be in front and reere. And then if you face your halfe-files about, and give fire after the same manner to the front and reere; having faced them againe to their first front, they will be reduced (as at first) into their ordinary square. Neverthelesse, I will reduce it by another firing, which was first invented and shewed us, by that worthy Citizen, and excellent Souldier, Cap­taine Henry Waller, now deceassed: It is a firing in front, the Muskettiers of the reere division, opening to the right and left; and sleeving up on the flanks of pikes, untill the leaders of the reere division (who as then are the halfe-file-leaders) ranke even with the [Page 254] front of pikes. The words of direction that pro­duce the figure, follow in the next Chapter.

CHAP. XCI.
Captaine Wallers Triple firing to the Front.

THis Triple firing to the Front, hath had the approbation of good and well experienced Souldiers: who have all acknowledged it to be both sollid and serviceable. Bringing many hands to fight, in very good order: the pikes being securely co­vered by their Muskettiers, in front. Neither need they be idle in time of battell, if they have any Bow­pike-men amongst them: for that they may send their whistling Archery over their Muskettiers heads, without offence to their friends: though not with­out dammage to their enemies. If any carpe at the depth of the Muskettiers (either in this figure, or in any other in this booke) I shall request them to sus­pend their censures, and wisely to conceive by a little, what a great deale meaneth. My intent not being, to make my booke monstrous, by having little leaves, and targe figures. Onely I desire with this small number, to shew the nature of severall formes and figures of battell; the manner of their firings and wheelings off; their orderly placings, and severall wayes of reducement: not having the least conceit, to induce any to beleeve, that men are able long to [Page 255] continue battell, at foure deepe; although at (some­times, and for stratagems) they may be reduced into a lesser number. But lest by digression, I too farre trespasse upon your patience; I will returne to shew the manner of the firing. Onely first obserue, the words of command and direction; which pro­duce the following figure.

Muskettiers of the Reere, double your front of Pikes, by Division.

[figure]

The Command being given, the first ranke of Muskettiers (both of front and flanks) present to the front and give fire: wheeling off to the right and left by division. The Muskettiers of the front-division [Page 256] being wheeled off (as aforesaid) close by the flanks of their owne Muskettiers, passe directly downe be­tweene the Intervals: and place themselues even in ranke behinde the Muskettiers of the reere divi­sion, which are upon the flanks. This you may per­ceive by the pricks, that come downe betweene the Intervals: the Muskettiers, also, that fired at the same time on the flanks; wheele also off; (the right flanke, to the right; the left flanke, to the left) mar­ching directly downe, even with the reere ranke of pikes; and there place themselues againe even in ranke with the last ranke of pikes. This done, the rest of the ranks (successively) give fire, and do the like: every Ranke taking his place, after the ranke which fired last before them; the other ranks mo­ving one ranke forwarder. The Muskettiers having given fire once over; and falling off according to this direction, they will be reduced to the flanks againe, as they were at the first. The firing may be continued, or the pikes may charge, at discretion of the Commander.

CHAP. XCII.
A firing tripartite, doing execution to the front, reere, and right flanke.

FIgures and formes of Battell, may bee infinite: according to the judge­ments of the Commanders, and the various workings of the divers mo­tions: no arte nor science yeelding more content, unto the studious practitioners; none more honourable and beneficiall, for the good of our Countrie: none more neglected and lesse countenanced, then the Practisers of the Art militarie, nor none more screwed up in the places of their abiding, then those men this way affected. The rich cubb'd gowne men, holding it as a maxime, that Souldiers (though never so poore) yet they must be taxed in the parish bookes like Gentlemen. Thus much incouragement we have, for spending our money and our time for our Countries good, and this (in good time) I hope will be amended: but of this no more. The next firing being a firing Tripartite: doth execution to the front, reere, and right flanke, at one and the same time. For the use, I shall referre it to the judgement of the Iudicious: for the instructi­on, how it is to be made, the words of Command and direction shew it, which are as followeth.

Halfe rankes of the left, double your right flanke by division.

[figure]

For the direction, looke backe to the 27. Chap­ter: which treats of this doubling. Onely remem­ber to face the divisions that way which you intend they shall give fire.

[Page 295] For the manner of the firing, it is ordinary: the foremost Ranke of Muskettiers (on each part) ha­ving fired, they wheele off to the right, or to the right and left: (according as directions shall be given) placing themselves in the reere of their owne divisi­ons; the next ranks, in the meane time, moving for­wards into their leaders ground; there, in like man­ner, firing, wheeling off, and placing themselves as before: the rest of the rankes, successively, doing the like. This firing may be continued, a [...] pleasure of the Commander. The Pikemen (as advantage may be given) in the interim either porting, char­ging, or sending their fatall showers amongst the thickest of their enemies. Lastly, for reducement, face them all to their front proper, then Command, halfe rankes that doubled, to face to the left, and so to march into their places. For further directions, turne backe to the 27. Chapter, which shewes the re­ducement of the aforegoing Figure, &c.

CHAP. XCIII.
Of the Sconce Battell.

THe Sconce Battell is a Figure most properly fit for a whole Regiment; at least for a lar­ger pro portion of number, then is here ex­prest▪ it neither being good nor safe to divide a smal Company, into so many divisions and Maniples. And yet to give satisfaction unto some, I have placed [Page 260] it here amongst my Figures; yea and shewne the way, how to make it with a private Company. For the manner or way how to fire upon it, may be di­vers. The Muskettiers being so placed, that they may give fire to the front and reere, to the right and left, or to all foure together, at the discretion of the Commander. If your Muskettiers give fire to the front and reare, (every ranke making good his lea­ders ground) then the Figure will still continue the same. If they give fire without advancing into their leaders ground, then the Muskettiers will ranke even againe with their Pikes: and the Figure will be­come an hollow crosse, the Muskettiers making the Angles. The words of Command and direction, which produce the Figure, are as followeth.

Halfe files of Muskettiers, face to the Reere.

That being done,

Command all the Muskettiers to march to the Angles of their Pikes.

Next cause

The two first and two last rankes of Pikes to stand.
The rest to face to the right and left; and march, un­till they are cleere of the other pikes, then stand.

Lastly Command

The two first and last rankes of Pikes, which did not move, to double their Files to the right.

These words of Command and direction being executed, perfect the Figure, as followeth.

[Page 261] The Sconce Battaile.

[figure]

Many and severall are the firings, which (with some little alteration) may be drawne from this Fi­gure. Neverthelesse not to spin out time with dis­course, the firing now intended to be shewne, is to be performed to the front and reere. To which pur­pose, the one halfe (both of Muskettiers and Pikes) are to face about to the right; there presenting and giving fire: those of the right flanke, wheeling off to the right; the left flank to the left; and placing them­selves in the reere of their owne divisions. The next ranke still moving forwards into their leaders ground; the other rankes (successively) doing the [Page 262] like. After this manner, the firing may be continu­ed, and the Figure still preserved.

For reducement. First, face them all after their proper file-leaders. Secondly, cause the front and reere divisions of Pikes, to double their rankes to the left. Thirdly, command the Pikes of the flankes, to face, in opposition; close their divisions, and then to face after their leaders. Next, cōmand the Musket­tiers of the front division, to face to the reere. Lastly, command the Muskettiers (both of front and reere) to close their divisions. And then being faced to their leader, they are perfectly reduced, as at first.

CHAP. XCIIII.
Of firing by three files at once; two of them standing oblique, the other direct.

WHen I began the formes and figures of Battell, I noted all f [...]rings to be either oblique or direct; and now for satis­faction to the curious, I shall insert two or three oblique formes amongst the rest. The first whereof, shall be a Firing to the Front by drawing forth the outermost file on each flank, obliquely (or the innermost, as shall seeme best to the Commander) untill the bringers up of the files, stand even with the right and left angle-men, over the front of pikes. They may also bead [...] a file of Mus­kettiers, crosse the front of pikes; when having placed and faced them (as they ought) for execution, they [Page 263] will stand in manner of this following figure.

[figure]

The two files of Muskettiers which were led forth, having obliquely presented inwards, and the file drawn crosse the front of pikes, being presented direct Rank­wise: upon the first Command, they are all to give fire together, and then to face after their bringers up; who leade their files directly into their places. This done, they face to their proper front againe; the other files (in the meane time) leading forth after the same manner. These having done their execu­tion, are to returne into their places: being led off by their bringers up (as is aforesaid). The rest of the [Page 264] files, after the same manner, firing and returning: untill they have all given fire; and then they will be all reduced, as at first.

CHAP. XCV.
A firing oblique, by foure files together, in forme of a W.

ALL the commendations, that may be given of these oblique Figures, is that they powre out a great deale of shot at once; and may quickly be redu­ced to their places. Notwithstanding, they are a great weakening to the bodie, if any sud­den accident should happen before they are setled in their former stations. Neverthelesse I shall leave them to themselues; and if they be found to hold out weight, I shall not grudge that I have given them roome amongst the rest. But if they prove too light, let them be as lightly respected, yet beare somewhat with them, for their antiquitie. The way to make the figure, is as followeth. The two innermost files of Muskettiers on each flanke, march forth (each of them being led by an Officer) untill they have taken their places. Then the Offi­cers that led forth the two middlemost files, are to re­turne to their places againe; the Serjeants that led forth the outermost files, standing to see them do their execution. Yet before the Muskettiers have [Page 265] order to give fire, obserue the manner of their stan­ding, by the following Figure.

The W. oblique.

[figure]

The Muskettiers having presented, according to their directions; they give fire all together; and then suddenly facing after their bringers up; march downe into their places; the next two files of each flanke, in the interim of their marching away, are to move forwards to their ground: where they are, in like manner to give fire: and then to take their pla­ces, as aforesaid. The rest of the files of Muskettiers (if you have more) must then move forwards, and do the like. And in this sort, may the Muskettiers give fire, once, twice, or oftner over: each firing, be­ing a reducement to it selfe.

CHAP. XCVI.
Of the Fort Battell; the way to make, and to reduce it.

THe figure of the Fort-battell, is an oblique fi­ring: and taketh its denomination rather from the [...] the strength of a Fort. Its chiefe use, is for the entertainment of some great personage or Commander in the field: who be­ing received into the midst of the divisions of Pikes; the Muskettiers may present and give fire, altogether in one vollie. Or if they would have the Musket­tiers give fire, one after another; then the vollies by succession (which some call the Peale) will be the best. If there be more Muskettiers, then will serve to make up the figure single; they may also give fire with the rest: presenting obliquely betweene the di­stance of their leaders. The way to make this figure, is as followeth. First, draw forth the outmost files (of Muskettiers) on each flanke, in forme of an hollow wedge, before the front of pikes. Then, cause the next two outmost files, to face about; and to follow their bringers up, in the same forme to the Reere. Then, let the last two files of Muskettiers (on each flanke) be drawne after their file-leaders, in the same manner and forme, to the flanks. The Muskettiers being thus ordered, and all presented obliquely out­wards, command the two first, and two last ranks of Pikes, to stand; the rest of the Pikes, to face to the [Page 267] right and left: and so to march, untill they are cleare off the other pikes which stand. Then, command the Pikes which moved, to double their files to the right. Lastly, command all the Pike-men to face outward; each division of Pikes, after their hollow [...] of Muskettiers. Or else, let them face all in­ward to the Center▪ and then the Body will stand in forme of the following figure.

The E [...]rt-battell.

[figure]

[Page 268] Having fired upon this figure, there is no man­ner of wheeling off: because the forme is still to be continued. But when you come to reducement, first face all the Pikes to their proper front, (that is, unto the place, where you finde the proper file-leaders. Secondly, let the Pikes which are flankers, double their rankes to the left: and so close their divisions. Then the Pikes will be reduced. For the Musket­tiers, first command those on the flanke, to leade up their files in their due places, close to the Pikes. Next, command the Muskettiers of the reere, to sleeve up on each flanke by division. Lastly, com­mand the Muskettiers before the front of Pikes, to face after their bringers up, and to march downe in­to their places. Lastly facing to their leader, they are all reduced, as at first.

CHAP. XCVII.
Of the crosse Battell; the way to make it with a private Company. How to fire upon it: and to reduce it.

THe Crosse Battell, though it must needs shew thinne, (in regard that the number is not suf­ficient, to expresse the worth of the Figure) yet may the forme be very usefull, with a larger bo­dy, and the Muskettiers may give fire, two, three, or foure waies at once upon it: Yea, if the number were as opulent, as the Figure is excellent, then they [Page 269] might fire twelve severall wayes together. This notwithstanding, I spare to speake further to what may be done; and come to shew what I intend in it. Concerning this Figure, the waies to fire upon it, are ordinarily two. The first, when the Musket­tiers give fire, and then place themselves in the reere of their owne divisions of Muskets. The second way is, after that they have fired, to place them in the reere of their Pikes: the Pikes maintaining the Muskettiers ground. The words of Command which produce the Figure, are as followeth.

The two first rankes, wheele your front into the midst.
The two last ranks, wheele your reere into the midst.
The rest of the body, face to the right and left: and so march, untill the reere-Angles meete.
Then let the Commander goe into the midst, (or Center) and face the whole Company to him: giving tm such direction, as is meete.
Lastly, being all faced about to the right, the body will stand like the following Figure.

[Page 270] Note, that as men stand in ranke when they give fire, so they are to place them­selves againe, when they have fired. The [...]utermost men, taking the outside places: the rest, in like manner, orderly pla­cing them­selves within them. The Crosse Battell.

[figure]

This crosse Battell being faced to the front, reere, and flankes, and the Muskettiers commanded to give fire: one way of placing them, is, in the reere of their own divisions of Muskettiers; for that here­by, the Muskettiers will still continue their places. For the second way, after that the first rankes have given fire, let them wheele all off to the right (or to the right and left, if the number be large) and place [Page 271] themselves in the reere of their Pikes, each ranke moving forwards, and maintaining their leaders ground. The second ranke, in like manner, is to fire, and to take their places after the Muskettiers, which fired and wheeled off last before them. The rest, successively, are to doe the like, untill all the shot have fired, and are wheeled away againe. Then let the Pikes charge, &c. If any object, that it is dangerous to have so large distance betweene the fronts of each firing: then, if you have files enow, yo u may draw two or three files of each Arme; crosse the divisions from the Angle of one front to the other: and so facing of them outward, they will make rea­sonable good defence on those parts, &c.

Having given fire upon the crosse battell, and brought your Muskets to the reere of the Pikes: if you would reduce them, passe into the midst of Cen­ter of the Figure, and face all (both Muskettiers and Pikemen) to you; and cause those which were the flankers, to close their divisions. Next, wheele the fronts into the midst of the two other divisions: then move to the front proper, and face the whole body to you, and so you shall have all your Muskettiers in the midst; flanked with Pikes. If you would re­duce them into their right places, command the Muskettiers to face to the right and left outward, the Pikes to face to the right and left inward: and so to passe through, and interchange ground: thus being rightly faced, they are reduced.

CHAP. XCVIII.
Of the hollow-fronted Crosse Battell, how to make it with a private Company: and the way to fire upon it, &c.

THis next Figure, shall be of the hollow-fron­ted Crosse; which is a stronger forme, than that last shewne, and yet thus much let me warne you of, that there can be but little expecta­tion of strength to be perceived, in Battels formed with so small a number. This notwithstanding, the ingenious Martialists can easily discerne those things, which in warre may prove most usefull for his owne, and his Countries benefit; although they are here expressed to the publique view, in so meane array, and in such thinne numbers. Where­fore, setting aside all Apologies and excuses, I will briefly shew the words of Command and dire­ction, which will produce the following Figure.

The two first rankes, wheele your front into the midst.
The two last ranks, wheele your reere into the midst.
The rest, face to the right and left: and march untill they have made the perfect Crosse.
Lastly, cause the Muskettiers to flanke their Pikes: according to this following Figure.

[Page 273] The hollow fronted Crosse.

[figure]

The severall directions for firing upon this Fi­gure, may be divers. But to avoyd distraction, I will shew onely one way; and that directed to the front, reere, and flankes. Neverthelesse (for varieties sake) you may cause them to give fire, once over, wheeling off by division, and placing themselves in the reere of their owne divisions; still moving for­wards into their leaders ground thereby to preserve the Figure in the same order.

At the second time of firing, cause the Pikes [Page 274] to move softly up, even with the front of Musket­tiers: porting as they advance forwards. The Mus­kettiers having fired, and wheeled off, are to place themselves in the reere of their divisions of Pikes, (whom before they flanked) every ranke of Mus­kettiers firing, wheeling off, and placing themselves, as aforesaid. Lastly, the Pikes having charged, and againe readvanced, the body will stand in the Figure of a perfect Crosse.

For the reducement, it is the same with the Crosse-Battell, delivered in the 97 Chapter. Wherefore I shall need to adde no further directions in this place, for the said reducement, then, that the flanke divisions are to be closed, and the front and reere di­visions to be wheeled: that the body may be againe returned into a square, with the Muskettiers in the middle. All this being here taught, I now proceed to shew one firing with the Muskettiers, in that order.

CHAP. XCIX.
Of firing upon the square Battell, flanked with Pikes.

THe square battell flanked with Pikes, must needs bee very safe for the Muskettiers as being a very able de­fence for the flankes, against the in­cursions of the enemies horse. The Figure followeth, just [...]s the Muskettiers are in mo­tion.

[Page 275] The Square Battell flanked with Pikes.

[depiction of 'a Square Battell']

The wayes or manners of giving fire upon this figure, are ordinarily three. The first firing is, with the Aspect being directed to the front; the Musket­tiers wheeling, either all off to the right; or to the right and left, as you perceive by this figure. The second is, for the Muskettiers to give fire to the reere, upon a march; which they may easily do, from this figure. The third is, to give fire to the front and reere, upon a stand; the halfe-files being faced about.

If the firing be performed to the front, then every ranke is to march up into their leaders ground.

If the firing be to the Reere, upon a march, then the ranks (contrariwise) close backwards towards the Reere: to make good the Battell, on that part.

If it be to the front and reere, upon a stand; then the Muskettiers march up into their leaders ground; and those which have fired, and are wheeled off, [Page 276] place themselues in the Reere of their owne divi­sions.

To write further of this firing, were more then necessarie, no one of these firings, any wayes alter­ing the figure, but the Aspect onely. Neverthelesse, if the Commander please, he may after the firing in front, wheele both flanks into the front, and so charge pikes; and from thence, proceed to other firings.

If the firing were in the reere, he may wheele the flanks into the Reere; and cause his pikes to charge that way.

If the firing were to the front and reere, he may wheele both flanks into the front and reere; and so charge with his pikes, both wayes. Which by Cap­taine Bingham is called Amphistomus.

Before I come to reducement, I shall proceed to the next firing in the ensuing Chapter.

CHAP. C.
Of the Plinthium, or foure-fronted-battell; by us called the Crosse of Muskets, flanked with Pikes.

THe Foure-fronted Battell, is a figure both steady and serviceable: being usefull as well for a march (thereby securing the carriage, and all other such like necessaries) as for fight. For if it should so happen (as it often doth) that you should be charged in front, reere, and flanks, all at one and the same time: then are there both Muskets and Pikes so placed, that [Page 277] each Armes is assisting to the other. For seeing that neither Muskettiers nor Pikemen alone, can be singly sufficient of themselues, to withstand the able and resolute horseman (without great advan­tage of ground) on the contrary, the Muskettiers and Pikes being conjoyned into one body, and be­ing well ordered, they are not onely able to defen'd themselues against their furie; but also to put them to the worser. Yet this must not be understood, of raw and unskitfull Souldiers, whose ignorance is cause of diffidence; but of hardy, experienced, and well exercised men, such as know well how to de­meane themselues couragiously, in time of fight.

The words of Command and direction, which produce the figure, are as followeth.

Note that all the Musketti­er [...] must be in the midst, and the pikes on flanke [...], when you begin to make this fi­gure. If your Muskettiers be on the flanke when you make it, then the crosse will be Pi [...]s, and the Angles Muskettiers, &c. Halfe-files of Pikes, face to the Reere, and march un­till they are cleare of the last ranke of Muskettiers.

Secondly, command,

Halfe-files of Muskettiers, face to the right and left, (then) march betweene the divisions of Pikes.

Thirdly, command,

Left halfe-ranks of the first division of Muskets, face to the Reere, and march betweene the Reere divi­sions of Pikes.

Lastly,

Having evened their ranks, straitened their files, and closed their divisions to an equall distance, and being rightly faced; the body will stand like the follow­ing figure.

[Page 278] The Plinthium, or foure-fronted Battell.

[figure]

The Plinthium is a hollow Square Battell; fronted foure waies; the num­ber equall, in length & depth. Another kind of Plinthium, is to have the depth exceed the length; the light Armes to be placed in the miost of the hollow patt. See the Ta­ [...]ic [...] of Aelian, the second Books, the notes of the forty two Chapter. The manner of the firing, may easily be appre­hended by the figure; the Muskettiers giving fire in ranke, and wheeling all off to the right: do then passe downe their Intervals, under the favour of their pikes; and placing themselues in the reere of their owne divisions of Muskettiers; the pikes charging at discretion. Having fired, once, twice, or oftener over, and still maintaining the same ground, the figure wil continue to be the same.

If the reere part of the battell, were by any means secured; so that you need give fire but three wayes, then the front-halfe-files of Muskettiers, might have beene preserved intire.

[Page 297] This Plinthium, or foure-fronted Battell, may as well be made with the Muskettiers in the Angles: the pikes making the crosse; this kinde of Command, alwayes making the crosse of the Armes, in the midst of the Battell.

After that you have given fire at discretion, up­on this figure, and charged your pikes, if you would reduce them to the first square, command the whole body to face to the front proper.

Secondly, command the Muskettiers in the reere, to march up on the left of the Muskettiers in front: the pikes being first opened, to give them place.

Thirdly, cause the Muskettiers in flanke, to face inward: and to close their divisions.

Lastly, cause the pikes to march up; placing them­selues right after their leaders.

This being done, the body will be brought againe into a sollid square, flanked with pikes. I forbeare further to reduce them, untill I shew the next figure. Yet, for further satisfaction to any that shall re­quire it: command your Muskettiers to face to the right and left outward; the pikes, to face inward, and so to interchange ground; and then being rightly fa­ced, they are reduced.

CHAP. CI.
Of the Hollow Square for March.

SVndry formes there be which go under the denomination of the hollow Square; and very diversly they may be framed. Some are hollow, impalled with pikes; the pikes, againe, girdled with shot: Other Squares, are made with shot, and they impalled with pikes. Some, againe, with divisions of Muskettiers and pikes: or­derly mixt with an hollow in the midst. A fourth sort is, when each Armes are divided by them­selues: as when the pikes make the front and reere, and the Muskettiers the wings. A fifth way is, when the Muskettiers leade in front and reere; and the pikes make both the flanks. All these wayes are very ne­cessary and usefull; as the time, occasion, or place shall give cause; or the judgement of the Comman­der shall see fitting. Neverthelesse, the hollow battell which I now intend to demonstrate unto you, is especially usefull for a march: whereby to secure the carriage, as likewise to preserve the sicke and woun­ded; it may also serue, for the Commander to consult with his Officers or to make any speech or Oration, to the Souldiers. Or the Ensigne may in signe of tri­umph, display his Co [...]urs in the midst: upon a march after Skirmish.

The way to make this figure (the Muskettiers be­ing in the midst) is as followeth. First command the [Page 281] Halfe-files of Muskettiers, to face to the reere:

Then command all the

Muskettiers to march, and the Pikes to stand.

When they are cleare of the front and reere of the Pikes, let them stand▪ and face all to the front pro­per: and it produceth this following figure.

The hollow Square for March.

[figure]

If you would give fire upon this figure, to the front and reere, it may be done marching. But, more properly, standing; by facing the halfe-files (both Muskettiers and Pikes) to the reere. Then the com­mand [Page 282] being given, to present, and give fire; they wheele off. by division: placing themselues in the reere of their owne divisions of Muskettiers; each ranke moving forwards into their leaders ground, and doing the like. If you should give fire, and not move forwards into your leaders ground; then the Muskettiers would fill the hollow in the middest; be­tweene the Pikes. Neverthelesse, suppose the fi­gure still to continue to be the same. Because I will now come to the reducement: and the rather, for that I have not done it, since I began with the Hol­low-fronted Crosse. But now (so please you) I will reduce all, by a firing. And to that end, first close your divisions of Pikes; and then the Muskettiers will be all in the front and reere.

Secondly, cause the halfe-files (both Muskettiers and pikes) to face to the Reere. Then, cause the Mus­kettiers (both of front and reere) to give fire; wheeling off by division, and flanking their pikes. When they have fired all over, the Pikes may charge: who be­ing againe advanced, and all faced to the front pro­per, they are all reduced (as at first) into the ordinary Square, flanked with Muskets.

CHAP. CII.
Of the hollow Hearse, and the Crosse.

THe Hearse-Battell, by the Greekes called Orthophalanx, (as in Aelian) is, when the depth doth manifold ex­ceede the length, thrice at the least. It may be made, either sollid or hol­low, at the discretion of the Com­mander. And notwithstanding that this Figure (simply of it selfe) hath ever beene accounted weake (as bringing but few hands to fight) never­thelesse being conjoyned with the Crosse, it may prove serviceable. True it is, that being exprest by so small a number, the strength of it cannot so evi­dently be discerned: which, were the number more, each division would appeare to be the stron­ger, both for offence and defence. But I have onely taken upon me, to shew the severall formes and fi­gures of battell, which may be formed, and practised by a private Company: as having limited my selfe, not to exceed the number of 128 men. Wherefore my request must be, that the Courteous Reader, when he shall finde that any Figure for want of number, shall looke thinne, (or poore) he will there be pleased to clothe it in a larger number: for that thereby the Battell will appeare the more sollid, and the beholder become the better satisfied.

[Page 284] This Figure may be usefull upon a march, for a Convoy: the hollow parts thereof, being very com­modious, to secure the carriage: the men also are ve­ry well disposed to helpe and assist each other, in whatsoever part it should happen them to be assai­led.

The words of Command and direction which produce the Figure, are as follow.

Wheele front and reere into the left flanke.

That done, face them as before, and the Musket­tiers will be in front, midst, and reere.

Next, open the Muskettiers in the midst, to the right and left, and cause them to double their rankes to the left.

Then cause the front-halfe-files of the front divisi­on of Pikes, to open to the right and left: and the reere halfe-files of the reere division of Pikes to doe the like.

Then, having evened their rankes, and straighte­ned their files, and being faced to their leader, the body will stand in forme, like this Figure.

[Page 285] The hollow Hearse and Crosse.

[figure]

[Page 286] If so be, you will give fire upon this Figure, you may doe it any way, or every way. If you give fire to the front, reere, and flankes; then let your Musket­tiers wheele all off to the right, and place themselves in the reere of their own divisions. If you would still preserve the Figure, then let every ranke (before they give fire) march up into their leaders ground.

Having either marched, or skirmished upon this Figure, (or both) and then would come to reduce­ment, First, face all the whole body to the proper front, and cause the Pikes that are flankers, to face inwards, and to close their divisions. This being done, cause the Muskettiers which are in the mid­dle part of the Battaile, to double their files to the right. Secondly, let them face inward, and close their division. Next, let them face all to their lea­der, and wheele front and reere into the right flanke▪ which being done, and they faced again to the front proper; they will be reduced into the ordinary square; the Pikes being flanked with the Muskettiers, as at first.

CHAP. CIII.
Of the Hollow Square, girdled with shot.

THe Hollow Square Girdled with shot, is a Fi­gure to be used at such times of necessity, as the Commander shall see occasion: who well knowing, that hee shall be enforced to [Page 287] fight, having found some commodious advantage or ground, drawes forth his battell into this forme and array. The use whereof is, that within the hollow parts of it, he may convey such of his carriage, or whatsoever else may not prove usefull for the strengthening of some part of the battell. Having drawne his men speedily into this forme, lest that the enemy should take the advantage, to breake their order by entring at any of the Angles, they are speedily to cast up a Rampart of earth, in each of those parts of the Angles. Or if they have not time, (or that the ground be not fit) they may sup­ply that defect by placing some of their Wagons, Carts, or other of their Carriage, so orderly, that it may be sufficient to fortifie those parts, which are the weakest. This Figure, may be as well made with the Pikes foremost: but because that the Mus­ketiers may more commodiously fight before their Pikes, and with lesse danger to their owne body: therefore I conceive it fittest, at first to place them in front of their Pikes. And if the enemy shall too hotly presse them with his horse; then, at the dis­cretion of the Commander, they may safely re­treate behinde their Pikes; the Pikemen making good the ground of the Muskettiers. For better sa­tisfaction, observe the direction to make the fol­lowing Figure. First, command a Serjeant to draw forth all theNote, that the odde files on the right flank, are the outermost files to the right; the third file, the fift file, the seventh, & so forward for the rest, if the [...] be larger; beginning your account from the outer­most file, to the right. Note, that the odde files on the le [...]t-flanke, are the left hand file [...] the third, the fi [...]th, the seventh, &c. so still accounting the odde files, beginning with the outermost file to the [...] odde files of the right flank, (both Mus­kettiers and Pikes) and wheele them to the left, [Page 288] crosse the front. That being done, command the odde files of the left flanke, (as well Muskettiers as Pikes) to face to the reere, and let them in like man­ner be wheeled to the left, crosse the reere, following their Bringers up.

For the rest of the body, that remaines undrawne forth: let them close to the right and left outward; untill the Reere-Angles of each division, stand diagonally opposite to each other. Then, let them be all commanded to face to the Center or midst of the hollow square; where the Commander is to give them such incouragement & directiōs, as shalbe meet.

Lastly, let all face about to the right, and present.

The hollow square Girdled with Muskettiers.

[figure]

[Page 289] For the manner of firing upon this Figure, it is as followeth. The first ranke of Muskettiers (to each front) having presented and given fire, they are to wheele all off to the right. And because that eight or tenne men, are too many to wheele downe one Inter­valle, (for that they will bee so long, before they can cleere the front) therefore you may cause Inter­valles to be made, betweene the midst of each di­vision, as you may perceive in the Figure. The first ranke having fired, and wheeled off, the next ranks are to move forwards into their ground: they which wheeled off, in the meane time placing them­selves in the reere of their owne divisions of Musket­tiers. The next ranke of Muskettiers having fired in like manner, are to wheele off, and to place them­selves, as aforesaid: the rest of the rankes of Musket­tiers, (successively) are to doe the like, untill they have all given fire, (once or oftner over) that way, according to the occasion. And in this interim may the Bow-pikemen be bountifull in bestowing their showers of arrowes, amongst the thickest of their enemies.

If the horse prevaile so much, that the Muskettiers may not endure to beare the brunt of them: then let the Muskettiers (after they have fired) wheele off, and place themselues in the reere of their follow­ing divisions of pikes: they moving forwards, and maintaining the Muskettiers ground; charging with their pikes (as they see occasion) for securing the Muskettiers, in the midst. This notwithstanding, if the enemies horse shall still presse forwards; and with their shot shall continue to annoy the body (the pikes [Page 290] on this figure being especially defensive) then cause the Pikemen to charge at the foot; and your Musket­tiers, to give fire over them: according to former directions, on the Convex halfe-moone. After this manner, the battell may be continued to the last ranke. When you have given fire in this order, your Muskettiers being all in the reere of your pikes; and that you be minded to reduce them, into the first orderly square, this is one way for it. Passe through your Muskettiers, before your front of pikes, as they were before the firing: that being done, let the Commander face the whole body to the left Angle, of the front-division, by which meanes he shall there finde the halfe of his file-leaders. This being per­formed, let them march: and so even their ranks, and straiten their files; the reere division of Musket­tiers and Pikes, orderly following after the front division of the like Armes. After this, let the halfe-files which then are (which indeed are the residue of the file-leaders) double their ranks forwards to the left: which being performed, the men are reduced as at first.

If you would reduce them some other way, without passing through your Muskettiers (as I have formerly said) then first let the whole body face to the left Angle, of the front-division; and march, eve­ning their ranks and files, as aforesaid. Which be­ing done, cause the halfe-files (which then are) to double their front to the left, which being in like manner performed, all your Muskettiers are still in the midst. Your next worke, is, to cause your Muskettiers to face to the right and left outward: and [Page 291] your pikes, contrariwise, to face inward; and so to passe through, and interchange ground. Thus being faced to their front proper, they will be reduced, as at first.

If any will be practising of this forme of battell, with a smaller number of men (as with 64. or fewer) whereby they will be constrained to double their halfe-files: then they will be reduced the same way▪ onely they shall not need to double their halfe-files againe, in their reducement: as they must needs do, were the number larger.

CHAP. CIIII.
Of the Sollid Square, with Muskettiers in Center and Angles. The way to make the figure with a private Companie: how to fire upon it, and to reduce it.

INfinite are the formes and figures of Battell, which may be made; yet all differing, either in circumstances or in matter. Some of them are Sollid, others Hollow: some of them, again, being Trines, Squares, Hearses, Cirtes, Crosses, Dia­monds, Plinthiums, Plesiums, Paramekes, and infinite others. Some of them taking their denomination from the nature of their numbers. Others, accor­ding to the placing of each Armes. A third sort, ta­king their names from things they most resemble, all of them being necessarie to be knowne, to such [Page 292] which would be accounted skilfull Serjeant-Ma­jors: that with all numbers, upon all occasions, they may readily bring their Souldiers into any forme or figure of battell (according as the time, the number, and place will give them leave) for opposition of horse, foot, or both together.

But to returne backe to our single Company, the worke of this Chapter, being to shew the Plesium, or long square. In which the Muskettiers are halfe in the midst of the Pikes; and the other halfe equally divided, and placed on the 4. Angles of the battell: the pikes making 4. divisions; as being placed upon the front, reere, and flanke. Yet not to hold you with longer circumstance, take these words of command and direction; which produce the following figure.

Halfe-files, double your front to the left entire:
Onely do not close them, to make one Body.
That being done, your Body will be but 4. deepe.
Next, command the 2. outmost flanks of each Body; to double inward, by division.

For better satisfaction, observe these directions.

First, see the halfe-ranks of the outmost flanks, fa­ced to the front and reere: and that they march, un­till they are cleare of the standing part of the battell.

Secondly, cause the halfe-ranks of the right-flank, and the halfe-ranks, of the left-flanke, to face in opposition, and to close their divisions: the two first ranks of each flanke, moving crosse the front of the standing part of the body; and the two last ranks of each flanke moving crosse the reere. Then, the whole body facing to the front, they will stand as in this figure.

[Page 293] The Polium.

[depiction of 'the Polium']

If you would give fire upon this figure, it may be performed either to the front and reere, to the right and left, or to all foure together. But which way so­ever the firing be, let the Aspect of the Muskettiers in the midst, be turned the same way, and cause the pikes which stand before them, to charge at the foot, and the Muskettiers in the Center, to g [...]ve fire over them. The first ranke having fired, let them kneele (or crouch low) upon the ground; making ready a­gaine: whilest the next ranks behinde them, give fire, and do the like: and so forwards, for the rest. Having all fired once over, this way, let them rise up: and (if need be) give fire over againe, after the same manner. The Muskettiers on the Angles (in the interim) giving fire after the ordinary way, wheeling off, and falling in the reere of the Musket­tiers of their own divisions; the others in the meane time moving forwards, and making good their lea­ders [Page 296] ground. This being done, and the pikes having charged; the figure will stil continue to be the same, without alteration. And that as well in men as mat­ter: if so be the firing be performed, according to the former direction.

For reducement, command the two first ranks, and two last ranks, to face to the right and left: all mar­ching forth, untill they are cleere of the standing part of the bodie.

Next, command them to stand: then, face them to the right and left; and close their divisions. This be­ing done, let them face all to their leader. Lastly, by commanding the halfe-files to face about to the right; and to march forth into their places: you shall see them fully to be reduced.

I might have further enlarged my selfe, upon this subject of firings, and figures of Battell: yea and shewed varieties enow of Trine Battels, round battels, the crosse and round, in one; the sollid-square impaled, besides infinite other kindes. But I have already advanced further, then I at first intended: though (well I hope) no further then will be freely and lovingly accepted. Which if it be, I shall conceive my selfe to have received a gratefull and most ample satisfaction. The hope whereof, doth somewhat encourage me to proceed a little further. And as I have already shewed divers and severall Motions, with their formes and figures of Battell: yea and in all (or the most part of them) as I have not onely given the words of command and direction, to produce them from the ordinary square, but also together with the demonstration of the figure, and direction [Page 297] for the firing: I have, in like manner, given direction for the reducements againe into the ordinary square: So now, for the satisfaction of some of the quain­ter sort of Souldiers, give me leave to multiply one figure upon another, untill that by firings, I reduce fi­rings. For the performance whereof, that I may observe some method, I will digest them into the way of Exercise, &c.

CHAP. CV.
The first daies Exercise.

HAving brought your Company into a place convenient, where you intend to exercise them; if you have time e­nough, you may cause the file lea­ders, Corporals o [...] Serieants, to instruct them in theI is very necessary, still, so often as time will per­mit; to instruct the Souldiers, in the postures and the well handling of their Armes. Postures and true using of their Armes. Wherein having spent some time, to the benefit of the Company; upon theEach file-leader to lead up his file up­on the first Summons of the Drum. first summons of the Drum, each file-leader with his file, is to march into his place. The Captaine (or other Commander) being at the head of his Company, commands them toEver to ob­serve to be e­ven in Ranke, and strait in file, and stand at the true di­stance. even their rankes, and to straiten their Pikes, and stand in their order both in ranke and file. Fetching the Ensigne to the head of the Company. If your Ensigne be not already in the field, but in some place neere at hand; then cause your two innermost files of pikes to advance: commanding a Serjeant with a Drum, [Page 296] to troop them along to the place of Rēdezvouz, there to fetch their Colours. If the place be not nigh at hand, take as many files of Muskettiers. Having brought the Ensigne to the head of the Pikes, each file returnes into his place; the Officers likewise, withdrawing their severall stations. Souldiers ought to be very silent. First, the soul­diers ought to have their due distance given them, with directions how most properly to performe. Silence being commanded, the Captain (or other Commander) be­ginsFacings, Doublings, Countermar­ches & Whee­lings wherein the Souldier ought treata­bly to be in­structed [...] the Commander alwayes obser­ving, what his Souldiers are hee hath to deale withall, and to give h s directions ac­cordingly. Ne­ver striving to put more into the battle then it can conve­niently hold first to instruct the Souldiers in the severall distances, betwixt ranke and file, with the waies to open and close to them. And if hee thinke fit, to in­struct them in the severall uses of each distance.

Next after distance, they are to be instructed in the † facings, then in the doublings; next, in the Countermarches; and lastly, in the wheeling. In each of which they are to be instructed, according to the opportunity of the time and place: but, espe­cially is the capacity of the Souldier to be obser­ved. Wherein, the Captaine may doe very well, in each of the motions to lay downe some speciall rules and observations; by which the Souldier may the better understand what he is to doe, and how (the best way) to performe it.

Observe to march between each firing, & upon each figure, that may be convenient. After the motions ended, let them prepare for skirmish. And first you may cause them to give fire with forlorne files, marching forth twenty paces (or thereabouts) before the front. Having all fired over that way, they may give fire once over, by advan­cing two rankes together, ten paces before the front. Then let them give fire, even with the front, and then with the halfe-files: the Pikes porting or charging, according to discretion. The Pikes be­ing advanced, and the Muskettiers marched up, even [Page 297] with their front; you may eitherFace about, or wh ele about, for to Counter­march if any en my be n [...]r, i [...] very dange­rous. face about, wheele about, or Countermarch, and so give fire in the reere. Your Pikes then being shouldered, and your Mus­kettiers having fired over in the reere, you may (if you please)Wheele your Flanks into the Front if your Souldiers have time enough, otherwi [...]e face to the Reere, and charge Pikes. wheele your flankes into the front, and so charge Pikes to the reere. Which done, wheele your front into the midst; passe into your place, and face them to you. Then (if you will) you may passe your Muskettiers of the left flanke, through betweene the rankes of Pikes, and place them next to the right flanke of Pikes, opening the right flanke of Muskettiers, to give them way. Then let theWhen the Pikes shoulder the Musketiers must observe to ranke even with them. Pikes shoulder, and Muskettiers give fire to the right, upon a march▪ their leaders leading them up betweene the Pikes and their owne divisions of Muskettiers. Having fired once over, in this way, let them continue their firing to the right, each leader leading up his file on the outside of the left flanke of Pikes. ThenVpon this firing, advance Pikes when there is but one file: and close forwards to the distance of order. let the Pikes advance, even whilest the last file is giving of fire: and so soon as the Pikes are cleere of the Muskettiers, let them face all to the right, and charge. Having advanced your Pikes, and faced your body againe to the left, you may then wheele your Battell about to the right, and then facing the whole body to the left, the Muskettiers will be all in front. Then let your Muskettiers give fire, and either wheele all off to the right, thereby makingThese kind of Intervals ought to con­tain six foot in distance upon some other occasions, 12 foot is neces­sary. an Intervalle for the left flanke, or else let them wheele off by division, placing themselves in the reere of their owne divisions of Muskettiers. Having given fire once (or oftner) over that way, let them give fire againe, and wheele off by division: [Page 300] ranking even with their Pikes. That being done, cause the Pikes to charge: the Muskettiers giving fire once over, on that Figure. The Pikes being ad­vanced, face the whole body to the right: and cause the Muskettiers to stand, and the Pikes to open toThe hollow Square. the right and left, and so to make the hollow square. Then you may (if you please) command the En­signe to display his Colours in the midst of the hollow; in signe of triumph: the body, either standing or marching. After which, command the Pikes to close their divisions: Which being performed, com­mand the reere division of Muskettiers, to double their front of Pikes, by division: and then they willCaptain Wal­lers firing. stand in forme of Captaine Wallers Triple firing: Let them give fire upon that Figure, and fall off a­gaine, according to the directions upon that Figure. Which being performed, and the Pikes charged, and readvanced: the body will be absolutely reduced, as at the first it was before you began your firings. These firings, may (with the motions) be sufficient for the first daies Exercise. Wherefore, for this time, we will lodge our Colours: untill by the sum­mons of the Drum, we are called forth to the second daies practise.

CHAP. CVI.
The second dayes Exercise.

HAving brought your Souldiers the se­cond time, into the field, the body being drawne up into the ordinary square, and every Officer vigilant in his place: the Captaine comman­deth silence, with some other generall termes of observation, both for the leaders and right hand Silence. men. Having thus commanded them (as before) to even their rankes, and to straiten their files: he pro­ceedsVpon all mo­tions be [...]ure that the Soul­diers stand even in ranke and file. to shew (as formerly) the distances, the fa­cings, the doublings, the Countermarches, and the wheelings: therewithall instructing them either in all, or so many of them, as the time will permit, and he thinkes convenient. Ever (by the way) ob­serving that in the Proverbe, A thing once well done, is twice done. That Commander, that exerciseth hisGood words more available then blowes▪ or ill language. Souldiers with good language, and with sollid rea­sons; shall make them better proficients then he that shall use rigid termes, and rough hands. After the postures, distances, and severall motions; that which next followes for this daies exercise, are firings and figures of battell. So soone, therefore, as the Drum begins to beat a preparative, the Muskettiers are toThe Musket­tie s make ready to give fi [...]e. begin to make ready.

[Page 300] And first, you may cause them to give fire on the Horne Battell, still marching up into their leaders ground: by that meanes preserving their Figure.

Secondly, let the Muskettiers close their diuisions before their Pikes, and then give fire upon the [...]etween each firing cause your body to march either in forme of Ba [...]talia, exten­ded in length: or upon any other figure, where it may conveniently be done with­out disorder. demie-Hearse-Battell: falling off presently, either all to the right, (the one halfe passing downe an Inter­valle) or to the right and left by division; and pla­cing themselves in the reere of their owne divisions of Muskettiers.

The third time of their firing, let them wheele off by division, and flanke their Pikes: and when they have fired over that way, let the Pikes charge.

For the fourth firing, let them give fire even with the front of Pikes, wheeling off to the right and left, and placing themselves in the reere of their owne divisions.

Then let them fire even with the halfe-files, wheeling off by division, and placing themselves in the reere of the Pikes. The Pikes (you are to under­stand) ought to charge all the time of the last firing: who being advanced, you are to wheele your Battell about to the right or left.

Then, your Muskettiers being in the reere of your Pikes, let your sixt firing be to the reere: the Muskettiers wheeling off by division, and placing themselves before the front of their owne divisions of Muskettiers; and next behinde the reere of Pikes. Having fired once over, that way, let them give fire ouer againe, and flanke their Pikes: which be­ing in like manner performed, Command them to wheele their flankes into the front, and then face to [Page 301] the reere, and charge pikes, at the inside of the right foot, with their swords drawne in their right hands.

Let the seventh firing be discharged over their pikemen, wheeling, either all off, to the right through Intervals, or else by division, and placing themselues in the reere of their owne files. Otherwise, (for want of room) the first ranke of Muskettiers, having given fire, let them kneel, or crouch low upon the ground: and make ready againe; the second ranke, in like manner, firing and kneeling: and so for the rest. Having all fired once over, in that manner, let the Pikes advance, and put up their swords: the Mus­kettiers, in like manner, are to rise, then to even their ranks, and streighten their files.

For the eighth firing, you may face the body to the reere (or if you will continue your firing the same way) then wheele your battell about, and ha­ving opened your Intervals, your forme will be the broad fronted Phalange, or broad fronted Battell. Let these give fire, the first time, falling (or wheeling) all off to the right: and placing themselues in the reere of their owne divisions of Muskettiers. The second time of firing, let them wheele all off to the right, (as before) and place themselues in the reere of the pikes, which follow next after their owne divisions. In the interim of the last two ranks firing, cause your Pikes to port: but when the Muskettiers are cleered away, the Pikes may charge.

When the pikes are advanced, for the ninth fi­ring, face them to one of the flanks, and wheele them into a Semicircle or Convex half-moone; where the Muskettiers being outermost, give fire upon that [Page 302] figure: the first time, falling behinde the Muskettiers of their owne divisions: The second time of firing, cause them to place themselues behinde their pikes. For further directions, looke backe upon the 77. Chapter, which discourseth of the Convex halfe-moone. The pikes may also charge, and the Musket­tiers give fire over againe: according to discretion. The Pikes being readvanced, face the whole body to one of the flanks, and march them out horsewise. Then command them to double their ranks to the right: which being done, command that flank which are Muskettiers, to double the contrary flanke by di­vision: which being performed, all the Muskettiers will be in front and reere. Then cause the reere-di­vision of Muskettiers to double the front of Pikes, by division.

Then let them give fire on that figure, as they may see further directions in the Chapter. The pikes having charged, and advanced againe.

For the eleventh firing, first face the whole body to the right: then cause the halfe-files that then are, to face to the reere; and so let the Muskettiers give fire to the front and reere: wheeling off by division, and flanking their pikes. The pikes may also charge to the front and reere, which being performed, face them all againe, to their leader.

For the twelfth firing, make the Plinthium or foure-fronted battell: the Angles whereof being filled with Muskettiers. For further satisfaction, looke upon Chapter 100. which gives direction, both for the motion and reducing thereof. Next face the whole body to that part which was the front, before [Page 303] the last firing began. Then, if you would have your Ensigne to display, in an hollow Square, cause your Muskettiers to stand, and halfe-files of pikes, to face to the Reere: and so both divisions of pikes to march, untill their last ranks are even with the front and Reere of Muskettiers. Then face all to their leader. If you please, the Muskettiers may give fire upon this hollow square, as they march, to both flanks: still leading up their files, on the inside of their owne di­visions, and this will make the 13. firing.

But by this time, our powder being spent, our men weary, and night approaching: We will come to reducement. Wherefore, first cause the Pikes to close their divisions, and the Muskettiers to march up, even with their front of pikes. Then let the whole body, wheele their flanks into the reere, which being done, all the Muskettiers will be in the Reere. Then (if you will) face to the Reere, and give fire; causing your Muskettiers to wheele off by division, and to flanke their pikes. Or else, cause your Muskettiers to open to the right and left; and double your front of pikes, by division. Which being done, double files to the left; and they will be all reduced as at first. Wherefore, we will now lodge our Colours, and con­clude our second dayes Exercise, &c.

CHAP. CVII.
The Third dayes Exercise.

Whosoever it be that teach­eth the po­stures of the Musket: ought to be very dili­gent, in his in­struction, con­cerning the well managing of their a [...]mes: that they may not only fire to the Front reere and flank: But that they ob­serve order in their motion, which will bet­ter their exe­cution. The file-leader if he have time may instruct his file in the distances and the severall motions. HAving the third time (as formerly) brought your Souldiers into the Field; it is very necessarie, in the first place, that they be taught the Postures of each Armes: either by the file▪leaders, or some other of the Officers. Wherein they must be carefull, to in­struct them in the firings, both to front, reere, and flanks. As to give fire to the front, advancing; to give fire to the front, upon a stand: to give fire to the Reere, upon a march: to fire to either flanke, march­ing or standing. As also to instruct them in distance, facings, doublings, countermarches, and wheelings: that so, they may be the more apt and capable, when they shall be brought into a body. Having spent some time, in the exercising of files, let the Drumme summon each file-leader, to his place: the Ensigne be fetcht to the head of the Company; the Captaine command silence; and the Souldiers tender obedi­ence. The ranks being evened, and the files streitened, the Captaine (according to his accustomed manner) begins to instruct them in the Distances and Moti­ons. And after the performance of so many of them, as he shall thinke fit for the present exercise, he commands the Drummes to beat, and Muskettiers to make ready: and so causeth them to give fire, [Page 305] By drawing fo [...]th [...]ff loose files or other­wise. three or foure severall wayes, after the ordinarie manner of firing in the front.

Then cause your Muskettiers of the left flanke, to give fire to the reere; and the Muskettiers of the right flanke, to give fire to the right. This firing is to be performed upon a march, the Pikes shoulde­red.

For the second firing, let them give fire to both flankes. The gathering firing.

For the third, let them fire to both flankes, draw­ing them up betweene the divisions of Muskettiers and Pikes.

For the fourth firing, let them give fire againe, to both flankes, leading them up after they have fired, betweene the midst of Pikes. When the last files are firing, advance your Pikes, and close your rankes forwards to their order. Then, face to the right and left, and charge Pikes. Your Pikes being advanced, and faced againe to the front proper: all your Muskettiers will be in the midst.

Then, open them some Intervalles; and let the fift firing be to the front, wheeling all off to the right, and placing themselves in the reere of their owne di­visions. Then cause the Pikes to charge, and when your Pikes are advanced againe, let your halfe-files face about to the right.

And so the fixth firing, may be to the front and reere; the Muskettiers of the front division, wheeling off to the right: those of the reere division, wheeling off to the left: either of them placing themselves in the reere of their owne divisions. The Muskettiers having fired once or twice over, wheele your flankes [Page 306] into the front, and cause your Pikes to charge to the front and reere. The Pikes being againe advanced, and all faced to their former front, wheele front and reere into both flankes.

For the seventh firing, make the Plinthium, or foure fronted battell, the Angles being filled with Pikes: and let them giue fire, and charge their Pikes, according to directions for that Figure. As like­wise the firing being ended, reduce the men backe into their places, as they were before this firing. Then, wheele off your front by division, which brings your Muskettiers upon the flankes; but doth not reduce your men justly into their places, if your number be any thing great.

From thence, make them a perfect crosse battell, and let your Muskettiers give fire, wheeling all off to the right, placing themselves in the reere of their owne divisions of Muskettiers.

For the ninth firing, let them giue fire as before; but place themselves in the reere of their Pikes; the Pikes moving forwards into their ground, and charging. Having advanced your Pikes, command your flanke divisions to face about to the right, and to close their divisions. Then command the front and reere divisions to wheele their flankes into the reere: which being done, face them to the front proper, (that is) after the right file-leader.

For the tenth firing, (your Muskettiers being still in the midst) let your Muskettiers give fire by In­troduction▪ (beginning with the second ranke) the Pikes moving softly forward.

For the eleventh firing, let them give fire by In­troduction, [Page 307] (beginning with the Bringers up) The Pikes may charge at discretion: then let the Mus­kettiers stand, and the Pikes march forwards: clo­sing their divisions before the Muskettiers.

And so let the twelfth firing be by way of Extra­duction. Let the Pikes charge; which being perfor­med, command the first and last foure rankes to stand; and the rest of the body to face to the right and left: and so to march, untill they are cleere of the standing rankes. Then let the whole body face a­bout to the right▪ and let the Ensigne display his Co­lours in the midst.

For the next, let the Muskettiers give fire being foremost, both in front and flanke, which will make the thirteeenth firing. Let them wheele off by divisi­on; placing themselves in the reere of their owne di­visions of Muskettiers. Which being done, next cause those which opened to the right and left, to face in opposition: and to close their division. Then wheele off your front by division, or else, wheele your front inward to the reere. Then let the Commander march at the head of his Pikes, all the Muskettiers being in the reere.

Then for the fourteenth firing, let the Muskettiers give fire in the reere; wheeling off by division, and flanking their Pikes, which doth reduce every man to his place he had, when the Exercise first began. Aud herewith we will conclude our third dayes Exercise, and lodge our Colours, untill that the bel­lowing Drum call us the fourth time into the field, to give an account of our proficiency. Till when, we will leave our Souldiers in their severall Hutts [Page 308] or Cabines, there to rest their limbs, refresh their spirits, and replenish their Bande liers.

CHAP. CVIII.
The fourth daies Exercise.

HAving, the fourth time, brought your Souldiers into the field, and (as formerly) caused them to be instru­cted in the Postures, (both of Musket and Pike) that so they may be capa­ble to use them both with agility, and with safety. As likewise taught them their divers wayes of di­stance, with the severall and various motions: not forgetting, particularly to instruct them with rules and pertinent reasons to every one of them: that so they may, not onely learne to doe, but like rationall men, understand what they doe. Which being deli­berately performed, and each Officer disposed to his severall place, the rankes being evened, and the files straitened: the Captaine commands, the Drum beats, and the Muskettiers make ready for skir­mish, &c.

You may ei [...] t [...]r draw forth the in­nermost or outermost at discretion. The first firing, being by drawing forth the inner­most files of each flanke of Muskettiers, to the right and left, obliquely before the front, and so to stand and giue fire. Having given fire, let the Bringers up leade them back into their places. And, in the meane [Page 309] time, let the next innermost files, leade forth and fire, after the same manner; and so likewise the rest; untill all the Muskettiers have fired once over that way.

For the second firing, let them give fire obliquely, and crosse the front, both at once.

For the third, let them give fire obliquely: the Muskettiers standing before the Pikes, in forme of an hollow wedge. Vpon this firing, the Muskettiers fire outwards: whereas in the other, they fire in­ward.

For the fourth firing, let them fire upon the ob­lique W. For the manner of these firings, with the waies both how to make them & reduce them: I refer you to their severall places, where I have shewne them plainely.

For the fift firing, let them fire to each flanke ob­liquely; the Muskettiers making on each flanke, the formes of hollow wedges: and so they may performe as much to each flanke, (or both flankes) as hath beene to the front.

For the sixt firing, let them fire over the first ob­lique firing, to front and reere.

For the seventh firing, let them fire obliquely, and crosse the front and reere.

For the eighth firing, let them fire to the front and reere, obliquely: in the formes of the hollow wedges.

For the ninth firing, let them fire to the front and reere, obliquely, in the forme of the W.

And for the tenth firing, let them give fire ob­liquely, [Page 310] on the Fort figure, which is to front, reere, and flanks.

In all these firings, the pikes never come to charge, but stand in a square battell, in danger of the enemies shot: themselues neither being able to offend the enemy, nor to defend themselues. And yet if by fre­quent practise, they were inured to the use of the long how fastened to their pikes: I make no question, but that, when they should become expert in the use of the B [...]w and Pike; they would not onely be a terrour to their enemies, by the continuall showers of Arrows which they would send amongst them; but also that they would be a great meanes to rout their enemies, & u [...]erly to breake their order. On the contrary, if men should be put to use the Bow and Pike, and have not first well learned the use of the Pike alone; they would be so cu [...]ersome to them­selues, and so troublesome to others; that instead of spoyling their enemies, they would [...]out them selues. But pardon this [...] whilest I proceed to the rest of this dayes exercise.

The eleventh firing, being in [...]rme of a Romane T; is to be made as followeth. Let the pikes, stand, and the [...] of [...] wheele into the front: then let them give fire, making an Intervall upon each flanke; the [...] of the right-flanke whee­ling off to the right▪ the Mus [...]ettiers of the left flank, to the left; and placing themselues in the reer [...] of their [...] When the Muskettiers have fi­red, once or twi [...] over, [...] the pikes p [...]sse through, and wheele their fro [...] into the midst, and then fa­ci [...] to the front, let them charge their pikes: and [Page 311] from thence having advanced their pikes, let the Commander passe to the right flanke; and face the whole body to the right. Then, wheele the battell a­bout to the left, untill the body be brought into a round battell: from whence we will begin the twelfth firing.

The figure being made, face the whole body to the Center, and give them their directions, what they have to do. When they have received their instru­ctions, let them all face about to the right; present, and give fire. The first time of their firing, placing themselues in the reare of their Muskettiers; The second firing, countermarch to the right, and pla­cing themselues in the reere of their pikes: The pikes, at the same time, are to move forwards into the Muskettiers ground: where they may charge over head; and (if need be) at the foot: the Muskettiers giving fire over them, as in the Convex-halfe-moone. The firing being ended, and the pikes advanced, let the Commander march forth of the round Battell: at that point; where he shall finde all his proper file-lea­ders. Then let the whole body, be faced to that part, a [...] the file-leaders caused to march forth, even a breast: the Muskettiers and pikemen following their leaders, and marching, untill the body have atteined their orderly square againe. But note, that all your Muskettiers are in the midst of the battell.

For the thirteenth firing, make the impaled sou [...]d square: the way to performe it is as followeth. Your [...] being now the flankers, draw forth the [...] of the [...]es of pikemen, from the right flanke, crosse the front of the body (taking the outmost-files) [Page 312] let halfe the files of pikemen of the left flanke, be drawne crosse the reere, following their bringers up. Then, face all your Muskettiers to the front, reere, and flanks. The pikes may charge, all overhand: and (if need be) at the foot, with their swords drawn: the Muskettiers firing over them. Having fired, char­ged, and advanced their Pikes, draw off the Pikes, againe, from the front and reere, into their places.

For the fourteenth firing, (the Muskettiers being still in the middle) make the hollow fronted-crosse­battell; the Pikemen making the hollow, upon the flanks of the Muskettiers. For the making whereof, wheele the front off the 2. first ranks, into the midst. That being done, wheele the reer of the 2 last ranks, after the same manner: and then face the rest of the body to the right and left; and cause them to march untill there be a square hollow, in the middest of the battell. Then command them to face to the front, reere, and flanks: which being in like manner per­formed, cause the Pikes (who are now in the front of the Musketticrs) to open to the right and left; the last ranke of Pikes, ranking even with the first ranke of Muskettiers. The Muskettiers may give fire upon this figure, wheeling all off to the right: and placing themselues in the reere of their owne divisions of Muskettiers. If need be, the Pikes may close their divisions before their Muskettiers; and charge their Pikes. Which being done, and the Pikes againe advanced: we will come to the reducement. For which purpose, face the whole body about to the Center: and cause the flanke-divisions to close to their order. This being executed, let the front-divi­sion [Page 313] wheele together their front, into the midst (as they now stand faced) the reere-division doing the like. That being in like manner performed, face the whole body to the front proper: then wheele off the battell to the right and left: after which having clo­sed their divisions, they are perfectly reduced as at first. And herewith we will conclude this dayes ex­ercise, and leave our Souldiers to rest: untill that the morrows Sunne, and the thundering Drumme, shall call us forth againe into the Field.

CHAP. CIX.
The fifth dayes Exercise.

HAving the fift time brought your Souldiers into the Field, if you have leasure, it will not be amisse for to cause them to be instructed (in the first place) in the Postures of the Pike and Musket. For those Souldiers which by often practice of their Postures are growne perfect, will manage their Armes with case, surety, and cele­rity: when, on the contrary, the unpractised Soul­dier, will be a trouble to himselfe, a danger to his fellowes, and a Dormant to his Enemies.

After the Pastures, each file being drawne into his place; and the Ensigne (according to former di­rections) [Page 314] brought to the head of the P [...]kes; the Rankes evened, and the files streitned; the Captaine (having commanded silence, and delivered him­selfe in such [...]earmes, as the present occasion doth require, ever preferring the industrious and pain­full; and, on the contrary, blaming the carelesse and the slothfull) he next proceeds to instruct them in their sev [...]a [...] [...]: and these, indeed, are the grounds of all motion: seeing that without distance, the motion cannot be excected. Next to the distan­ces, they are to be instructed in the motions: ever observing to each motion, its due [...].

Next after [...], distance, and motions; let the rest of the dayes Exercise be spent in firings and fi­gures of Battaile. Each Officer, having now recei­ved his severall Charge: The Captaine commands; the Drums, beat, and the Muskettiers, make ready.

The first firing being performed by leading forth the outmost file of each Flanke twenty paces (or thereabout) before the Front; and no [...] [...] the place of firing [...]; let the second men, [...] the right and le [...] inward, even with their [...] so give fire, together, wheeling off by [...] the right Flanke to the right, the left flanke [...] the left; placing themselves on the inside of their owne d [...]vi­ss [...]ns of Muske [...]i [...]s next the Pikes file-wise, as they were when they marchedforth. So soon as the first two men of their files, have after this manner ran­ked, fired, and wheeled off; the next second m [...]n, ranke even with their Leaders, as before: giving fire, and wheeling away to place themselves, file­wise, aftertheir [...]ders. The residue of their first [Page 315] files are to do the like; and so still the outermost files leading forth, doing in like manner [...]; and still pla­cing themselves, file-wise, next to the Pikes.

For the second firing, cause the outermost files to march forth to the former distance before the front: And whereas in the last firing, they ranked but two and two [...]; and so gave fire: now, let them ranke foure. That is to say, the three men next behind the right-hand-file-leader, shall ranke inward to the left, even with their File-leaders: the three next men, after the left-hand-file-leader, ranking inwards to the right; even [...]rest with the leader of their file: the residue of each file, keeping themselves in file; and closing formard [...] to the distance of order, just after their File-leaders. The first foure of each file, having presented, fired, and wheeled away; the last foure men (being the [...]e [...]r [...]-half-files) in the in­terim of their wheeling off, ranke to the [...]ight and left inward: presenting [...]; [...]ing, and wheeling off (as aforesaid) and placing themselves in the [...] of the former part of their files, which wheeledaway before them. The second Files are then to lead forth, and to doe the like; and so successively, the rest, untill they have all fired over, this way.

For the third firing, let the outermost files lead forth to the same distance befo [...]e the Front [...]; whi­ther being come, as tothe place wherein [...] doe their execution [...]; let the files [...] to the right and left inward [...]; and so fire all together: [...], and placing themselves as in the [...] f [...]ngs. The residue of the other Files of Muskettiers, at the sametime, marching forth; giving fire, and still [Page 316] placing themselves file-wise, on the innermost part of their own divisions of Muskettiers; and next to the outside of Pikes.

For the fourth firing, cause your Muskettiers to ranke to the right and left, into the front; and so the whole body of Muskettiers give fire at once: which being performed, let them face to the right and left inward, and so march into their places.

They may (if you please) open the files of Mus­kettiers, to double distance, and so cause the files to ranke to the right into the front, by Conversion: gi­ving fire after that manner, which (if it be done) will make the fift firing.

After this, let them fall backe into their places, and having made ready againe, before you close their distance, cause the halfe-files to face about, and then let the files ranke into the front and reere, and so give fire: which will make the si [...]t firing. Having thus fired, and being fallen backe into their places, let the halfe files, face againe to their leader; and the files of Muskettiers close againe to their order.

For the seventh firing, let the rankes of Musket­tiers open backe to their double distance; and the Muskettiers, wheele to the right and left by Conver­sion: and so give fire to both flankes.

The men being returned to their places, and ha­ving againe closed their rankes to their order: after some little pause, by marching, (or otherwise) the Muskettiers being all againe ready; command your files of Pikes to open to the right and left, to their double distance. Then command, rankes both of [Page 317] Muskets and Pikes, to open backward to their double distance. Which being done, command the Muskets to invert to the right and left outward; and then to face outward, and present; and let the halfe-files of Pikes face about. Then cause your files of Pikes, to ranke to the front and reere by conversion: and let the Muskettiers give fire, and the Pikes charge.

This figure will take up a great quantity of ground, because that all the Muskettiers are now become two rankes: that is to say, to each flanke one, all the Pikes being likewise brought into two rankes, one to the front, and the other to the reere. This being performed, the body will stand in form of a great hollow square.

The Muskettiers hauing fired, the Pikes being advaneed, and each Souldier returned to his place, and all faced to their leader: let them close their rankes and files to their order. Then cause the ninth firing, to be performed to both flankes, upon a stand: facing the whole body to the right and left, there firing and wheeling off by division, and flank­ing their Pikes. Whilest the two last rankes are gi­ving fire, let the Pikes port, and when the Musket­tiers have fired, and wheeled off, let them charge.

Having advanced their Pikes, face the whole body to that part where you shall finde your file-leaders of Muskettiers: then will all your Muskettiers, be in front and reere. Next, command your halfe-files that then are, to double your front to the left entire: which being done, let them face to the right and left, the Muskettiers giving fire, and wheeling off to the left, and placing themselves in the reere of their [Page 318] owne divisions. The Pikes may also port, and charge, at discretion. The Pikes being advanced, and the whole Company, faced to their former front, command the halfe-rankes of the right, (both Mus­kettiers and Pikes) to march, and the halfe-rankes of the left flanke to follow in the reere.

Having given them some time of breathing; then for the eleventh firing, cause the halfe-files that then are, (Muskettiers and Pikes) to face to the reere. Which being done, let the Muskettiers give fire to the front and reere, upon a stand, whee­ling off by division, and placing themselves in the reere of their Pikes; they moving forwards, and maintaining the Muskettiers ground. The Pikes are then to charge, when they are cleered of their Mus­kettiers. Which being done, and they againe ad­vanced, face them all to their former front.

For the twelfth firing, command halfe-files to dou­ble the front inward intire. To which purpose, open the front halfe-files (both Muskettiers and Pikes) to the right and left; for receiving the halfe-files of both Armes, within them: which being executed, each Armes will stand in three divisions. Then com­mand the front halfe-files, to face about to the reere, and to present: The Reere halfe-files keeping still faced to the front; and there in like manner presen­ting, and both giving fire together. The first time of their firing over, they may fall in the Reere of their owne divisions of Muskettiers; wheeling off to the right and left. The second time of giving fire upon this figure, let them wheele off, as before; and place themselues in the Reere of their following divi­sions [Page 319] of Pikes. Which being in like manner perfor­med, let the Pikes, charge. Being againe advanced; face the body to the former front; and command, halfe-files that doubled, to face to the Reere, and march into their places. The halfe-files being faced about, and marched cleare off, then are the front halfe-files to close their divisions. Thus being all rightly faced, the Muskettiers will be in the front and reere.

For the thirteenth firing, make the horned battell to the front and reere. For the which, cause the halfe-files of Muskettiers and Pikes, to face to the reere. Then cause the Muskettiers to open to the right and left, (both in front and reere) and so to give fire: wheeling off by division, and flanking their Pikes. The Pikes may also charge: Having advan­ced, let them all face to their leader at the proper front.

Lastly, for the fourteenth firing, make the Sconce Battell. For further directions wherein, turne backe to the 93. Chapter; where you may finde instructi­ons, as well for the making, giving of fire, and redu­cing thereof. And if you please, your Ensigne may display his Colours, in the hollow part of the midst of the Pikes.

Supposing now, that by this time, the night hath almost overtaken us; we will prepare to lodge our Colours, with our accustomed Bene-vale: and here­with we will conclude this our fifth dayes Exercise; suffering our Souldiers to depart to their severall habitations. There leaving them to clense their arms, and to refresh their bodies, untill the morrows clamou­ring Drum, doth invite us forth to our sixth dayes Exercise.

CHAP. CX.
The sixt dayes Exercise.

HAving the sixth time brought your Souldiers into the Field, according to the accustomed manner: let each File-leader, exercise his File, in the Postures of such Armes, as they carry. Which being performed, and the Files againe rejoyned into one body: the En­signe being at the head of the Pikes, and the rest of the Officers in their severall places: The Captaine having commanded silence, attention, and obeaience (three especiall vertues, most necessarily requisite to every common Souldier) hee proceeds to the se­verall distances; instructing them in the uses of each of them. Next after the distances, he teaches them the Facings, the Doublings, the Countermar­ches, and the Wheelings, with severall Observations upon each of the Motions. After which (having so commanded) The Drums, bcat; and the Muskettiers, make ready for Skirmish: Then (if you please) you may cause three or foure of the first firings, to be performed by light Skirmishing before the Front: and that with loose Ranks, or Files, or both: either some of those, (or such like) as I have formerly [Page 321] spoken off in the preceding Exercises. After which, for your next firing; cause your Half-files to open to the right and left, by equall division: untill the Reere Divisions of Pikes, stands right after the Mus­kettiers of the Front-division. Now the Musket­tiers standing in foure Divisions, let them all pre­sent, and give fire to the Front: wheeling all off to the right, and placing themselves in the Reere of their own divisions of like Armes: each Ranke, still making good the Leaders ground. Having given fire, once or twice over on this Figure: For the se­cond firing cause the Front-division to give fire to the Front; and the two Reere divisions, to each Flanke in a March. The Front-division with fires in Ranke, wheele all off to the right; placing themselves in the Reere of their ownc Divisions of Muskettiers: the other Divisions with fire in flanke, leading up their files betweene their owne divisions of Musket­tiers and the Pikes.

Having given fire once or oftner over, according to discretion this way; let the third firing be per­formed upon a stand. For the which, cause your reere-divisions to facc to the right and left outward: the front-division, still to continue the same aspect. Then, let the Muskettiers give fire, those of the right flanke, wheeling off to the right: and the con­trary flanke, to the contrary hand; the Muskettiers of the front division, placing themselues in the reere of their owne divisions of Muskets; the Muskettiers of the reere divisions, placing themselues in the reere of the reere divisions of Pikes: each ranke of Mus­kettiers, still making good his leaders ground. When [Page 322] they have fired all over, let the Pikes charge, to front and both flanks.

Having advanced your Pikes againe, and faced your body to the front proper, each Armes still stand­eth in three divisions. Then let the fourth firing, be to the reere, and both flanks upon a march. And to that end, open your front-divisions of Muskettiers to the right and left, untill they are cleere of the reere-divisions of Pikes: that so they be not trouble­some unto them, in their march. Then let your pikes shoulder; and the Muskettiers, give fire: the front divisions of Muskettiers, firing in flanke, and leading up on the inside of their owne divisions. The Mus­kettiers of the reere division, giving fire in the reere in ranke wheeling off by division, and placing them­selves in the front of their owne divisions of Mus­kettiers. Having fired once over, and the Pikes char­ged; let your fifth firing be to the Reere, and both flankes upon a stand. In the which, let the half-files (both Muskettiers and Pikes) face to the Reere; the Front-division to the right and left, and so give fire one each part; those that fire to the flankes wheeling off, and placing themselves in the Reere of their di­visions of Pikes, and the Muskets of the Reere divi­sions, wheeling off to the right and left, and placing themselves in the Reere of their owne divisions of Musketties: each Ranke moving forward into their Leaders ground. Having fired over, let the Pikes charge. The Pikes being againe advanced; face the whole body to the proper front: and then all the Mus­kettiers will be in the midst, and the Pikemen on the flankes.

[Page 323] For the sixth firing, cause your half-rankes of the left, double your right flanke by division. For further directions, looke back to the tripartite firing: which you shall find, Chap. 92. Having fired over that way; charged, and re-advanced your pikes: face the whole body to their former front.

For your seventh firing, cause the front and reere divisions of Muskettiers and Pikes, to face to the right: therest of the body (both Muskets and Pikes) to the left. Let the Muskettiers give fire, and wheele all off, either to the right or left, and place them­selves in the reere of their following divisions of Pikes; each ranke still moving up into their leaders ground. When there rest but two rankes of each di­vision, to fire, let the Pikes port. Having all fircd, and wheeled away; let the Pikes charge. Then, face the whole body to their first front; and command the first and last foure rankes to face to the left: and to march, untill they are cleere of the standing part of the Body. Then, cause the front halfe-files, to face to the left, the reere halfe-files, to the right: and so to close their divisions: and after that to face to­wards their leader.

For the eight firing, make the sollid Square girdled with Muskettiers. For the which, draw halfe the files of the right flanke of Muskettiers, crosse the front, and halfe the files of Muskettiers of the left flanke, crosse the reere. Then face the whole body (both Muskets and Pikes (to the front, reere, and flankes. This done, let the Muskettiers give fire, and wheele off by division: placing themselves in the reere of their owne divisions of Muskettiers▪ [Page 324] All the time of this firing, the Pikemen, being in the middle of the Muskettiers, have good opportu­nity (if the enemy be neere) to gall them with their thicke showers of feathered shot. The Muskettiers, in the meane time, having fired once, twice, or oftner over, on this Figure, draw your files of Muskettiers backe againe into their places.

Then having faced the whole body to the proper front, let your ninth firing, be Captaine Wallers dou­ble firing to the front and reere, after this manner. First, wheele front and reere into the right flanke: then face them all the same way they were before: which done, cause the halfe-files to face to the reere, and command the Muskettiers which are in the reere of each division of Pikes, to double their front of Pikes by division. Then, let them face about and close their divisions: and so having refaced them as they were; let them give fire, wheele off, and charge, according to directions on Captaine Wallers Fi­gure.

For the tenth firing, let them face to the right and left, and give fire to both flankes upon a stand: wheeling off by division, and flanking their Pikes. When the Pikes have charged, and are againe ad­vanced, let the Captaine passe to the front accidentall of the left flanke, and face the rest of the body to him, and in the next place wheele their flanks into the front, and so all the Muskettiers will be in the front: and by facing the whole body to the left; all the Muskettiers will be on the right flanke.

Let the eleventh figure be the Diamond Battell. Having given fire two or three severall wayes, ac­cording [Page 325] to the directions upon that figure; charged Pikes, and reduced them againe into the Square: face the body about to the right; and passe the Mus­kettiers which belong to the right flanke, betweene the ranks of pikes into their places. Then, the Mus­kettiers of the left flanke, being closed to their Pikes, the Body will stand at their first order.

For the twelfth firing, make the hollow Square girdled with shot: let them give fire upon that figure (both without and within) according to the directi­ons for that firing. Let the Pikes, charge; and reduce them in the same manner as I have discoursed upon that figure.

For the thirteenth firing, Make the Plesium as you shall finde directions in the 104. Chapter.

Having made it, given fire upon it, and reduced it as at first.

Let the fourteenth and last firing for this exercise, be the Hollow Hearse and Crosse. Turne backe to the 103. Chapter, where you may finde ample instru­ctions for the making, firing, and reducing of it. And lastly, that you may conclude with triumph, cause your Ensigne to be displayed in the middle of the Hollow Crosse: and then having fired, charged pikes, and reduced your men, according to the directions on that figure, your men will be as at first. And therefore seeing that by this time night is come; and our powder gone; we will here give conclusion to our sixth dayes Exercise.

Wherefore, that you may observe some forme in the lodging of our Colours; cause your Muskettiers to march in the front of your pikes. Then, as as they [Page 326] march, let them invert to the right and left: which is, when the Ranks file to the right and left, by di­vision. Then, cause all your Muskettiers to face in opposition; to cocke their Matches, guard their Pans, and rest their Muskets. In the meane time, let the pikes advance, and close their ranks and files, to their order. Which being done, the Captaine, Lieutenant, Ensigne, and Drummes beating a Troope, at the head of the pikes: passe through this Guard into the appoin­ted place for the alledgement of the Ensigne. Then, the Serjeants cause the Muskettiers to face all about to the right, and present: and upon the first beat of the Drumme, they all give fire in one Volley. And now having performed our sixth dayes Exercise, the Drumme beats a Call: and makes proclamation, that every man may depart unto his severall home, untill his next Summons into the Field.

FINIS.
The Contents of every Chapter contained in this Booke.
  • Chap. 1. COncerning Postures and handling of Armes. page 1.
  • The Postures of the Musket. page 3
  • 2 Of the Postures of the Pike, page 7
  • 3 Of the Drum, page 11
  • 4 Of Rankes and Files, their places and dignities, p. 13
  • 5 Reasons for precedency of dignity in Rankes and Files. page 15
  • 6 Of severall Distances, page 20
  • 7 Of marching a Company in divisions at length, the order and places of the Officers, and againe drawing them into forme of battell, p. 24
  • 8 Of drawing the Divisions up into a square, p. 26
  • 9 What is facing, and the use of the word, whether to be used or refused, p. 28
  • 10 Of facing square, and how to performe it, the usefulnesse of Facings, and the severall parts thereof, page 30
  • 11 Of Doublings, the use and parts, p. 34
  • 12 Of Inversion and Conversion, and of doubling Rankes. p. 40
  • [Page] Chap. 13 Of doublings of Ftles, page p. 42
  • 14 Of doublings by Bringers up, p. 43
  • 15 Of doublings of Files outward and inward, page 46
  • 16 Of doubling by halfe Files, p. 48
  • 17 Of doublings the Reere by Front halfe Files, page 50
  • 18 Of doubling the Reere by Countermarch, p. 53
  • 19 Of doubling Flankes by wayes of Countermarch, page 54
  • 20 Of doubling halfe Files to the right intire, to ac­commodate the doubling of halfe Rankes, p. 57
  • 21 The difference betweene intire and divisionall doublings, and of doubling halfe Files intire, p. 61
  • 22 Of doubling the Front inward intire, p. 63
  • 23 Of halfe Files, doubling the Front by division, page 66
  • 24 Of doubling the Reere by division, p. 67
  • 25 Of doubling the Reere intire, by the front halfe Files, p. 70
  • 26 Of doubling by halfe ranke intire, p. 72
  • 27 Of doubling of Flankes by division, p. 75
  • 28 Of doubling Rankes intire, p. 77
  • 29 Of doubling Files intire, advancing, p. 79
  • 30 Of Files doubling their depth, p. 82
  • 31 Of Conversion and Inversion, with their words of Command, and reducements, p. 85
  • 32 Of Files siling in sequence, p. 88
  • 33 Of inverting Ranks, or Ranks filing, p. 90
  • 34 Of Ranks filing by division, and how usefull, page 92
  • [Page] Chap. 35 Of the severall parts of Conversion, and how they are to be understood, page p. 94
  • 36 Of Rankes wheeling by conversion, p. 97
  • 37 Of Files ranking in equall part, p. 101
  • 38 The conclusion of Doublings, p. 105
  • 39 Of Countermarches. The antiquity, and words of direction, p. 108
  • 40 Of the Chorean Countermarch: and the way to performe it, p. 112
  • 41 Of Countermarching to loose ground, p. 114
  • 42 Of Countermarches to gaine ground, or the Macedonian Countermarch, p. 117
  • 43 Of the Bastard Countermarch, p. 119
  • 44 Of Countermarching Rankes, to maintaine ground, p. 121
  • 45 Of Countermarching Rankes to loose ground, p. 122
  • 46 Of the Macedonian Countermarch by Rank, p. 124
  • 47 Of Countermaching Front and Reere to the middest, p. 125
  • 48 Of bringing Front and Reere, together into the middest by the Bastard Countermarch, p. 128
  • 49 Of Countermarching, to make a large inter­vall, between the first and last Ranke, p. 130
  • 50 Of making a large Intervall, between the first & last Rankes, by the Macedonian Countermarch, p. 132
  • 51 Of interchanging ground. p. 134
  • 52 Of countermarching the flanks (or wings) into the midst of the Battell▪ p. 136
  • [Page] Chap. 53 Of countermarching, to take the ground before the flankes, page p. 138
  • 54 Of Countermarching to take the ground on the out side of the Flankes, and to direct their Aspects in­wards. p. 140
  • 55 Of taking the ground on the outside of the flanks; not altering the Aspects. p. 142
  • 56 Of Interchanging Ground by the Flanks, and bringing the innermost files of Pikes, to become the out­most rankes. p. 144
  • 57 Of wheeling, their kindes, and uses with their se­verall words of Command. p. 148
  • 58 Of wheelings Anguler, p. 150
  • 59 Of wheeling on the Center. p. 152
  • 60 Of wheeling off, by division. p. 154
  • 61 Of wheeling the Front inward, towards the Reere. p. 156
  • 62 Of bringing the Flanks into the Front of the Battell, p. 158
  • 63 Of wheeling the Reere into the midst of the Bat­tell, p. 161
  • 64 Of wheeling the right flanke, into the midst of the Battell, p. 164
  • 65 Of wheeling the left Flanke into the midst of the Battell, p. 167
  • 66 Of wheeling Front and Reere, into the midst of the Battell, p. 169
  • 67 Of wheeling the flanks into the midst of the Bat­tell, p. 172
  • 68 Of making men file-leaders successively, the files being eight deepe, p. 176
  • [Page] Chap. 69 Of making men file-leaders succes [...]ively: the files being but sixe deepe, page p. 179
  • 70 Of drawing the Files againe into a Body: and preparing them for a skirmist, p. 183
  • 71 Of firing by forlorne files. The manner, and use, page 186
  • 72 Of firings by two Ranks, ten paces advanced be­fore the front: Next, even with the front; and lastly, even with the halfe files, p. 190
  • 73 Of the Horne-battell; how to make it: and to re­duce it by firing, p. 195
  • 74 Of the Demie-hearse Battell: The use of the figure; how to make it, and to reduce it by firing▪ p. 198
  • 75 Of giving fire, advancing, by way of Introducti­on: with the beneficiall use of the Bow and Pike, page 201
  • 76 The way to make the Diamond Battell: severall wayes to fire upon it: with divers other figures and fi­rings, which are thereby produced, p. 204
  • 77 Of the Convex Halfe Moone; The use of the Fi­gure: and of severall wayes of firing upon it. p. 211
  • 78 Of Extraduction: the severall uses, firings, and Reducements. p. 215
  • 79 Of the Broad fronted Battell: with the wayes of firing upon it. p. 218
  • 80 Of dismarching, or firing in the Reere: the seve­rall wayes, and how they ought to be performed. p. 221
  • 81 Of firings in flanke, in generall; and more parti­cularly, of the gathering firing. p. 226
  • 82 The second manner of giving fire to the flanke. p. 229
  • [Page] Chap. 83 A firing in flanke, led off by the Bringers up. page p. 131
  • 84 The difference betweene Firings in Flanke, mar­ching: and of bringing the Muskettiers on the outside of the Pikes. p. 234
  • 85 Of Firing in Flanke: aud placing the Musket­tiers in the midst of the Battell of Pikes: with other fi­rings from thence proceeding. p. 237
  • 86 Of firing to the front and reere, upon a march. p. 242
  • 87 A second way of firing to the front and reere. p. 245
  • 88 A firing to the reere and right flanke, marching. p. 247
  • 89 Of firing to both flanks, marching. p. 249
  • 90 A firing to both Flanks, standing. p. 251
  • 91 Captaine Wallers Triple firing to the Front. p. 254
  • 92 A firing tripartite, doing execution to the front, reere, and right flanke. p. 257
  • 93 Of the Sconce Battell. p. 259
  • 94 Of firing by three files at once; two of them stand­ing oblique, the other direct. p. 262
  • 95 A firing oblique, by foure files together, in forme of a W. p. 264
  • 96 Of the Fort Battell; the way to make, and to re­duce it. p. 266
  • 97 Of the crosse Battell; the way to make it with a private Company. How to fire upon it: and to reduce it. p. 268
  • 98 Of the hollow-fronted Crosse Battell, how to make [Page] it with a private Company: and the way to fire upon it, &c. p. 272
  • 99 Of firing upon the square Battell, flanked with Pikes. p. 274
  • 100 Of the Plinthium, or fouṙe-fronted-battell; by us called the Crosse of Muskets, flanked with Pikes. p. 276
  • 101 Of the Hollow Square for march. p. 280
  • 102 Of the hollow Hearse, and the Crosse. p. 283
  • 103 Of the Hollow Square [...] dled with shot. p. 286
  • 104 Of the Sollid Square, with Muskettiers in Cen­ter and Angles. The way to make the figure with a pri­vate Compani [...] ▪ how to fire upon it, and to reduce it. p. 291
  • 105 The first dayes Exercise. p. 297
  • 106 The second dayes Exercise. p. 299
  • 107 The third Dayes Exercise. p. 304
  • 108 The fourth dayes Exercise. p. 308
  • 109 The fifth dayes Exercise. p. 313
  • 110 The sixth dayes Exercise. p. 320
FINIS.

Faults escaped in the Printing.

PAge 17. line 5. for and, reade ad, p. 25. l. 32. r. before, p. 34. first line of the 11. Chap. [...] p. 36. in the margent, r. particle, p. 64 l. 13. r. armies, p, 74. l. 9. 4. all, [...] [...]8 l. 8. r. least, p. 86▪ l. 6. r. or, p. 86. l. 19▪ r. to▪ p. 87. l. 8. r. without, p. 87. l 2 [...] [...] drawne a figure▪ p 89. l▪ 6. r. left, p. 89. l. 17. r. file-wise, p. 97. l. the last, r. [...] p. 106. l. 3. r. one, p. 108. l. 9. r. in, p. 112. l. 5. r. before, p. 117. l. 4. r. [...] leaders, p. 119. l. 19. & 20. r. and with the Chorean it holds no affinity, p. [...]24▪ the last line, r. be as at first. p. 127. the 2 m m which stand for the ou [...]ost file-leaders to the right, stand quite contrary. p. 137. l. 5. r. to. p. 140. [...]he figure se [...] wrong. p 152 l. 8. r. [...]oo p. 1 [...]6. l. 11. r. flanks. p. 173. l. 13. r. o [...]rmost. p. 176. l. 32. r. figured. p. [...]07. l. 14. r. commanded. p. 217. l 4. r. u [...] ▪ p. 250. l. 8. r. firing. p. 269. l: 18. r. them. p. 271. l. 11. r. armes. p 292. l. 13. r. flanks▪ p. 293. the title of the figure, r. Plesium. p. 296. l. 6. r. to her severall, &c. p. 297. the marginall note opposite to the a [...] ▪ line▪ r. instead of one file and close. One file of Muskettiers to give fire, and close, p. 302 l. the 9. for h [...]swise, r▪ herswise, p. 306. l. 27. for Leader, r. Leaders, p 311. l. 17 for overhead, r. overhand.

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