❧ The Treasure of EVONYMVS, conteyninge the vvonderfull hid se­cretes of nature, touchinge the most apte formes to prepare and destyl Medicines, for the conser­uation of helth: as Quintessēce, Aurum Potabile, Hippocras, Aromatical wynes, Balmes, Oyles Perfumes, garnishyng waters, and other mani­fold excellent confections. Wherunto are ioyned the formes of sondry apt Fornaces, and ve­ssels, required in this art. Translated (with great diligence, & laboure) out of Latin, by Peter Mor­vvyng felow of Magda­line Colleadge in Oxford.

❧ Imprinted at London by Iohn Daie, dvvelling ouer Aldersgate, beneath Saint Martines.

Cum priuilegio ad imprimendum solum.

Iohn Daye to the Christi­an Reader.

COnsideringe with myself (louinge Reader) many and sundrye ti­mes, how yt nothinge is so desired, so accep­table, or so necessarye in the time of daunge­rous infirmities, and pearel of bodely helth, as to preserue those yt are free of sicknes frō the violence of the same, and to restore the sicke, weake, and languishing paciente vnto his former estate and pristinate healthe, which thyng is per­formed by the noble and excellente knowledge of Phisicke: and again, howe that this Arte is exer­cised, yea of famous and learned men, which with out any great profit to the pacient, or worship to ye minister, because their medicines are negligently prepared: I thought it my part, by this my trauail and expenses, somwhat to serue herein thy necessi­ty. Wherfor, I haue caused this precious treasure to be translated into oure vsuall, and natiue lan­guage, that like as all men are subiecte to sicknes: so in likewise all men may by this occasion learne the way vnto helth. And because thauthor (whose name I spare to manifest, for feare of inuious de­tracters) do in many places of this his work, send the Reader vnto Philippe Vlstadius & Brunsvvick: [Page] therfore I will with expedition (if this my labors shall be thankfullye accepted,) also publishe them, sparing neither laboure, diligence, or charges for to bringe them bothe to their perfection, and also thy necessarye vse. As touchinge the excellencye of the preparinge medicines, the vtilitie springinge therof, and the argumente of the worke, because it is exactlye sette oute by the author in the preface folowing, I wil leaue to trouble the fur­ther herein. Fare moste hartely well in Christe. At London the .ii. of May. 1559.

The preface of the author to the Reader.

  • i Of the inuention of liquors and oyles destilled.
  • ii Of the scope and end of this booke. Whereof more also shalbe spoken about the end of the Preface.
  • iii The praise of them that can be content to make commō the best and most effectuous medicins they haue.
  • iiii How much the dressing and maner of preparans auai­leth in euery thing.

THe Art of destillatiō (whi­che they call Chymia, Alchimia, Alkimia, Chemia Suidas calleth it, and Alchemia) hath inuented many profitable things for mās life, and in Phisicke also certain meruelous thinges, and praise worthy, if a man prepare them righte and diligentlye. For the lacke of knowledge, Couetous­nes or negligence of Phisitions and commun Apotheca­ries is the cause why many such preparations are set litle by: and worthily, if you respect that which they prepare: vnworthely, if ye marke the Art it selfe, whiche certes is most excellent and most profitable: which semeth to be the cause why it lay hid so long, and began to come in vre ve­ry late. Some ascribe vnto Hierom of Brunsvvick, which about .lxx. yeares past practised Phisick at Argentyn, the originall of getting out waters, as they cal them, and li­quors and oyles out of simple medicines by the strengthe of fire: but they are much deceiued, for this Arte was not inuented by him, but wryten in our Dutch tung and first set out by him. In mine opinion this inuencion is so aū ­cient as the inuencion of the very Chymia, which I sup­pose was celebrated first and put in wryting by men that [Page] vsed the Punicall or els the Arabicke tonge, a litle after the age of the Grecian Phisicions, Of those I speake that writ almooste the latest, as Aetius, Oribasius, Actuarius, Psellus. In certain libraries in Italy euen at this day, are there extant certain wrytinges of Chymia by certain late Grecians, namely a certain Philosopher called Stephan: al so a boke intituled of the chaunging of metals, which cō ­munlye are called Chymia, or Arcymia. There is also a boke to be had of Alchymia made by Auicenna vnto Assis a Philosopher. Geber (the Nepheu of I canne not tell what great Mahomet) who is celebrated as a captain and prince of this science, what age he liued in I can not easi­ly say. Although I iudge him not to haue bene the first in uentor of this Art, but one that broughte it to lighte and renouned it. This man in his worke intitled Summae per­fectionis, discoursinge excellentlye and disputinge manye things of destillacion generallye, writeth that diuers ma­ners of destilling are knowne almost of all men, euen as an auncient inuenciō, yea in his time also, no new thing. Certain late wryters declare the wrytinges of Alchymia not only of Albertus Magnus, S. Thomas, Rhaza, and A­uicenna, Arabik Phisitions, but also of Aristotle, Plato and Salomon, at the least wise mention to be made by thē of it: to whome I geue small credence, not that I thincke this studye to be the newer, but certes that it was ether vnknown to these philosophers or mentioned in no place. Some there be that expound feetly and wittily al the fei­nings of the Poets, and chieflye that of the golden fleece, sought by the Argonautae, vnto the multiplying of Golde or Art of enterchaunging of metalles. Some also ascende higher, and make the first men by and by after the begin­nidg of the world, authors therof. Some simplely make it most auncient, and affirme that no certainty is to be had of the first inuēters. At Padvvay in Italy in our time was found a most auncient monument, namely an erthen pot, hauing written vpon it this Hexasticon.

Plutoni sacrum munus ne attingite fures,
Ignotum est vobis hoc quod in vrna latet.
Nanque elementa graui clausit digesta labore,
Vase sub hoc modico, Maximus Olibius:
Adsit foecundo custos sibi copia cornu,
Ne praetium tanti depereat laticis.
This sacred to God Pluto (theues) ware that ye touch not,
Vnknown is it to you all, this that is hid in a pot.
For the elements hath ishut vp digested with much pain,
In this smal vessel the great Olibius certaine.
Plenty with thy fruteful horn as a gard be thou present,
Least the price pearish of this liquor most excellent.

Within this pot was an other litle pot with the inscription of these verses.

Abite hinc pessimi fures
Vos quid voltis cum vostris oculis emissitiis?
Abite hīc vostro cū Mercurio petasato caduceato (que)
Maximus maximo donum Plotoni hoc sacrū facit
Away frō hēce ye mighty theues, trudge els wher & go by,
What seke ye with your spying eies, why do ye por & pry
Hens with your hatted Mercury, and with his rod also.
This gift is sacred by the greatst vnto the greatest Ploto.

Again, within this little pot was found a light yet bur­ning betwene two Phials, the one of Gould, the other of Siluer, ful of a certain mooste pure liquor, by the vertue wherof they beleue that this lighte had burnte manye a yeare, as did noote in their collections and gatherings of old auncient inscriptiōs or Poesies Petrus Appianus and Bartholom eus Amantius Hermolaus Barbarus also in his [Page] Corollarium or addicion vpon Dioscorides made mention of this same thing, wheras he entreateth of waters in cō ­mun. There is also (saith he) a heauenlye water, or rather diuine of the Chymistes, whiche boothe Democritus and Mercury Trimegistus knewe: callinge it sometimes a de­uine water, somtimes a Seythicall liquor, somtimes pneu­ma, that is, spirit of the nature of the firmament, and of y fift essens or substance of things: wherof potable gold, and that philosophers stone much spoken of, but not yet fond, consisteth. Hereupon also is the name geuen vnto the art calling it Psammurgicall, and misticall, and Annophysiall and holy, and greatest: as thoughe it had certaine secreate letters, and such as it should be conueniente to kepe and restrein the profane commun people from. This kinde of liquor, as I suppose, dothe the Epigram signifye of late found within the field of Padua nie vnto the village called Atesta, made vpon earthen or bricke mettal, and therfore frail, and broken vnwares by the handes of a man of the country digging the ground in the same place. The remē brance wherof least it should pearish we haue added here­unto the very wordes. This holy gift to the God, &c. as before. Therfore it appeareth that the study of this Art was of moste antiquitie amongste the Barbarus nacions, but deriued vnto the Romains and Grekes somwhat late, nether before perauenture that the Romains obteined the dominion of a great part of the worlde: or if sooner yet co­uertly & reteined emongst a very fewe. Cicendulae y shine in the night (saith Cardane) teach vs that a liquor may be made that may shine in the dark. It is made certes by the putrifying of those things that haue most erceding brightnes, light & perspicuitie. I dout not but it is possible to be made, wherof and how, I am vncertain. But these things are almost besides our matter, sauing that it mighte seme vtterly that the way to sublimate & destil, as they term it, hath had his original of the Chimists, & continued also al­wais [Page] wt their art: was opened vnto the mē of our parte of the world thē first, whē as ye world being made known bithimpery of the Romains, sundry kinds of spices also & di­ners medicins vnknown befor to the men of Europe, & to the Grekes & Latins also, began to be brought in: and af­terward also more, what time as the Mauritans & mē lear­ned in the Arabik tung & doctrin, possessed a great part of Spain, wherby certain bokes of learned mē cam vnto vs: & amongst the latter sort, as I think, the works of one Bulcasis Benaberazeris who in the place wher he intreteth of the preparation of medicins, teacheth also of many things to be sublimated & destilled. About the age of the same mā al­most, I think Iohannes Mesue was famous, whō we read to haue liued about ye yere of our Lord. 1158. But be mē ­cioneth none other destild waters thē of Roses & Worm­wod. Mē say Auicenna florished the yere of our Lord. 1149▪ who also speketh of Rose water destild. The vsa of metalli things sublimated is far more auncient, at the leaste wise touching the tradition or tretises of authors, & like wise is the vse of oyls that are made by descension or downwarde as in Rasis & Aetius. A certain mā (whose name I spare to rehers,) writ of late that these maner of destilled liquors wer not vnknown to the latter Greke writers, vsing this argument, that destilled liquors are sometimes named in the writings & works of Actuarius, And in dede he nameth in sōe places Rhodostagma, as in his Iulep against ye cogh: & a litle folowing in an other Iulep intybostagma. But wt these words is signified nothing els thē a simple syrup of Roses or Endiue. Rhodostactum doth Agenita describe in his. 7. boke, yt. 15. cha. with these words. Sieth .ii. sextars of the iuice of Roses yt nails wherof are takē away, one ser­tar of hony skimming it til the .iiii. part be consumed. Ye a litle before also he describeth Hydrorosatū rosed water, that also far differing frō a destiled liquor, or water destild for it consisteth of .iiii. pounds of Roses the nailes takē a­way .v. sextaries of water: ii. sextaries of hony. [Page] The Arabians also or their expositors, when they speake of the water of any plant, they vnderstand the decoctiō of it in water: and likewise Nicolas Myrepsus that writte in Greke of the compositions of medicines, whome it appea­reth to be a verye late wryter, by the barbarous woordes that he vseth very oft: wherin I maruel this, that no mē ­tion is made by him of waters or oyles prepared in Chy­mistical instruments. Only the oyl Capnistum or smoked, that is destilled by descention, doth he describe, as Aetius also. Moreouer, the thinges that the Chimistes make may I comprehend in .ii. kindes for the moste parte, that they be ether liquors or Massy things, the liquors againe are ether watery or oyly: and these ether aiery or fiery. The Massy things, are ether such as rest in the bottom: or such as are caried vpwarde: and that .ii. waies, ether as pure bodies and substauces, as they which they cal sublimated, quick siluer. &c. or Sout for the remedies of the eies wyth Phisicions. There be also other artificial manner of pre­parings, wherwith the purest and most effectual parte in medicines is drawne out, and as it were the forme is se­parated from the matter.

And although I am not greatly trauailed nether in the Chymistical nor in the other manner of preparings, but by the way haue got the kuowledge of certain thinges, partly by mine own experience in some things, & partlye of myfrends: yet what so euer and how much so euer this is, I wil communicat it with the studions of Phisick: not as though I entend to teach perfectly and absolutely the very Art of destilling and preparing of other things, but as it were wryting vnto such as now already are not all voyde and withoute knowledge of these things, hauing ether experimented them selues or red other mens wry­tings. For I haue nothing so exrellēt or secrete, but I co­uet it might ge abrode to the publik and common profit, [Page] and although in smal wealth, yet haue I ben euer of na­ture ready to communicate and make any man priuye of any cunning I had, which som referre vnto simplicitie or childishnes, other some better to the liberalitie of my dis­position. There be some that do vtterly cloke and kepe se­crete their things, and that diuers kinde of men: some for Ambicion, that they maye haue wherewith to excell and pas other menne: some also for couetousnes, to get gayne thereby: other thorowe the ignoraunce of the aunciente wryters, as thoughe there were not put in wrytinge ether the same or far better by men of antiquitie, whiche now are despised of many, and a folish and vnsaciable lust is ther alwais to find out new things. Ther wantes not such as think, great and effectual medicins shuld be kepte secrete for this cause, least vncunning men, as many prac­ticioners be, without al reason almost, and al learnynge, might abuse them, and conuert those thinges whiche are inuented for the helth of mē, to their destruction. To such wold I answer, As no kind of euil ought to be committed for this intent that any good thing might follow therof: so that which is good ought not to be left vndone, leaste som euil might ensue, for the world shal neuer be without them that wil abuse good things and profitable inuenci­ons. But good men, simplely suche good thinges as they haue, they make them common, and wil not stick nor cese to do so because they feare, that certain leud persons may do hurt therby. But I wil leaue of this disputation, thye do I protest sincerely & as I thinck withal my hart, that I couet by my example to stur vp learned and good Physi­ons, that laying apart al Ambition, Couetousnes, Igno­rance, Enuy, if they can bring any excellent thinge vnto our profession, that they wold do it gentlely and publike­ly. As for the vnlearned certes, they in ministring not on­ly these great and effectual medicines, of whiche sorte we [Page] shal put diuers in wrytinge heare, but meates also and most common drinkes, out of time, do hasard and brynge mens liues manye times to diseases and deathe: and it is well known that Hippocrates writ how our Ptisan mini­stred not in due time, was the cause of death to a certaine man sick of the Pleurisy. These therfore ought to be lefte partly to their ignorance, partly to their leude malapart­nes. But they that haue nede of the Physicion are to be admonished to do that in Phisicke, that all men are wont to do in al other Artes: that is, to chuse good Physicions, and learned, and such as exercise and practise this Art by their profession, both with reasōs, as a part of Philosophy and also in the very actions and doinges of cures. But I return to the purpose. The preparing therfor (as I say) is of the greatest moment and weight in euerye matter. In Rhetorik vtterans, gesture, and pronunciation more al­most moue the mindes of the hearers, then the very argu­ment that is handled. Hereupō it cometh that things put in meter and in numbers, do delite so greatly: which if a man vtter in proos, they shalbe taken for cold, dnl and so­lishe. Hereof cometh it that one beinge asked the question what was the chiefest thinge in an orator, answered pro­nunciation: what was the next and the third: the same. Shewes and plaies, that thei delite the hearers and beholders so greatly, it is much more long of the form and ma­ner of their forniture and preparance then of the matter plaied or shewed. In like maner in the verye thinges and workes, the forme, the fashion, figure, maner, aswel of na­ture as of Art, finally a certain preparation is more mar­ked and commended then the matter. Likewise in physsk, the conninge to prepare thinges aright, and the descression to minister them aptly, haue the greatest moment and skil moste. Nether is it of greater force what thou ministrest, then in what maner. And althoughe there be manye cir­circumstances [Page] to be considered, that thou maist exhibit the medicin aright, yet the maner, and the preparing is with in the medicine, and is at it were the form therof and part the other circumstaunces are withoute it, as time, place, and such things as are to be considred about the sickman. But letting pas other waies of dressing and preparing at this presēt, we wil onli touch those, bi the which al the vertue and faculti or operation is separated from the substāce of the medicins, so that ye more liquid and moyst, the more pure and subtil part of euery remedy or medicin, maye be bad seuered and drawn out from the grose and erthy part: whether it be gathered into a liquor drawn out of the sam remedy or medicin or into an other certaine ertarnall. &c. which the barbarous wryter Arnold calleth Eruirtuare to outuerteuat, or Excorporare, to outcorporate. Further­more, if sumthings shal seme to be written somwhat curi­ously or double diligently, ye must consider that suthe per­tain not to the Physicions of the common people and pore fooke, but to such as abound more with riches and ease, & haue plenty of seruants, or such as remain in Prynces or Kings courts: or also to Philosophers, that busilye searche out the meruelous mutacion and vertues of natural thin­ges, and in them delite them selues. To conclude, let no man maruel that so great and longe commendacions and praises are added to certain medicines, as vnto the Quint­essences as they call them, to Aqua vities, & made ba [...]mes, and that vnto some meruelous vertues are attributed, as to sharpen the wit and memory, to cōserue the senses and youth. &c. When as euen by the auncient Grekes & Latins also we read such effects and operacions to be ascribed to Triacle and other preseruatiues and compositions, speci­ally by the Arabians vnto diuers things, yea euen of Ga­len also vnto Triacle. Ther be som that I wil not auow, and whose credit I leaue to the authors, whose names I [Page] write euery where. But it is said before alreadye, that we wryt all these thinges for the learned and discreate men, which for the most part shall iudge more easily how much credit is to be geuen to euery thinge. Althoughe in verye many it is not sufficient to be furnished with lear­ning and iudgement, excepte experience and practise be ioyned also therwith. But I make an end heare of my Preface.

The authors alledged in this Boke.

  • AEgidius booke of ix. or .x. liquors destilled, in the whiche I fynde many things which are also in the boke of Raimund Lul­lus of waters.
  • Aetius Amidenus.
  • Albertus Magnus.
  • Alexander Benedictus.
  • Andreas Furnerius booke in French of the decking and of mans nature.
  • Antony Guainerius.
  • Arnolde de Villa Noua or Newton.
  • Auicenna.
  • Barthol. Montaguana.
  • Bulcasis some cal him Albu­casis.
  • Brudus Lusitanus.
  • Dioscorides.
  • Epiphanius Empericus boke writen, not prynted, of me­dicines, a Phisicion that had trauailed in Grekelā [...] whome I knewe when I was a yong man.
  • Geber a Chymist.
  • Gualterus Ryffius Dutche boke of destillacions.
  • Hermolaus Barbarus.
  • Hieronymus of Brunsvvik, that writ first in Dutch of destilled waters.
  • Hieronymus Cardanus.
  • Iac. Holleriꝰ de materia Chi­rurgica.
  • Iac. Syluius commētaries vp­on Mesuen, and a booke of [Page] preparing and composinge of simple medicines.
  • Io. Almenar of the Frenche disease or pockes.
  • Io. Brasescus.
  • Io. Ganiuettus.
  • Io. de Rupe scissa, looke in Raimund Lullus.
  • Io. Genrotus a frenche boke.
  • Io. Manardus.
  • Io. Mesuae.
  • Io. Tagautius Metaphras vp on the Surgery of Guido, de Cauliaco.
  • Io. de Vigoes Surgery.
  • Marianus Sanctus a Surgean.
  • Munkes commentaries vp­on Mesue.
  • Nicander.
  • Nicolas Massa of the Frenche pockes.
  • Nicolas Myropsus.
  • Peter Andro Matthaeolus Se­nenfis booke of the frenche pockes, and Italian commē ­taries vpon Dioscorides.
  • Petrus Aponensis.
  • Philip. Vlstadius Coelū phi­losophorum, that is, heauē of Philosophers.

Raimund Lullius boke notable good and very learned, of Quintessence which was prynted once at Argentin, & of late at Norinberge, but differinge in manye thinges. I haue .ii. written copies, and other .ii. I saw with a frende of mine, which al did differ amongste them selues & from the prynted. I did se also the boke of Quintessence of Io­annis de Rupe scissa, almost throughout word for word a­greinge with the same, that it mighte seeme that Lullus writ out of his, or els that some man fatherd it falsly vpon Lullus, if so be it he writ afore Lullus, as we reade in the Dialog of Ioannes Brasescus. Yet Symphorianus Campe­rius noted that Lullus or Lullus florished the yere of oure Lord. 1311. But Io. de Rupe scissa the yeare. 1340. Trite.

  • A boke of the same Lul­lus, of waters. Loke befor in Aegidius. Rasis.
  • Remaclus F. Lymburgensis, that writ of those destilled waters yt be in commō vse.
  • Rogerius Bacho of the ver­tues of Aqua vitae, accor­ding to the .xii. fignes, whi­cke boke som not truely as­cribe to Arnold de villa no. Serapio.

A Table of the chapters con­teined in this Booke.

  • WHat destilla­tion is, and of diuers for­mes and kin­des. 1.
  • Of the vertues of li­cores destilled general­lye. 7
  • Of the manifold vse of lyquors destilled, bo­the in Physicke, and o­therwise. 15
  • A way to purge and make clene troubled waters. 17
  • Of Balneum Mariae generallye, and of those destillatiōs that be don by vapors of hot water and in horse dong. id.
  • Certain excellēt sim­ple waters destilled in Balneo Mariae, firste of Plantes then of bea. 24
  • Of Rosewater. 38
  • Of waters▪ destilled of beasts, or of their partes, or excrementes, and firste of all of the hoole beastes. 49
  • Of vessels and diuers instruments belouging to destillation. 51
  • Of the matter for vessels of destillacion: and first against leaden and brasen vessels. 57
  • Of Fornaces. &c 61
  • Howe to close vessels and to defend them, bo­the with clay and other­wise. 61
  • Of the preparation for destillation. 67
  • Of the rectificatiō of liquors destilled. 73
  • Destillacion by a fil­ter or a liste of Wollen cloth. 75
  • Of burning water or single Aqua vitae, and of the strength therof, and manifold vse. 76
  • Of the strengths and vertues of Aqua vitae 82
  • Of suche thinges as [Page] be destilled dry, put into any liquor. 89
  • Of quintessence of re­medies. 94
  • How the quintessence of all thinges maye be drawn oute, to minister thē or the vertue of thē, to mennes bodies. 98
  • Of the drawyng oute of the Quintessence frō wine. 102
  • How quintessens may be drawne out more ea­seli and with les cost, for pore mens sakes, out of the same. 104
  • In what places Vl­stadius teacheth in hys heauē, teacheth to draw out diuers quintess. 106
  • A merueilous water that hath a contrarye o­peration to Aqua vitae, whiche maye be called cold quintessence. 107
  • Of the extractinge & drawing forth of all the vertues of Chelidonia, or Selandine: by the whiche example, euerye man of anye vnderstan­ding, maye vse to drawe oute the vertues also of other plantes. 110
  • How Quintessence is drawn out of frutes, as Apples, Pears, plums, Cheries, chestnuts. 1 [...]6
  • Out of flours, herbs and rotes. idem
  • Of quintessēce of mās bloud, egges, fleshe, and Honye. 117
  • Of quintessēce of metals. 121
  • Of the drawing oute of quintessence from An­timonia, lead, whit lead 122
  • Of diuers kindes of Aqua vitae cōposed. 124
  • Aqua vitae againste Pe­stilēce, proued and vsed with great and merue­lous successe by a cer­taine Phisicion of oure time of Solodurn in Heluetia the yere of our lord 1547. In so much that scarsly euery tēth of thē that receiued it, died. 128
  • [Page] Two compositions of Aqua vitae. 125
  • What medicynes bee mixte wyth Aqua vitae, without any destillation first within the body, thē without. 141
  • A water to washe the parts taken with the palsey. 145
  • Of destilled waters cō ­posed, but with other, thē with Aqua vitae. 146
  • Certain composed waters, to be destilled other of the medicines by them selues: or wt well springe water. 135
  • Of waters of vertues or golden water. &c. 155
  • A water of certain re­medies for short. &c. 163
  • A water for the ston. 165
  • Certain waters com­posed. idem
  • Waters of Capōs. 168
  • Waters composed for diuers diseases, wythin the body chiefly, whereof some are made of medi­cins and iuices, whyles they be yet new, other are infused and put into the iuices of plāts or waters destild, whai, or blud 170
  • An aproued water for the sores of the raines & bladder. 171
  • A water cōposed 172
  • A water against the Pe­stilence. &c 174
  • Of purging medi. 175
  • Gold potable or. &c 177
  • Certain waters com­posed. &c. 183
  • Certaine waters for the eies. 185
  • Of waters of swiet sauour. 187
  • Rosewater with musk Saffron, cloues. &c. 189
  • Waters of swiet. &c. 192
  • Waters destilled cal­led Cosmeticall. &c. 195
  • Certain waters destild for ye garnishing. &c 200
  • Certaine Cosmetical thinges. 207
  • Waters for the dying of the heares. &c. 208
  • A way to destill swiet waters & effectual. &c 211
  • [Page] Destillation in ashes 213
  • Of Rosaries, that is to say instrumēts. &c. 218
  • Of oils destild. &c 222
  • How oyl must be drawn out of spices. &c 225
  • Howe oyle is drawne of wodes. &c. idē.
  • Of oils of flours. 232
  • Oils of sedes. &c. 237
  • Certain oils of sedes 239
  • Of oyl of the beries of Iuniper. &c. 242
  • Of oils of gūs. &c 246
  • Of oyl of Turpē. &c, 249
  • Oiles of barkes. 251
  • Of oils that ar drawn out of wodes. 254
  • Of true balm, and an tibalm. &c. 261
  • Of balme made. &c. 268
  • Of balms that. &c. 285
  • Of oyl of the parts of beasts or excremēts. 289
  • Of oyl of metals. &c 290
  • Of Aqua fortis. &c. 320
  • Of the lyquors. &c. 325
  • Of certain massy. &c. id
  • Of certain other. &c. 338
  • Of diuers oyles. 339
  • Of oyl of Tartarum, yt is the dry Lies. &c. 351
  • Of oyles of the yolks of egges. 354
  • Of Perfumes. 362
  • Of certain iuices 367
  • Againe of the iuice of black Elieborus &c. 375
  • Of the iuice of ye flour Deluce and Rape. 378
  • Of decocted things. 381
  • Of made wine, & mixt with medicines 383
  • Of Aromatical wines yt is made of spices. 392
  • Of swiet wines spy­ced. 396
  • Three wais to make Nectar. &c. 401
  • Of spiced wines with burning water. 404
  • Of certain other Aro­maticall wines, specially such as are made by hā ­ging a little &c. 406
  • Of Artificiall wynes, which resēble the tast of straung wines. &c. 407
The end of the Table.

[Page 1]VVhat Destillation is, and of diuers formes and kyndes.

DESTILLATION not distillatiō (as ler­ned x doe write) is the drawyng forthe of a thinner and purer humor out of a iuise, by the force of heate: Sil­uius. Destillation by ascentiō or going vp­warde, is when the vapours or fume is caried vp and be there gathered together into water & so droppe doune: The same authour. Moist thinges put into a body (for so do they cal the big­ger xx vessell, from whence the vapur is lifted vp) by the force of heate are extenuated into a vapour, whiche gathered together by the coldenes of the head or other thing, into water, is receiued for the most part, by a chanel or gutter made in ye brinks of the head, and so dropeth doune and destilleth by the noos (for so do they communly term that part of the head, very neer resembling mās noos, both in fashion and in vse) into some vessell sette vnder for the purpose, men call it a receiuer or a vrinall: Siluius. Certain like things natur hath wrought, both in exhalatiōs aboue in the aire, specially thē xxx that be moist, and also in reumes destilling from the head both of men & certain other beastes, vnto [Page 2] the lower partes. Therfore of a plant or any o­ther substaunce ordeined to be destilled: what part of it is most meet to be extenuated and fynet (that is the purest parte, the lightest, the thinnest, the moistest, and the most superficial parte next vnto the vttermost partes of the body) being first of all fyned by the force of heet, is lifted vp: next suche other partes as in puernes cum nie to the first and last suche a moysture of the thinges as is more grosse that held together the earthly partes, a cer­tain x fatnes and oylines, by a stronger force of the fyre, is seperated, and takē vp hoolly: which once clean drawn forthe, the body remaineth dissolued and brought into asshes. Oute of all maner of plantes therfor, and beastes: Yea out of al partes of them bothe, a certain raw waterishnes, and as it were a fleumatick and excrementall parte, is first drawen oute: then cumyth forth that whiche is better disgested and more pure: last of all an oylines: whiche also euen oute of the very bones xx may be gottē, and not only out of massy partes: sa­uing that certain partes ar of so scleuder and thin substance, ye they yelde vp almost all their moister strength at the first. Morouer, all this drawing oute of humors, is done with heet. For that kinde of Destillation, that is done by a shred of wullen cloth, (they cal it a filter) or by grauel, a raw ear­then vessell, a vessell of iuye trie (Plinie, I thinke, writes of the wode that is called Smilax, how it willet sype through water mixt with wyne, and xxx kiep the wyne still: which I once proued & found [Page 3] it trewe) but this is no destillation in deed, except vnto suche as speake improprely. For that which is proprely called destilation is done by heet: and that from the sonne, or of fyre, corruption and rot tennes: By the sonne, as certain men haue inuē ­ted, to draw of flowres a kind of water, very nere to them selues in smell and other pleasaunt qua­lities. By fyre, that is, by flame that come of aere and of aereall bodies: or els by burning cooles, that are made of earth or earthly bodies enkind­led, x destillation is made, ether by no other thing betwixt, or by the meanes of hoat water, or also by the vapour and feume of the same, by fine sand or dros of metall polished and made plaine.

Morouer the flame it selfe, aswell as the coole, is diuers, not onely in respect of that it is great and little, but also of the woode whether it bee rotten and doated, or sound, stinking, or wel smel­ling: grene or drie. Besides this it is a great mat­ter what bignes the furnace be of, what fashion, xx what ioyning together. Also the coole of smothe­red and half burnd wode, giueth a certain strong sauour, and a quality far vnlyke to the thinges destilled: as we see it doeth to thinges boyled and otherwyse prepared therwith. Therefor let the cooles be all fired, and halfbrent, that the ill sa­uour be expired before that the thing to be destil­led be committed vnto them: specially if it be recei­ued into the body: for in suche thinges as ar to be vsed without, it forceth lesse, al this saith Syluius. xxx In the destillation of wyne the foure elementes [Page 4] ascende vp in their order: the lightest, subtilst, and hoatest first, that is, the fire: secondarily the aire: thirdly water: the earth remaineth in y bottome: and lykewyse I iudge in the destillation of vine­ger. x In more grosse & earthly thinges, yet moyst also, whiche besides the watery partes, haue also some grose and such as may be made thicke as in the teares that run out of tries or gūmes, in ioy­ces, in rosin and in hony, that which is more wa­tery is caried vp first, the airy partes next, the firy last of al, ye earthy partes remain in the bottome: and if the fier be any thyng bigg they ar burnt. In metalles, the same ar resolued into vapours, and congeled together, sticke to the lembeck, the coloure chaunged into whyt, as quick syluer, ar­snike. &c. Saltpeter. &c.

The nature of fyre is to deminishe (as Cardane xx saith) ether by breaking drye thinges into peces, as when it bringeth grauell into dust: or by mel­ting, as metalles: or by separating the subtill and pure partes as in destillations. It chaunceth in destillations notwithstanding, that a thing shall both be extenuated and mixt with an other, when as they ar done with a moyste heat, not with fyre. For a heat bothe extenuateth and mixeth with moysture. This is doon sumtyme by setting the vessels in hoat water: whiche is called Balneum xxx Mariae. The best kinde of destillation next vnto this, is in hors dong. Then by asshes: the best in this kynde, is by the superfluous refuse of oliues, after the oyle is prest forth, for it being a hoat & [Page 5] moyst matter, will reteyne his heat very long, yea a great meany of monethes: and so muche the lō ­ger then the kurnels of grapes, because the sub­stance of the oliues is thicker & fatter. But none x of thies wayes is able to melt metalles, but they must nedes haue fyer. Albeit as the most vehe­ment and feruent destillation is done by fyre: so is it vnmiet for mixture and true attenuation, or fyning: and the way by asshes is almost lyke vnto it. for if a man will put thinges destilled by fyre vnto their own dregges and mixt them together, he shall perceiue the quantity for quantity, heuier then they were afore, and dryer also. Therfor fyre doth not truely attenuat and lessen in dede, but that nature whiche digesteth & mixeth the hoole substāce. Wherfor through their puritie, al ioyne xx together in one, and the thing mixt, is made thic­ker: notwithstanding that is composed and made of the most subtill and the purest partes. Therfor in naturall digestion and siething, whiche to melt the hardest thinges, hath also the force of fyre, and the strength of soft and easye bath in extenuating and lesning the same: the more grosse and massy partes on broken into peces, whiche can not be brought to pas with fyre.

The heat of the first degree, whiche is mode­rate, as of hors dong, and Balneum Mariae, is cal­led the heat of digestion, resolution, putrefaction, maceration, and of circulation, wherof wee shall xxx speake more in place conuenient.

Of diuers wayes to destil by sublimation with [Page 6] water and withoute water, looke within in Rose water, out of Bulcasis.

Of destillation generally G [...]ber an Arabian, writ certayn thinges in. 1. 4. 50. chapter of his booke callid Summa perfectionis. Where he reaso­neth excellently of many thinges chiefly of the dif­ference and diuers affectes of destillation by wa­ter and by asshes. In the same booke. 39. chap. he teacheth of sublimatiō, why it was inuented: and so forth in the. 40. chap. what sublimation is and x of thre degrees of fyre to be obserued in it: and in the. 41. chap. of the moderating of the fyre in sub­limation: and how the reason of that thing is vn­derstanded, by putting wull of wode, or bombice in to the vpper hoole of the aludel. Of chusing of wode the. 43. chapter.

Brunsvvicke Suche cōmune things as ar put into a rose still, to be destilled, it is best not to put myche in at once, least they that be nethermost be dryed away and burnt, those that lie aboue remainyng xx yet almost hoole, and as they were put in. And chiefly if thou destill any pretious or odorife rous thinges, it shalbe better to put in newe, the ofter, and so shall the water flow more plēteously.

Suche herbes flowres and other plantes and growyng thinges, as ar to be destilled, ought to be gathered when they ar perfectly rype, chiefly whyle the mone encreasith: when the wether is faire, and in the day tyme to be laide in y shadow, to be cut, and if nede require, to be brosyd also, and xxx by and by to be destilled.

¶ Of the vertues of licores destilled generally.

MAnarde in his Epistles. 15. booke 15. chapter, saith thus: when I perceiued in the commun waters that ar destilled out of plantes by fyre, nether the smell nor the taste re­maine, but many times the contra­ry (for the water of wormwode I perceyued to be x sweet, of Mint and Basill, came water rather stinknyge then well smellyng: whereby I well perceiued that the water alone had not the same vertues that the hoole herbe had) I began care­fully to muse, and to consult also with those that of suche waters ar called communly chymici, by what deuise bothe the smell and the tast might be preserued in thies waters, that is founde in the hoole herbe. It were longe to wryte all the ways, whiche I proued to finde oute thies thinges: yet xx one will I touche, whiche semeth to me to be the best and the easiest waye. That is by the vapoure and smoke of hoat water, in a double vessell. &c.

Syluius. Waters destilled, reteyne and kiepe still the vertues of the simples wheroute they be drawne: sauing that they ar more pure & stronge, the oftener they be destilled, whiche wee proue in the water of wyne, for the most part, very seldome in other thinges.

The vertues of licore destilled, some doo alter xxx and chaunge ether by smering the head of the still [Page 8] with some matter, as hony, Ladanum and suche like, or els by putting it in ye nose of the stil, which serueth for the most parte, to the grace of the smel: for thei bind muske, cloues, Caphura and such like x in bundels, and put them in the top of the nose, that the licore passing thorow thies matters, may get a swiet sauour.

A doubt. If so be it yt fyre maketh al thinges hoat and drye: all waters gotten by destillation, ought to be hoat and drye. Nether dothe the wa­tery substance disproue this, for when as bren­ning water is suche, it doth both bren and might­ly make hoat and dry mens bodies. Again, al wa­ters be colde and moyste, as long as the substance hath the vpper hande. But nether of thies is al­wayes true: yea, some of thies ar more lyke vnto xx those thinges wheroute they be taken, as rose water, bothe in smel, tast, and operation. A phiall of plantain water, is able to staunche bloud, where so euer it runne forth. Water of Lettis can not doo the same, although it be muche colder. A certain man of late endeuouring to encrease his memory infused and steept balm for the space of thre days in whyte wyne, then lightly wringing oute the wyne, destilled a water, by the drinking wherof, he thought to recouer his memory. But hauing a hoat liuer, had almost destroyed his health. And this maner is called of the philosophers, to sette Starres in the skye. xxx

Therfor men be wont to axe whether these waters reteyne and kiep their owne propre vertues [Page 9] and strength. Wee once saide, whyles wee entrea­ted of the euill maner of curing, that they are no strengthes nor vertues, because they are destitu­te of sauour and taste. For water of wormwode, nether smelleth like wormwode, nor is bitter yea that is more wonder, it is sumwhat swiete. Yet burning water (to speake nothing of Rose water) well declareth that ther is a certaine vertue and efficacie in waters. For if you will say it is suche because of fyre: how commeth it to pas that none x other water is like it? for this doth marueilously make hoate, dryeth, perceth, hath a sharp smell, & burneth. It is plain therfore now, that there is strength and vertues in waters: but not in al wa­ters, nor equall with that they be drawn oute of. for what things soeuer haue a thinne substaunce ioyned with colde, gyue a water not vnlyke to thē selues, as the Rose. They that haue a thin and hoat substance, giue a lyke water, but burning withall, as wyne and certain metals. Suche as haue a grosse and hoat substance, giue an vnlyke xx water and an euill, as wormwod. Such as haue grosse and colde, they giue vnlyke, but not euill, as the Gourde. According to this reason, suche strengthes of waters as ar receiued with soft fyre ar easy to be learned. for suche as require a vehe­menr fyre, doo all vehemently drye, & for the most parte also, make hoate. This saith Cardan.

But me thinkes thies thinges would be more diligently considered and weyed. First, wher he xxx saieth that wormwode water is not bitter: it is [Page 10] trew, if a man destill it negligently as the cōmun apothecaries ar wont, in leaden limbeckes. but destill it in Balneo Mariae, and see whether it shall lacke his smell and tast, or no. Yea, it shall retain boeth, and that effectuously, not only this herbe, but also any other plant whatsoeuer it be, hauing any sauoure or taste: if it be dried and weikte or stiept in wyne a few dayes, then destilled in Bal­neo Mariae or by asshes gentely, as I shall shewe further within. Now when certain thinges haue x great plentie of their smel, and that so strong that it vanisheth not of a long space, whiche cummeth bycause the force of smelling is digested equally into the hoole [...]ubstance of them: it is no wonder, if in the same vesselles some waters bee destilled lyke vnto their plantes, as of Roses, whiche as Theophrastus wryteth, doo reteine their sauour very long: other sum be vnlyke to their plantes. for suche waters as haue their vertue and force in the vttermost and superficial partes, they fume xx out easyly, as of wormwode, whose smell may be iudged to bee in the same place where his bitter taste is conteined: whiche wee fynde to be only in the vtter and superficiall parte. For if thou sepa­rate the barke from the stalke or the braunches, thou shalt fynde that whiche is within to be vnsa­uery or vnswiete. Therfor this difference is not to be required of the grossenes or puritie of y par­tes, although I thinke it also to be of some force: but rather of this, that the strength of any thing xxx is ether distributed equally through ye hoole plāt, [Page 11] or els more nie to the midest or vtter parte of the same. I am surely of that mynde with Raimunde Lullus, that water of the same qualitie may be go­ten oute of any plant whatsoeuer it bee, of colde plantes, colde water: of hoat, hoat: of dry, dry: & of moyst, moyste. But I will not graunte that the same vertue remaineth, except lyke sauour, or like taste or bothe, (as in smelling thinges (be left.

The cause why the smell of certain floures as of Iasmin, of the floures of cloues, remaineth not x in the waters. &c. reade within oute of Cardane, wher as we intreate of Balneū Mariae generallye.

It were good if euery water once destilled, were powred again, yea or the thyrde tyme vpon his own dreggees beaten, and to be suffred to pu­trify two or thre dais, and so to be destilled again: or rather, not vpō his own dregges that remain, but vpon other like herbes of the same kynde, and to putrifie in a circulatory or a blynde limbeck, and to be destilled:


Brunsvvick xx as I remēber me make men­tion therof. In certain, ye first destillation is sufficient, as in Roses.

I sawe once an alchymist, that destilled not the very herbes xxx them selues, but onely the iuse of herbes or bus­shes, [Page 12] renewing certain tymes the destillatiō, and powering again ye water vpon ye dregges groūde vpon a marble moler: Gnaynerius.

Oates (wherof drinke may be made as Ale or Bear of barly) do warme & make dronk no lesse then wyne. Men say that in Tartaria, water of milke destilled maketh men dronke. But euery water, not an element (that is alone without any mixture) but lyquor or iuyce mixt and compoun­ded, being oft destilled may doo the same: for it x wareth hoat, is fyned and made more pure, and receiueth more the force offyre. Wherupon bur­ning water being oft destilled, is brought to suche sharpnes that it can not bee dronke. Cardane.

Also a lyquor or other thing be destilled, the thic­ker it is, the more it semeth to conceiue heate and fyre, if it be oft destilled.

It is manifest (saith Cardane) that a water may be made whiche shall incōtenent breake the stone in the bladdar, if it be put in by a squirt or syring. xx for whan as two thinges ar necessary, bothe that it breake the stone, and that it hurt not the blad­dar, the maner and matier wil performe the first: for we shall receiue the last vapors of the asshes of scorpions, or of persily of Macedonia, or of the precious stone called Tecolittius, or of the stones of crabes. for so may a water be made, to breake also the red marble. Moreouer, that it shall not hurt the bladder, is brought thus to pas, if the mattier out of which the water is taken be voyde xxx of all saltnes. A man must not take therfor water [Page 13] of any salt kind of thing, or alum, or coperoos, or of wyne lies, but some of them that wee mēcioned erewhyle. But ther is nied of diligent triall, in cō ­firming a subtile meanes, that such things which we haue serched oute so subtilly, being surely confirmed first by experience and profe, we may then deduce and bring them to the cōmoditie of man.

In dede I know that pigeōs donge and paritary ether thone or thother, destilled by this meanes, is able too breake the hardest stoone that euer x was in any bladder. But what that is whiche shall doo it and withoute damage, a man muste declare by experiēce. for both a hea goates bloud, and a hares skin, and glas, ar much approued by reason. Notwithstanding no one of thies pera­uenture alone, but some of them toyned together, and in a certain quantitie. Suche a thing surely must be of metall, or at least wyse chaunged to ye nature of metall. I hard ouce that it was founde of a certain man of Ianua, but lost again by his xx death, who would make no man priuie to it, nor teache it to any man. But this once sure, that it is possible to finde it, and that this is the arte and science of the same. Hitherto Cardane. Perauen­ture also Chrysocolla would helpe vnto this art, being artificiusly made, and withoute sharpnes, suche as is also praised of the goldsmithes: wher­for to make Borace sum vse rain water destilled, and milke destilled, sum also hony marow: &c. I hard of late, a certain practicer cured the stone xxx of the bladdar in certain men, with Borace mixt [Page 14] with burning water, to the thicknes almoste of hony, mingling also Tartar, punned, or a stone cut out of a man or the groundes of pisse out of a pis­pot. He cōmaunded that a man shall vse this me­dicine by the space of fourtene dayes, so that he should alwaye mixt some with his wyne when he dronk, yea bothe at diner and supper. I remēber I haue red of certain liquores, in which if a man put a stone or flint, it should be resolued. The Chymistes and destillers vse destilled vinegar, and x destilled vrine to resolue metalles.

They dissolue with strong vinegar, chiefly de­stilled, or with the iuice of limons, perles, egge shelles, stones of the reines, of the bladder, bothe the coralles, and thei afterwarde dryed, ar quick­ly & redily crōmed betwixt ones fingers. Siluius.

I can not let pas here to speake of the water of Epiphanius the practicionar, which is such. Re. Antalis et dentalis, boracis, sarcocollae whyt corall, whyte chrystall, claye, anessede, rys, meel of orobꝰ xx pursulan, of euery one half an ounce. Let them be made into trochiscos (litle roules or balles) with water of beanes made with muske. The vse of it is for wemen to make their faces whyt and faire, but the face must bee perfumed afore with water of a decoction of barly & oates: then let one baul be steept and cōsumed in bean water, and anoynt the face afore you goo to bed, but in the morning washe it away with water of a decoctiō of beanes and bran: and again with coold water. If the xxx bauls be made with water of limons they shal yet [Page 15] more beautify the face: for limones roasted and anoynted vpon the face, they alone doo beautify y face. If a man drinke this water fasting and a­noynt the place of his priuities wher hear grow­eth therwith, it breketh the stone: which is prouid by this, that if a man lay Porcellanas in it the space of a night, the next daye he shall order them with his fingers lyke warmed wax (Porcellanas men call certain shelles, and also pretious earthen ves­sels.) I haue vsed the mo wordes in this, to geue x some occasion to muentiue physicions to thinke ye more diligently vpon this thyng.

Of the manifold vse of lyquors destilled, both in physick, & otherwyse.

I Do perciue a manifolde vse of destilled waters, but chiefly and most of all for physi­cions, whiche vse suche stil­led xx liquors, drest aright both within the body & withoute, alone, or with other medi­cines. They mixt burning water and hoate oyles chy­mistically drest and prepared, with oyntmentes, ether that they may haue the better sauour, or els to make them hoater, and that they may perce the sooner, thei put moyst linnen clothes in thies voa­ters to coole and refreshe the partes of the body, xxx specially the bowels, the forhead, the temples, the [Page 16] partes about the armes, & hoat fyrie swellinges. Surgeons vse suche waters as drye mightily, to washe woundes withall. But the most common vse, of longe tyme hath bene in mixture of syrups to be dronke, and to zulapia or iulebs, chiefly of ro­ses & violets. Ther be that make diuerse kindes of liquors and oyles alonly for the good sauour. Glasiars also that paint glasse in baking in their colours, thei do vse burning waters. Goldsmiths vse aqua fortis (as they call it) whiche signifieth a x strong water. Of suche vse of lyquores, as is to chaunge metalles, and to diuers colours & pain­tinges also to poysoninges, to kil hurtful beasts, hear is no place to speake. Raymund Lullus wry­teth of y marueylous


vse and cōmoditie of burning water euen in warres, a little be­fore the ioyning of battaile, to styre and en­courage xx ye souldiours mindes. But of the vse of burning water I shall speake moare in his place. Yea also wher there is lack of good and holsome waters, that a man can gette none other but such as be salt, foule & [...]nhoalsome, to make thies xxx apt and miet to be dronke, the science and arte of [Page 17] destillation is necessary. Sweet water may be separated from the salt, in a great caudron with a great and hie keuer hauing a beacke or nose.

¶ A way to purge and make clean troubled waters, out of Bulcasis.


FIll a great pot with the puddled water A & put­ting x a soft fyre vnder it, B lay two sticks or mo a crose C vpon the pot brinkes, and vpon the stickes lay cleane wol D wel washt: thē whatsoeuer the woll drinketh of ye vapors that ascend vp, wring it out and kiep it, and xx doo thus aslong as a­ny vapor or fume will ascende. Ther be some that still troubled and pudly water, as though it were Rose water. Other clarifie it putting some vyne­gar therin or els amilū or meel: for thies thinges go dounwarde, and drawe with them to the bot­tome of the vessell, the grose mattier of the water.

¶ Of Balneum Mariae generally, and of those de­stillations that be done by vapors of hoat xxx water and in horse dong.

[Page 18] HOat water or els ye vapour of the same, send les strength into the thing that is to be destilled, then other fyre alone or els suche other dry meanes as are mē ­cioned before. for yt cause as Galen saith Diploma, that is, a double vessell (the Apothecaries as the men that still lyquors also, cal it Balneum Mariae) melteth, heateth, seatheth those thinges whose strengthes the violence of fyre wil not dispers nor separate: so, suche thinges as be tender and gētle, x if we will haue them hoal, we must destill them in hoat water, or els in the vapour & fume therof. Whiche although men thinck they be not so dura­ble, they be yet les altered from their nature, as is manifest by their former smell.


You must haue a fornace A of this sor, vpon the whiche you shall set a great bra­sen vessel B ful of wa­ter, xx in that brasen ves­sel set litle vessels C in a circle as many as it wil receiue, in the bo­tome, of the which vessels the thinges that you will destill, must be put. Other builde ye fornace A otherwise as though it were a xxx toure, and in the sydes thereof they put long ear­then [Page 19] vessels: B in their broad bottoms stāding in­ward, they conteine the thinges that they will de­still the mouth without as though it wer a bottell being couered, C in the which ye vapour caried vp by his open bely gathered together, and by the long mouth of the same droppeth down. Syluius.


But why remay­neth not the smell of certain floures in the waters but in Iasmin, x and ye floures of Ca­riophillum, and le [...]is, the water commeth forthe wtoute sauour? the reason is declared otherwher: bycause yt vnto so sclender and thinne substaunce, no substancial and thick parte is ioyned. Ther xx for in thies it shall do well, if vnto the lea­ues of herbes voyde of smell being put by course vnto a thicker mattier, but not suche as wil burn, a smell be ioyned, and then destilled: and this is ye onely hope to get forth the smell, when as suche thinges as are infused and put in waters doo not giue again their smel, but putrify: Cardan. It appeareth without doubt that those floures shoulde be destilled in Balneo Mariae, or in vessels of glas xxx in the vapor of hoat water.

[Page 20] Balneum Mariae may be hansomly made hoate with a great pype of copper A set in the midst, in the bottome wherof is a grate for ye B ashes to a­uoyde at: men call it communly a stowe harry. Vlstadius nameth it a furnace of sloth. Vpon that pype, do they make a couer of copper G wt a small pype comming out a shore, to cary and conuey the smoke out at a window or some hoale. (So doo they also make warme house flors nowe a dayes to bathe in.) The cōmoditie of this pipe D is then x chiefly when a mā list to vse many stillatories putting thē in a roūd circle E, a ten or twelue at once, to spare time, labour and cost.


Some vse brasen cupping boxes to still withall in the Balneo Mariae, & glassen lim­beckes, whose noses if they bee to short or broken, they ioyne o­ther xx to them of copper with clay.

The herbes yt be to be destilled in a bathe or otherwise, some doo pun them, and let thē remaine so a whyle, (perauenture for cer­tain dayes) befor they still them, thinking to haue more plenty of water xxx therby: if they woulde doo it in closed vessels, spe­cially [Page 21] in a hoat place, it wer well: but the most a­pothecaries and other, that sieke most for lucre & gayne therby, leue it in cold places in open cofers, till the herbes lose theyr smell, and bee corrupted with a moyst and gros aire.

Some there be that put some sande also in the water of Balneum Mariae, to thintent the heat mai be the greater and more vehement: as Mathaeolꝰ of Sena in ye water that is called aqua philosophica against the frensh pocks. And he affirmeth that x in such a kind of destillation there may be gotten a double water, the first, more thin and waterye, the other more read.

The water of Balneum Mariae oughte to be no hoater, then that a man may suffer his finger in it: Brunsuicensis.

Vlstadius prescribeth the destillation of a cer­taine kinde of aqua vitae in Balneo Mariae, to be done with so slow a fire, that a man may tell one, two, three, vntil seauen, before a drop fall. xx

Of such things as pertain to the commun wai of Balneum Mariae, you shall reade more with in where we make mention of aqua Camphorae out of Bulcasis, and of Rose water out of the same.

This waye of destillation in Balneo Mariae, is vsed also to the rectifying (as they terme it) of oyles, to draw and purge the fleame from them, for only the waters and nothing els may be lif­ted vp and drawn out by the heat of the bath, the oyle remaining stil in the bottome. xxx

When as I perceiued that waters, as they ar [Page 22] accustomed commonly to be destilled out of plāts, they kiep nether their taste nor the same smell: I began carefully to think apon the matter and to try many waies, yt I might finde a meanes how to preserue and kiep in the waters the same qua­lities. It shold be lōg to reherse al the wayes yt I proued. Onli one wil I touch, which semed to me to be the best and ye easyest. That is this, to work on this wise in a double vessell, after the manner that Galen woulde all oyntmentes to he made, x but so that the bottom


of that vessel A wher­in the herbe is contei­ned B, do not touch the water C that boyleth in the bigger D, but that it wax hoat with nothinge els then the fuming moysture lif­ted vp from the same. xx for by the meanes of yt soft heate, vapors are drawn out of the hoal substance of the herb, which are turned into such water that retei­neth and kepeth the strengths of euery part of the herbe, and that dothe manifestlye appeare, aswell by the smel as by the taste. This saith Manardus. Albeit things destilled in this wise, although thei xxx kiep more perfectly the strengthes and qualities [Page 23] of the plants (as the former smell, yet for asmuche as they be corruptuous, they can not be long kept: Syluius.

The chief vse of dong, or as som term it, a hors belly, is such: that the mater which is to be destil­led in a glasen vessell set in the dong maye be pre­pared by the heat therof, as we shall declare more at large in his place, wher we shall make mentiō of putrifactiō and rotting. It is possible notwithstanding for destillation to be brought to pas in y x same, if ether pouerty or ani other impediment be that a man can not haue fire. Of this kinde of de­stillation see more within, wheras we entreate of the prepation, to destill. The heate of hors donge (because of the lime that is mixt therwith) Brun­svvick supposeth to excede in the middle degree, the heat of Balneum Mariae.

If you desire to haue a water destilled of the fleshe of any beast, you shall strangle the beast, yt it bleed not in any wise, then take away al the fat xx and shred the fleshe in small pieces, and so destill it in hors dōg (or with a soft fire) least the waters stink, or sauour of brentnes, which is wont ease­lye to chaunce: wherefore it is best to destill them twise. Brunsvvick.

The parts of beast or excrements, as blud, the liuer, the lights, eggs, gall, and oxe dong, oughte to be destilled in hors dong, with vessels not very close stopt (but hony and milk a man may stop thē close) least the water stink. But if it chaunce to xxx stink euen thus ordred, then let it be destylled a­gain [Page 24] in Balneo Mariae, specially the water of excre mēts of oxen whose first destillatiō is scarse foūd without stench: Brunsvvick. It wold frame better if a man put to a litle curtsy of salt in the putrify­ing or destilling of dong, that they maye corrupte the lesse.

Certain excellent simple vvaters destilled in Balneo Mariae, first of plantes, then of beests. x



OF Worme wode water Iohannes Mesuae hath ma­de mencion: and of it and of Rooses only, as the Munks that writ apon Mesuae haue noted, that it is xx to be supposed, ther is a certain excellent vertue aboue other in thies .ii. destilled liquors, if they be rightlye prepared: but as commun apothecaries maketh them the wormwode water lac­keth all odour and tast, as is said before. If so be it anye man desire to haue this liquor moore strong, let him stiep the worm­wood xxx dry in win, and destill it in Balneo Mariae, [Page 25] or if yet strōger, in ashes. But such as be destilled first stiept in any liquor, the waters of thies now ar not simple but compound: of the which we shal write hereafter seuerally.




WHiche commonly they call Morsus Gal­len xx Hēbain: the water destilled is geuē to infantes & children diseased with the falling sicknes, ether alone, or with spring water. Wemen comend it greatly, and som say they haue tried it them selues. I saw it of late ministred in vain. But that when I tasted it, had like to haue made me vomit: perauenture because it was somewhat to old, or els because it was ga­thered xxx in leeden lembeks.




THe whyt Onion destilled breketh the stone. Martianus xx Sanctus.



CHery water of what kynd soeuer they bee, is drunke against to muche heate, & is ministred with out ye body: but particular­ly of sweet black cheries, whiche also is commen­ded of many against the palsy, if it be poured into the mouth: and the mouth be wel washt therwith, that it restoreth the vse of the tung lost. They de­still the flesh of it alone, or the kernels also beaten together, that ye liquor destilled therof may entye out the stony matter of the reines and bladdar. The black and sower ar called Visula, they yeild xxx a water holsome in agues both other, and also pe­stilent [Page 27] agues whiche couleth and confirmeth the strengthes: it is profitable also against thirst and bluddye flixe: Ryffius. The water destilled of the swiete blacke and freshe Cheries, is marue­lously cōmended of Remaclus F. of Lymburg: As­sone (saith he) as it shalbe powred into the mouth of one sick of the falling euill alredy taken with ye fit (the potion of it is .iiii. drammes or moor) by & by he reuiueth refreshed, neither is he any moor drawen together with any cramp, til in the ordi­nary x tyme, as it is the custome of it, after a fewe daies an other fit come vpon him: whiche when it chaunceth, it must be powred in again: for it letteth, taketh away and healeth the fit.

Camphora: water therof or oyll is thus made. Take one of the vessels for Rose water, that is called baten (that is a bely) & fill it with the sticks or cips of pynappull tree whiche hath great and brood leaues, and let it be filled. Siluius taketh it so as though the roose water should be poured to the chips of the pynappull tree, but me thinkes yt xx the vessell of rose water is simply named heer for a cucurbita or bely, that it may be a certayn repeticion of the same whiche he had spoken before, and let it be couered with a vessell hauing a nose: then put the bely into a brasen vessell ful of water ouer the fyre, till it begin to boyl: for an oyll shall destill (and yet they denye that oyll may be lifted vp by the heat of water) subtill of a good odour, whiche is called water of Camphora. Or if ye list destill it xxx in a fornace of rosewater, the same way that it is [Page 28] destilled. Bulcasis. But Belluensis sayth that water of Camphora according to the Arabians (saith he) is a water that runneth out of the tre that bryn­geth the Camphora: which as his tree also is of a hoot nature in third degree: so Camphora it self is cold: Monachi in Mesuae. Put three litle bies in the vessel of glas wher the Camphora is, whiche shall so be turned into water.

Fragaria. x


SStrawebe­ries shalt y putrify in a Vessell of bras (perauēture salt may be put to it, or su­gar) and destill them. This water (saith Lullus in his .ii. booke of quintessence) is holsō xx and diuine. It comforteth nature, expelleth poyson, prouoketh we mens flowers, asswa­geth burning humors strengtheneth the conceiuinge. But chiesly it breaketh newe spottes of the eies cūming of both the humors (heet or cold) if so be it they excede not mich. It dryeth vp teers of both causes (heet or cold) it restoreth & cleareth xxx the sight lost with ether of the causes. And I saw [Page 29] a woman hauing newly all ouer her face blesters or wheals by the strook of a ston with heet, which the only washing of this water was streight way heled with great admiration. But the vertue ther of is a hundred foold mor maruelous and stron­ger in operacion with burning water, and muche moor with quintessence. Yea, this water mixt with quintessence or wyth burnynge water cureth the Leprosye. x



THre vnces of the liquor destilled of the inner bark of ashe, with as many vnces of whyt wyne is drūk against the pestilence, and the same drinck after. xx iii. howres is repeted: so God willynge within .xxiiii. howres shall the sicke be deli­uered. A water of the kirnelles of Hali­cacabus is commended of som against ye stone of the reines and bladder, if it be drounke ons or twyes a weeke. xxx




WHiche we cal Parietary or xx Pelitory, the water therof is profitable againste the stone, ried before in the vertues of waters destilled generally, out of Cardanus.



DEntdelion, in frēch wyth vs it is cal­led Dandelion, the wa­ter therof siemeth to bee of the same vertue, as is the water of Endiue & Cikory. Some destill it first steeping it in wyne eight dayes, it is of a so­wer tast, and they giue it to drinke against the fittes of the fallyng syck­nes, with marueilous tryall (as they say.) xxx



HIssop retaineth merue louslye hys vertue in a destilled liquor, al­thoughe it be destilled in a common earthen lembek, only apon sād put in a fyre pan: and x likwise penyriall and certaine other. They vse water of Hyssoppe o asswage touthache, for it is sharp and sub­till. &c.



ENdiue, the water there of coleth all xx hotte disea­ses: and all burnynge of fyre or water hoote, it heeleth them if they be wash therewith. It is good also for quoti­dian Agewes, and obstructyons of the bowels, bothe drunck and mynistred oute. xxx warde. Lullus vppon waters.




WAters of the floures of lauender, is xx sweet smel­ling. Remaclus.



THe water of walnuts not rype made aboute saint Ihons tyde, mini­stred without, is good for woundes and hoat byles, and the pestilent anthrax. Also being dronke a two or thre vnces, it cooleth and resisteth the pestilence. A water also is destil­led of the vtter huskes of walnutes (ether rype, so that they be new brast and left of the nut, or not yet at all) in the moneth of September, nether skilleth it if they be blacke, so yt they be not rotten: yet the black are counted the best. A moderate po­tion xxx of this water, (with the third part of vineger [Page 33] if it inuade a man with heet) letting bloud first, is geuen to drinke against the pestilence, as a cer­tain experiment. It is praised also for ye noyse in the eares and the difficultie of heering, & for the diseases in the throte called angine being gargild. A water destilled of ye leues of walnut tree about the end of May, is maruelously cōmended for the drying and knitting of sores, and to bring them to a skar, if they be washt therwith morning and e­uening, and a linnen cloth moystened therein bee x laid vpon: Brunsvvicencis.



SAtyrion is destiled rootes and al, good for ye falling euill (as men say.)




SOme destill the floures also of Peeches. xxx




A Water destilled of Persely (of ye xx garden) beeten in a mortar, cō ­firmeth the apetite, & dis­solueth all wyndes of the body and stomack, streng­theneth concoction, and purgeth out ye ill humors of the brest (reines rather) Aegidius.



AVyol of Plā tain water is able to staū ­che bloud frō whence so euer it runne. Cardanus. Brunsvvick doth note many com­modities vpon plan­taine water, and spe­cially if it bee dronkē in the morninge and euening, at eche time xxx two ounces is good for the blody flix.



PEny reall looke before in Hy­sope.




RApe water maye xx be made bothe of the hoole Rapes cut: and also seue­rally of the barkes, whiche are sharper and hoo­ter, to prouoke vrin, and further sweet. The wa­ter of this Rapes sayeth Brunsvvick, is good a­gainst burning, of what cause soeuer it bee, if the sore place be washed with it, there wyll ryse first a scurffe, but washe the scurffe also, and it will hele xxx the sayde burning.



ROos water semeth to be first inuen­ted: for I finde mention of it in Auicen the .ii. boke, in the chapter of rooses: Roosewater drounke (saith he) is good in a x swoun, and the iuice of them also: and again, water of roses is good for the liuer: and it cō ­forteth the stomacke, which is nourished of of it with hony, and it is Geleniabin, and helpeth to disgest. And the roos and his iuice are good for a stomak to mich hoot. And although the Arabiās for the most part ar wont to say water for iuyce or xx decoction: yet in this place it can not be taken for then, when as he speaketh seuerally of the iuice, & of the decoction also he made mētion befor. Rooswater made by sublimation doth very much com­comforte, Mesue in the chapter of Rooses. And a­gain, The Roos and hys oyl and water sublima­ted comforteth the hart. &c. The same speeketh of rooswater destilled, in the .vi. destinction, wheras he describeth the iuleb of roses, as the Munkes his interpreters do proue: of whom also this was xxx obserued and noted, that two waters destylled, [Page 37] and nomo mencioned in Mesue, that is of rooses and wormwod. They make no epithē or outward medicine at this day, but they put roosewater in it. In sharp vehement and greet inflammations, to strengthen the principall members, it maye be commodiously vsed. It is good for the flixe of the bowels and vomiting. It helpeth the inflamma­tion of the eies veri much in the beginning. Sum are wōt to mixt with it a litle thucia and sugercā ­dy. It strengtheneth the eies and sharpeneth the x sight. It stauncheth blud running out of the nos­thrilles being put in a linnē cloth. That which is made of red roses is more cordiall as they terme it, and strengtheneth moor: but of whit doth moore coul: Remaclus F. Of wine mixt with roswater in time of meet, see in Arnold in his boke of wine.

Rooswater although it be made diuers waies yet the best is made by Balneum Mariae: Matthaeo­lus. If thoos rooses which we call commonly car­nacion, dryed and moystened with the vapoure xx of water be destilled, they yeld good rose­water. Syluius. They may be holden in a linen cloth ouer hot water, til they haue drunck inough of the vapoure. xxx

❧ Of Roose vvater out of Bulcasis.


THe makynge of Roosewater is known in moste coūtires. It is better made with water then without: better also by fire of cooles then of x wood: wherfore of the iiii. waies whyche be withoute water wyth flaming woode: with­out water with coles: with water & flaming wood: with water and fire of cooles: the first is the worst, and yeil­deth xx a water of the least smell: the second is better then it: the third then the second: but the fourth is best of all. The second and the third are mooste v­sed. And I will here describe thee third (whiche is made with water and woode flaming, as it is in vse wt the kinges of Aharach. A. Thou shalt make therfore in a large house by a wall a litle berchile B so doth he cal the vessel that is filled with water the bottom and sides shalbe of leede, so wel closed, that it leek not in anye place. Then make meete a xxx couering vnto this vessell of glas or glased earth, [Page 39] and make two or three round hooles in it C C C moore or les, according to the largnesse of the ves­sels, and as you desire to ether muche or little wa­ter D, then make a pot of bras like to the pot made in Balneo Mariae, which thou shalt set vpō the for­naice, so that the Berchile aboue the furnaice be lower in situacion then the potte, (so that it maye conduite the heate of the fyre of the Berchyle, to the pott: but mee thinkes thies woordes dooe ether redounde or be depraued.) Thou shalt also x make a chimney by the whiche the smooke maye auoyde hoolly out of the hous, that it hurt not the rosewater. Afterward fil a pot with water, which may be in a well (a great vessell) made by the pot lyke a well in a bathe. Then kindling the fyre vnder the pot, thou shalt conuey the boyling water by a pype retching from the pot into the berchile, and fill the pot again of other could water oute of the well. In the berchile also shalt thou make a pype, by the whiche the water when it is full may xx run out of the hous. Thou shalt set the cucurbites or belies (that is the stillatory vessels) in the holes of the couering of the berchile, and shalt bynd thē rouling linnen clothes about, that they may stād stedfast in their hooles, and the vapour of the wa­ter go not out. Lykewyse the heades of them shalt thou bynd with a linnen cloth. And let thies ves­sels be of glas or of glased earth. Then put in the Roses, and sette vpon euery one his couer: and set vnder the nose of euery one a phiall to receiue xxx the rose water that runneth out: when the destil­lation [Page 40] is finished, put away the first rooses, & put in freshe: thus saith Bulcasis. Some man would maruell, that in suche a makinge of the fornace, where the fyre is not put vnder the duble vessell or berchile (as I coniecture, seing he maketh the bottome and sydes of leed) but at the syde of the fornace, wherfore he should thinke it to skill anye thing, whether the fyre put vnder the pot be made of wood or cooles. Moorouer it is knowen (saith Bulcasis in the same place) that rosewater of wyld x roses whiche growe by their own accord without any watering, is swieter then that which is made of garden roses whiche are tilled and watered.

There is a destilled water made of thies with vs a shorter way then that before, is this wyse.


A A brasen pot suche as diers vse, is set to a wall wherunto a co­uer B made meet with hooles, wherin the be xx lies ar put. The pot is filled w [...]th water, and a fyre is put vnder D it of the croppinges of vynes or suche lyke. But in proces of the destillation thou shalt close the mouth of the furnace til the hoat destillation be finished. xxx In steede of wood if [Page 41] if thou burne cooles, the water shalbe the swieter. (Here is more reason then in the former, because the fire here is made immediatly vnder the stilla­tory vessels.) The second way of destillacion with out water with fire of coles is such.



MAke a square or round fornace A with a co­uer xx wherin shalbe set belies C made of gla­sed earthe, so that they may abide the fyre: And when the cooles are kindled, & the water begin­neth to destill shut the mouth of the fornace▪ and leaue holes open for the smoke to go out at. Ther is an other bridgemente of the third and fourthe waye. xxx

[Page 42]



A Brasen pot A ful of wa­ter is set ouer a fornace, wt a couer bored B through xx so that it may receiue twoo or three belies of glas, C more or les. Put vnder fyr of the cropping of vines or cooles till the water sieth.



SAge water kee­peth & reteineth his former smell. Remaclus. F.

Brunsvvick saith, that the members being rubbed with the water of Sage, and so dryed by it selfe, and often dronke is good against the palsy, and also to drynke two ounces in the mornyg and at nyght, is very good, and helpeth against the Crampe, he saieth further it is good against the xxx dafing of the head. Loke in the same authour.



SCabiose water is pro­fitable geuen to drink to them that are disea­sed with any fistula, and the very herbe pound is lykewyse put in.




THe water of ye least syngrien or hous­lieke, xx is vsed of Sur­geons too coule hoat partes, Remaclus. F.

Brunsvvick reporteth, that ye water of Scabiose dronke twyse or thryse a day an ounce and a half, helpeth the stiches in the syde, he sayeth further, it healeth woundes inwarde & outwarde, being dronke .ix. daies together two ounces at once fa­styng. Loke in the same authour. xxx




THe water of Solanum or Morrella is good a­gainst all agewes if the sick the daye of hys fitte abstaine from all meate and drincke: xx and when hee is in greate heate and desyreth much to drink, that he can not refrain him selfe a­ny longer, then let be geuē him a glas of this wa­ter. Afterward let him be diligentlye couered and be kept in the heate by force: and he shall swete a stinking sweet. But he must abstain from the air that is to cold, or to hot. This water also is good for inflammations, and concussions, if a lynnen cloth be laid vpon it four fold, and when it waxeth dry to be wet again. Also to all strokes or woūdes xxx and other hot diseases, if they be washt therewith [Page 45] and a cloth dipt in it be laid vpon. It helpeth also the liuer that is hot, and the lunges that are dried and greued with an Hecticke feuer. Againste all these diseases it ought to be drunk with the third part of wine. Lullus in his boke of waters.



OF the flou­res of Tilia whose smel x is very ple­saunt and lyke to the floure of vines in sa­vour, is destilled and muche vsed in Ger­many. It is supposed to be a little hoot, dry and perteining to plasters: It is good to drinke against ye fal­ling xx sicknes, the trē ­bling of the hart, the grieues of the bely, ye stone of the reines, and blud gathered together or festerd in the body by chaunce or by reason of any stroke, for the which medicine sum also mixt with it the cooles of Tilia beaten. The dosis or quanti­tie of ministration is one or one and a halfe. It as­swageth the griefes of the eyes: and healeth the places brent with fyre or any hoot matter, & that xxx more surely if the inner barck al but tiliae be stiept [Page 46] in this water or in stede therof the grains or ker­nels of quinces, or psyllium, and the places be a­noynted with the horines or mouldines that bre­deth ther vpon: Ryffius.

Some vse against the pestilēre a liquor drawn by the force of fire oute of the bloude of a graye or badger.

Also of the blud of duckes againste poyson. &c. wherof thou shalt read more in the boke of destil­larions of Ryffius, writen in Dutch. x

Some mixt the bloud of a goat with medicins againste the stone to be destilled.

A water composed of the blud of a barrow hog and other diuers medicens wil we describe here­after in some place.

Of the water of wormes, and of the kind of Cā ­tharides whiche is surnamed, as Mey lander Kaeser saith, of the month of May, read Brunsvvick.

A water to take away wrinkles and spots of y face & to clere the skin. Beat the whites of egges, xx hard sod in water yt yolkes takē away together in a morter, & destill them in a lymbek of glasse or o­ther vessel of glas. The vse of it is, that ye face be a noynted therwith euery day thrise, for the space of iii. or .iiii. dayes.

I would adioyne here a table of waters destil­led of plantes, whiche are described in the Dutche bokes of destillacions of Hierom of Brunsvvick, & for the most part all that Gaulterus Ryffius hathe borowed of him: sauing that I studye to be shorte. xxx And surely it is nothing necessary to resite al whē [Page 47] as liquors also may, and are wonte to be destilled of all such plantes wherof there is any vse in phi­sicke. But to recken vp also the vertues and faculties of euery of them as some do, it is superfluous when as none other for the moste parte, but euen the very same also be attributed and ascribed to ye waters whiche are vnto the plantes: so that theese repetycions moue irckesomenesse to the reader, yea euen if it be but meanly learned, neuer a whit les then colewortes twise sod. Yet because x that some waters chieflye and before other, are in vse with apothecaries, as those with Remaclus F. hath described. I wil ad hither a rehersall and ta­ble of them, in like order as he vseth and hath reci­ted them him self.

Absinthinm wormwod. Apium. Artemisia, mug­wort, Agrimonia. Althea, the holy hok. Acetosa, Al­kekengi. Auricula muris, mouse eare.

Basilicon. Buglossos. Balsamita, that is mynte of Rome. Betonica. Betony. Bursapastoris. shepherds xx pouche.

Chamomilum. Cammomill. Calendula. Mary goldes, Carduusbenedictus, Centaurium, Centory Chelidonium. Felandine. Cichorium. Cikory. Ca­pillus Veneris. Maiden heer. Caprifolium, that is Pericly menon. woodbinde. Cucurbita. Gourde. Cuscuta.

Ebulus. Walwort. Endiuia. Enula. Euphragia, Eiebright.

Foeniculum. Fennel, Fumaria. Fumitory. xxx Gentiana, Genista, Browme.

[Page 48] Hepatica, that is Lichen. Liuerwort. Hedera, Iuy. Hyssopus. Hippuris, that is horsetaile.

Lactuca, Lettes. Lauendula. Lapathum. Sorel

Maiorana. Maioram. Melissa. Baulme. Marru­bium. Hoorhound. Melilotus. Melilot. Millefoli­um. Milfoyl, or Yarow. Menta. Mint. Malua Ma­lowes.

Nemiphar, bothe kindes with the flowers. Ni­gella.

Origanum, Organy. x

Paeonia. Pyonie. Papauer satiuum, sown Poppy Parietaria. Pelitory, Pentaphyllon. Cinkfoyl. Pe­troselinum. Persly. Pimpinella. Pimpernel. Pasti­naca. Parsnip. Plantago. Plantaine, both kindes. Portulaca, Purslein, Polygonos, that is Cētumno dia. Pulegium. Peniroyall.

Roses white and red. Ruta. Rew, sown or set. Rosmarinus. Rosmary. Rubea tincterum. Madder set or sowne. Raphanus, Radish.

Saluia. Sage, Saxifragia. Satureia. Sauery. Sā ­bucus, xx Elder, the bark, floures and leues. Scabiosa Scolopendrium. Solanum, wherof seing there are many kinds. Remaclus writeth that apothecaries draw water out of Halica [...]abus only for the moste part that is Alkekengi. Semperuiuum. Singrien. Serpillum. Salix, Willow. Senecio. Grounswell.

Thymus, Time. Berded Tapsus, that is Ver­bastum. Tauacetum. Tormentilla.

Violae. Violets. Valeriana. Valerian. Virga pa­storis, that is Dipsacus, Tasill, Verbena. Veruin, xxx Vermicularis, yt is the les syngrien. Vrtica, nettell.

Of vvaters destilled of beastes, or of their partes, or excrementes, and first of all of the hoole beastes.

A Water destilled of whelpes, will make that heir shall not growe a­gaine. And, Furnerius. I geue litle credence to thies curious & ex­quisite remedies, and although they be true, yet I do not alowe them, specially x where other many, and easy to be gotten ar not lacking.

A yong Storck some bid strangle and destil it lyke rose water and therwith to anoint the partes taken with palsey, or shronke together, and at cer­tain tymes to be washt away with a decoction of sea crabes without salt: they saye it helpeth mar­ueilously, if a man continue it. Some bid put an vnce of Camphora & a dram of amber, in a yonge storkes bely the bowels taken out, but it must be one that neuer yet flew: then in destilling, to ga­ther xx seuerally thre waters, differing in color. of thies they prayse the last best to make the face whyte and clear.

They destill also a water of a pye, wherof read Brunsvvick & Ryffius, as also of them that folowe. Of a Capon, whereof wee will speake seuerally within. for it is not made simpely and singly on­ly, but also composed many wayes.

Of Frogs, Crabes, Snayles, Pismiers or xxx Emers.

[Page 50] Of the bloud of a Duck, a he Goat, a Gray of a calfe, looke in Ryffius and Brunsvvick.

Of mans bloud, looke Brunsvvick, and within also, wher we make mention of Quintessence.

Of the liuer and lightes of a Calfe.

The liquor of milck destilled, the chymistes & destyllors do vse: and sum that go about to make Borax or Crhysocollam. It is a wonder that men say, amongst the Tartarians, water destilled of milke, doth make men dronke. The milke must x therfor be somwhat thicker, and tary somewhat long vpon the fyre. Whiche thing peraduenture chaunseth in meares milke. Albeit all water if it be oft destilled wil do the same: for it waxeth hoat is attenuated and made more fyne, and receiueth the force and nature of the fyre the more. Carda. Some vse water destilled of wyne and milke to­gether against ye feuer quartain: specially in En­gland, as Brudus Lusitanus writeth: Some drink it against the iaundys, as witnesseth Iohan. Goe­urotus. xx Also seuerally of Goates milke water is destilled: Loke in Ryffius.

Water of an Oxe hyde: see in the same author.

Of the whytes of egges, and of the yolke: In the same.

Of the spaun of Frogges founde in waters: looke in Ryffius.

Of kowes donge loke in the same.

Some say that water destilled of mans donge wil heale fistulaes, also fretting soores, and such xxx as are to be cured, and cancres, and the disease called [Page 51] Tinea or matering of the head: that it wil also make skarres like vnto the other skin: and put a­way the spots or white webbes of the eyes. If it be druncke, it is good for them that haue the fal­ling sicknes: it helpeth them that haue the gowte, it driueth away the stone out of ye rains and blad­dar, it is a preseruatiue againste the bitinge of a mad dogge or other venemous beast. But the oyle of the same which destilleth after the water, wyth a greater fyre, is much better to fistulaes, and cā ­cres, x and other euils aforsaid. Matthaeolus of Sena, and other, you shal read certain merueilous thin­ges in Brunsvvick.

Mannes vrine destilled, the Chymists doe vse to resolue certaine mettalles: Printers to make their printinge inke, but these destill it in Rose stillatoryes.

Of vessels and diuers instruments belonging to destellation. xx

WHen men name a stillatory vessell, they vnderstand the bodye of the still or the Cucurbita, which the dutch men in their language, because of the fashion of it, do cal clauam (ein kolben.) The body or grose ves­sell some cal the greater vessel or Cucurbita wher­in they put that whiche is to be destilled. Syluius for this vessell compared to the limbeck or head, is xxx somwhat like vnto a body or a mans chest. The [Page 52] Arabians name it, as Bulcasis


wytnesseth, Beten Batan, that is a bellye. It appeareth also that Atanor in ye same Bulcasis, where he prescribeth the destillation of vinegar, signifieth a Cucurbita. (A furnaice, Athanor or a fixed instrumente Geber describeth in his booke of fornaces. The Cu­curbita some barbarously do call x bocciam a boxe. Of the same [...]igure and fashyon the greater vessels are meete to digest and putri­fy: therupon when they must be destilled, the mat­ter digested is distributed into som les Cucurbit or boxes. The limbecke is taken, as I suppose, bothe for the bodye and for the heade, but moore properlye for the heade, as I saide, is the vpper vessell, that hathe a certaine similitude of the hed, in respecte of the nether, that is bigger and lon­gar. The same vessel (late authors call a bell and xx a chaplet (some name it a marke or boundes, in y which by the meanes of the spire the liquor is ga­thered by drops) other a cap: dutch mē (ein helm) a salet or helmet. Tubus which cometh forth of the limbeck a length turning down­ward,


is called a nose, a beake, & simple as it is a pipe: because the thorow the holownes therof, the drops gathered together in the limbeck, which all come together xxx in the skirte, that is in the nether [Page 53] folde about the lowest parte of the limbecke, run­ning forth do drop downe into a vessell set vnder­neath, which commonly is called a receiuer and a vrinall. The nose and beake are termed of y lyke figure, because this parte standeth oute, after the same manner that beakes do oute of the noses of fouls, & noses of .iiii. foted beasts. The receiuing vessel whē as oyles are destilled out of metals, as of Vitriol or Corporoos, wheras ther is nede of a great fire, and continuall, muste be very large: for x els it is daunger least they breake, for the aboun­dance of vapors gathered together in the vessels. Men hold an opinion that more precious oyles & waters are made in large heades, then in small and more straite.

A blynd limbek is that which


hath no nose nor beake, nor lim­be or hembe whiche serueth for preparation and rectification or circulation, that is, perfection. xx Of the same kinde, there is an other fashiō wt a limbus, which we vse when we will drawe out the fleame out of any waters or oyles in the sunne or other place, as it shall be declared in oyle of vitrial.

Suche heades as be put vpō


bodies not standinge vpryght, but as though they were lying, they lack the limbe folded skirt, and be lyke to commune earthen xxx bottelles. Syluius.

[Page 54] I haue sien also twoo


heads one vpon the other, that by the nether whiche was bored through, parte of the matter might bee ca­ried into the vpper, whiche was ioyned to the nether with nayles, least y nether that is stopt with clay shold be taken awaye, when as x newe mattier is to be pow­red into the grose vessell or body. The same.

Some times the fashiō of the


head is like to a spyre ascending vpwarde aloft, sometime edged: sometime it waxeth broode in the highest part of the head, that it may receyue the more of the va­pours, xx and gather the more wa­ter: but then for the moste part it runneth againe out of the top into the grose ves­sell. Syluius.

Sublimation is taken of many simpely for de­stillation: other take it particularly to lift vp or cause to ascende vp into the limbeck by the force of fyre, the matter that is to befixed in it: as many metally thinges ar sublimated. xxx

[Page 55] Some ioyne glassē


or earthen bottels to­gether, whiche they call horned pypes, the one wherof is set and cemented or clayed in the fyre conteyning y thinges to be destil­led: the tother is a pre­ty way distaunt from x the fier, receiuing the liquor gathered toge­ther in the neckes of them both: Syluius. Thies instruments are called cōmonly crooked: the frenchemen call them also horned.

This horned pipe


is a musicall instru­ment, which the Germaines cōmonly call xx a sack pype, Englishe men a bag pype. It is a crooked vessell, apte to destill suche thinges as can not be made to ascende hye, or go vp far.

The receyuing ves­sell for the moste part is a phiall of glas wt xxx a longe neck, in whose mouth the nose of the lim­beck [Page 56] is put, and some times the bely therof is set in a pot or some other holowe vessell that it maye stande the stedfaster in his place, or els for the cō ­moditie of the thing, is set one way or other.

Vesselles for circulation as they wherin the vapours ascende by course, and againe turned into lyquor, descēd & go dounward as we shal declare within wher we shal make mentiō of putrificatiō Of al thies the most excellent vessel is that which is named Hermes vessel, because he was the inuē x tor of it: & of the figure and fashion as I suppose, a Pelecan. For lyke as paynters paynt a Pelecā pecking his owne brest with his


bill: euē so this vessel as though it were eared on both sides, hath pypes that beginning at ye head, that is the vpper parte, descende in maner of a half a circle and ar bowed again and fastened as it were into the beginning of the xx bely: whiche maner of vessell al­though it be hard to be gotten, & deare, yet is it the best of all to circulation: but if it can not be had, we shall take a Cucurbita with a blynd limbeck without a folded skirt or els a ves­sell of a hooll glas, that is somwhat straiter in the midst, and out of the beginning of the bely it hath looking out a short pype, by the which liquor may be powred in and out. We shall put the fygures of both thies within in the chapter of quintessence: xxx and tertain other of other maner of vesselles and [Page 57] fornaces euery where in this worke.

The formes and fashions of vessels ar diuers, and almost without number cōmonly vsed with the chymistes and destillers, Syluius. Who so de­sireth the figures and names of diuers vesselles, let him looke in Brunsvvick. Ryffius Andro. Loui­cerus and other. A man may cause to be made, of what fashion he will in the glas makers shops, suche as be in Heluetia nie vnto Scaphusia, and not far from Basill and Solodourn. But the best x are made of whyte glas, as at Venice, suche may be made with vs of the peces of spectacle glasses & other skrapes of whyt glas gathered together.

Of the vessell called aludel [...]s, looke in Geber in his boke of chief perfection. 1. 4. 44. chapter, and again in his boke of fornaces. Albertus wryteth it a luttell, and expoundeth it a vessell appointed for sublimation: lykewyse Bulcasis. The same willeth arsnick to bee sublimated in an earthen dyshe glased, the fashion wherof he describeth in xx the chapter of sublimation of abhichbar dic. Aluthel (writen with th) is a limbeck whiche the Alchymistes vse in destillatious. Belluencis.

Of the matter for vessels of destil­lacion: and first against leaden and brasen vessels.

WAters destilled in Balneo Mariae, do so far pas those that are made simplye by the tire in leaden limbeckes, as golde xxx passethyron. For they that be made in [Page 58] Balneo Mariae, with large chaplets, limbeckes or heades, and somwhat great and of glas, do geue the natural sauour and taste of the herbes & flou­res, wherout they be taken, without any noysome smel of smoke or burning, which chaunceth not al in the common leaden stilles. For the waters that are made in them, very few and seldom, speciallye whiles they be new, are without notable lothsom­nes of smoke and burntnes, whiche vnto sickmen that drincke, it is not only greuous, but also hurt­full: x for the euill qualitie of the lead endamageth bothe the stomake, and the breaste, and all the en­trailes, and likewise the qualitie of brasse whyche the learned and excellent phisitions perceiuynge, folowed the auncient men and vsed onlye decoc­tions. But waters destilled accordinglye as they ought to be, that is with the sauour and tast of his plant, are not only equall in strength with decoc­tions, but also passe them in thys that they more delite a man, beinge more swete in taste, and also xx clearer to the sight. It shal be houe both good phi­sicions and also Apothecaries, to lay away leaden instrumentes, and prouid them the forsaid Balnc­um Mariae, and althoughe it shall be a little more chargeable vnto them and painefull, yet so shall they satisfy and please bothe God and man. Ma­theolus.

Such thinges as are destilled in lead, I iudge them altogether to be disalowed, because of ye Ce­russe and other malicious qualities of the leade, xxx when as water also that is conueyed by pipes of [Page 59] leade, Galen condemneth, because it bredeth dis­eases in the entrails. Syluius.

Moreouer the vessel altereth muche, aswell in destillacions as in thynges sodden. Wherefore a man must take great hied in these things, that the vessels be rather earthen or glasse then of metall, and those that be of earth, yt they be of a very pure earth, and wel baked, such as be the earthen ves­sels of Paris, Bellonaca, England and Spain. But glasen vessels are the best because they be more x pure and thicker: but they be dearer & will breake soner, except they be made hoat by litle and lyttle, and cold likewise, and after the same sorte be also earthen vessels, for the which cause they daube both sorts of them by little and little with claye of wisdom (as they call it) and dry them, so far as the force of the fire shall touch, yea althoughe it be to be set first in ashes, sande or dros of metals. For those vessels that shal stand in water or in the va­vapour therof nede no such defēce. The cause whi xx I condemne vessels of metals, leade, yron, brasse, tin, siluer and gold, is Galens reason in euery one almost of these kindes of metals. For if he affirme that water onlye conueied in leaden pipes dothe brede diseases of the bowels, howe muche more oughte we to feare waters destilled in a leaden limbecke or still. Besides that no small cerusse re­maineth cleauynge to the inner side of a leaden heade, as in destillinge of Vinegar is gathered, so by the force of the vehemente heate or brent­nesse xxx ascendinge vp wyth a vapour manye times [Page 60] also tarte, that is of sharpe and tarte plantes, whi­che infecteth the verye wa [...]ers, and for the mooste part maketh them white like milcke, till that it be setled and suncke to the bottome. Vessels of other metalles that bried other roust or canker, are so muche the more pearilous, as rouste or canker is more hurtfull the [...]cerusse. Vessels made of pure siluer or golde, as they be leaste hurtefull, so are they more harde to be gotten because of the coste. Syluius. x

The best vessels be of glasse: the nexte, ear­then that be glased bothe wythin and wythoute: then limbeckes of tinne, the bodyes (in destillinge of Roses) of leade. Thirdlye, the limbeckes and the bodyes also of leade. For the strengthe of the fyre if it be moderate, it hurtes not the leade, but these bodyes of leade muste bee sette in syfted a­shes, a handfull thicke, not in sande. Fourthlye limbeckes of copper tinned within. Fifthlye bra­sen. But copper and brasse haue two discommodi­ties, xx but the brasse more then the other, the fyrste they make the waters for the mooste parte, some­what read, and fautye wyth brentnesse: the other, there is euer a certaine venemous operation in them, more then in other metalles, therfore Chri­stophorus de Honestis, admonisheth to take hede and auoyde them: Brunsvvick. Therfore seinge all the mooste learned Phisicions, and experyence it selfe, doe vtterlye disalowe waters destylled in vessels of leade, Brasse and other vncleane met­tals, xxx some good man shoulde do well to moue the [Page 61] matter to the Magistrates, that it mighte not be lawfull for Apothecaries other to prepare anye more or sell such waters partlye hurtfull, partlye vnprofitable. Bulcasis in dede, vseth leaden bodies in destillinge of drye Roses, whiche perauenture may be graunted for such waters as ought to be vsed only wythout the body. Some find no faulte with vessels made of pure and best yron, because no euill qualitye (as they saye) can issue thereoute into the matter or liquor: and trouth it is, that cer­taine x metallye thynges as requyre to be destilled with a greate and continuall fyre, seme to haue neade of so stronge vessels. But of this let other men iudge: I wil leaue the matter to Chymistes and destillers. Berchile. Bulcasis dothe call a ves­sel in a furnace for Rose water, whiche receyueth the boylinge water deriued oute of an other stan­dynge by it, in the which vessel, the body of the stil conteining the Roses, is set. xx

Of Fornaces, &c.

I Declared before and descri­bed two manner of fornaces meete for destillation by a­shes, and Balneum Mariae also oute of Bulcasis.

Heare wyll I trace oute and descrybe another man­ner of fournayce, the vse xxx whereof shall be dyuers, but [Page 62] chiefly when as any thing is to bee destiled by a great fier, so that no meane be betwixt the fier & the cucurbite or pan wherein is conteined the matter that is to be destilled: after whiche maner oyles or certaine liquors that burn the skyn and fleshe are gotten out of metals, as aqua fortis. &c. The vse therof shalbe also to sublimation: and if a man will set a kettell in at the top vpon theyron cros, then fill it with ashes or water and put clay about it, he shall be gin what destillation he will. x But for aqua fortis or suche lyke, he shall set a cu­curbite or pan dawbed with clay by & by, right vpon the cros. Yea this fornace may be made also vpon a strong borde of wode, as I haue made my selfe, that you may remoue it from one place to an other at your pleasure. Therfore vpon a woden table you shall buyl a four square fornace, of such bignes, that it may be sufficient to set in a meane circubite. The walles you shall make of bricke, ioyned with morter very wel made, the hight shal xx not muche pas two foote, the walles shall bee a­bont a foote one from an other within. Whan you haue made the harth or botome, you must make a dore, O. where as the ashes may bee taken oute, whiche fall from the coales from the grate buyl­ded vpon it. If so be it that an other grate were made also for the ashes to fall thorowe (and that lowest space to be somwhat dieper) a man shoulde not niede to take out the ashes so oft, and the fyer should be the more vehement. xxx

The letter. I. sheweth an other dore, streighte [Page 63] way aboue the grate, which I haue markte wyth certain pricks set ouerthwart in order. That dore as the nether also, it is sufficiente if it be onlye so big as a man may easely put in his hand at it. V. sheweth the yron cros, that is .ii. barres of yron, ye nether wherof must haue a bought downward in tee midst to receiue the other in that is layde ouer­thwart him. A. and. E. declare the highest corners of the fornace, in which so many breathing hooles (or ventes as they commonly call them) oughte to x be made, but if a man will make a round fornace, then these ventes shalbe made somwhere beneath namely aboute the crosse, or by & by vnder the ket­tel, if ther be any put in, which I haue noted with B. the bord vpō which the hole fornace is builded is noted with. C. as a­peareth


in the figure here present. An other kinde of fornace, for oyle of vitriol or cor­poroos, xx shal I describe within. The fornace for Balneum Mariae, y hast already discribed afore, whereas we en­treat of Balneum Ma­riae generallye oute of Syluius. Also in yt ma­kinge of Rose water, out of Bulcasis. Of dy­uers xxx fornaces for ly­quors [Page 64] and destillacions, there is a booke of one called Geber. Concerning the making of a forna­ce, loke in his boke intituled Summae perfectionis. that is, of chief perfection. 1. 4. 43. Of commune Rose stilles in earthē pottars fornaces, although some make them also of bras, we shal speake with in, by and by after the destillation by ashes.

Of slow Harry, or the fornace of slouth, that is, a pype wherwith the Balneo Mariae is made hoat, we haue written aboue where as we haue entreated x generally of the Balneo Mariae.

The differences of coales shall wee knowe in Theophrastus, but better of our own smithes, spe­cially goldsmithes, and of the very experience it selfe. Such coales as ar digged out of the ground are condemned & forbidden bicause of their foule smell. They are counted the best that are made of bieche or fir tree.

Dioptra or a litle skrien I call an instrument, whiche some men hold before their face with their xx hand, least the nyenes of the fier should hur them, when it is nied to come nye a vehemēt fyer. That is a thin borde with a slitt or carfe in the midst cut out ouerthwarth, with a handle.

Lyquors destilled shoulde be kepte in glasen phialles with narow mouthes. Let the mouth be shit with a stopple of wod, or rather of corke, and besydes that, a man must couer it with wax and bynde a parchement about it also. xxx

Hovve to close vessels and to defende them, both with clay and otherwyse.

CLaying of a thing, men do commonly say for yt which is to daub with clai, to plaister, to pariet. Tothintēt we may the better kepe the smell and quali­ties of suche thinges as are destilled, we must close diligently and ioyne together with x clay, the head with the body, & the tipe of the nose with the receiuer: they call it commonly claying. Some vse pure clay littered with ox heare: some also temper it with lyme, except I be deceiued. Some mixt lyme and whytes of egges together, when they haue nied of haste: for then the morter wilbe hard & dry by and by: some other wyse make clay of wisedome as they terme it. The receiuer with the nose nedeth not so strong a kynde of clay. It shalbe sufficient to ioyne them with a certain quantitie of wax and halfe so muche rosen. And xx for this purpose the commune vnpurified rosen of fyr trees will serue, but you must clarifie it your selfe on this wyse: as sone as it is melted with the fyer, by and by let it be sight and powred through abundell of strawe. Of the preparation of wax by strawe, to clay withal. reade Vlstadius chap. x If the head be not miet inoughe for the body but somwhat to big, you shall put paper round about betwene it and the clay. Without also wheras a­bout xxx any ioyntes there must clay be laide, lay first [Page 66] moyst paper about it, or els a linnen cloth, and af­ter clay it.

The morter to ioyne the cucurbita with the lim­becke withall. &c. oughte to bee made wyth claye and heare, and to be dry before fyre be put vnder, Bulcasis entreating of oyl of tilestones. The mor­ter shall be the stronger if it be tempred not onlye with heare or woll, but also with gotes bloud, and the more also to be made with that is dros of y­ron, beaten as is found aboute smithes in fields. x Morter for fornaces after what sorte it should be drest, see within wher we teach to destyl by ashes.

Of Hermes seal, that is, of ioyning together the mouthes of glasen vessels with a paire of hot bur­ning tonges softlye thrusting them together, and how after they oughte to be opened againe, reade Vlstadius. cap. 20.

Let the cucurbita also be fensed round about wt clay, specially those that must abide the fire direct­ly put vnder them and nothing betwixte, and that xx twise or thrise, and that the first crust be dryed be­fore the next be laide on, as when aqua fortis and oyle of Vitrial are destilled. For the destillation in ashes, there nedes no such mortering nor claying: albeit if a man wil prouide for the worst conside­ring the frailnes of the vessels, speciallye where manye vessels are sette together in one fornace, it shalbe sufficient once or twise to pariet thē. Those cucurbitas whiche they vse in Balneo Mariae, speci­ally when many are set together, some men vse to xxx put vppon them wollen cloth made mete for them [Page 67] lyke as it were hoose or cases.

They say glasen vessels wil abide the fire bet­ter and longer, if they be wared, that is, if they be warmed & don ouer twise or thrise wt molten wax.

Of the preparation for destil­lation.

FOr as much as in destillaciō we seke ye separation of the elemēts either for one or mo of them, or els to thintēt that they x once put cleane away, we maye get the quintessens: separation truely can not be don with­oute heate. For heat vniteth and gathereth toge­ther suche thinges as be of one kinde and nature, and they that do differ and disagree it separateth to thintent this might duely be broughte to passe, both the Chymists and Phisicions haue inuented diuers meanes and waies. They terme thys pre­paracion diuersly and geue it sundrye names, di­gestion, leauening, putrifaction or rotening. Di­gestion they call it respectinge, the concoction that xx is done in the maw, by the natural heate thereof, which bringeth to pas yt al such things as are put into it: are turned into one humor: for it is well e­nough known yt they which speake not very aptly nor latinly take these wordes to digest and to cō ­coct indifferently both in one sence. If so be it a dri matter ioyned wt a liquor be so prepared, we shall name it wyth a more apte word, maceration, yt is steping or weking, or els infusiō, a watring & moi xxx stening. But leauening is proprely spoken wher­as [Page 68] a certain inward vertue, but increased or sty­red vp by an outward heat, commeth vnto an hu­mor or moisture, so that a certaine cōmune and generall qualitie be mixed and spred throughout the h [...]ole body, with a hoat spirit, & one that moueth and breadeth bubles, as it is in ye mixture of true leauen in dede knodē with meale: also in vinegar powred vpon the earth. And this affect is the be­ginning of rotennes in suche thinges as haue su­perfluous humor. That which is called putrifac­tiō x or rottēnes should differ nothing frō this, sa­uing that it is done by setting the vessell contei­ning the thinges to be destylled, in some corrup­ting and rottenyng matter: and that for none o­ther cause, then that one and the selfe same heate continually for a certayne dayes and equally, should be conserued with litle labour and coste.

The sauour or other qualitie of ye putrifying mat­ter, in my mynde, it is not possible it should infect the mixture that is put in a glasen cucurbita with xx the mouth very diligently stopt, although some thinke yes. For if the vessell be diligently stopt, it it is not possible there should chaunce any defaul. Notwithstanding it happeneth somtimes not be­cause of the dong or other outward cause, but by­cause the matter in the vessell hath abundaunce of corrupt excrementall moisture, whiche with any outward heate doeth easely roat. The glasen vessell it selfe howe longe tyme so euer it shal tary in the donge, it wyll bee nothing defyled, nether xxx darkened, specially if it be of good glas, as ye Ve­nice [Page 69] glasse is: for the common grene glasse will gather a certain duskishnes and as it were a skin.

Destillation that is done by rottennes, or with horse dong both alone and with lime be sprinkled and oft chaunged, or with barks watred, or other rottening thinges, how so euer it is profitable to the Chymistes and destillers many wayes, a phi­sition not withstanding ought not to receiue it, for a cause in rotten wod and euil smelling, thorowe the rottennes or some other cause: speciallye if the x thinges destilled be to be ministred within the bo­dy: for to be vsed withoute the bodye, it skilleth the lesse. Syluius.

Of thys kind of destillation in hors dong read before in the latter ende of those thinges whyche we writ of Balneum Mariae generally. At thys pre­sent we shoulde entreat rather of rotening then of destillatiō. But because of rotening also in hors donge semeth to be disalowed, if destillacion in it be reproued, it is not altogether from our purpose xx and others, that I haue declared my mynd of this matter in this place.

Putrification or rotening in hors dong wt lime is otherwise done on thys wyse, that the dong eue­ry day or euery other daye or by longar distaunce, be sprinkled with warme water: otherwise, with­out sprinkling, when as the dung of it self serueth to be hot inough. A pit or hole being digd in some corner of the house, they lai one course of hors dōg about a fote thick, that is thre handbread: then an xxx other cours of lime only one hand thicke, and so [Page 70] for the by course. There is nede of thre burden for the most part of dong, as much as a porter is ha­ble to cary.

Some put the thynges that are to bee destyl­led (speciallye suche as bee stiepte in wine) into a tin botel, and that they do set in vnslaki lime clo­sed, whiche they quenche at certaine times nowe a little and then a little, with raine water. Some mixte Oten strawe wyth the hors donge, and sprinkling it with hoat water, set in theyr vessell, x and then couer it cleane wyth towe harde, wyth clothes or sackclothe, in some parte of the house where colde can not come at it. Other in grape kernels in haruest. Other in the broken peces of Oliues, that is, in the relickes of Oliues after they be prest, the best waye of all other, as Carda­nus teacheth. If a manne couet but a light heate, it shall be sufficiente to putte it simplye in chopte strawe. Certaine of the Germaines that lyue in stouffes that is hot houses, the winter time, make xx in them lowe fornaices. A. and in the vpperparte they set two or three glasen pottes. C. vppon lytle yron barres and pariet and rubbe them ouer dili­gentlye with clay. In thies filled full of fine sand or ashes, bothe thynges maye be destilled whyche I woulde shoulde be tried, and also certaine ly­quors may be rectified or prepared. &c, and by this meanes a man shall saue bothe labour and coste.

Some to digest the matter which they will destill in the sonne, prouide a holowe lokinge glasse. D. xxx for the same purpose, whiche retourne agayne the [Page 71] beames. B. which thei


receiued: and directe them into the vessell C. wherein the mat­ter is conteined: for thys purpose (as I am informed) the fy­gure of a holowe pa­rabolae should be more apte and meete: a pa­rabolae x is a deuision of a Geometrical figure, called conus. Reade Archimedes in hys Booke of burnnynge glasses.

The same also may


be done very wel with balles of Cristall. A▪ hangd betwene y ves­sell xx of circulation and the sun. B. so yt the bea­mes of the sunne may com vnto the vessel. C by the balles. The on­ly end of all these pre­parations is, that the liquor may be drawne out more easely, more aboundātly, and more xxx effectuously.

[Page 72] The time of this digestiō doth vary according to the matter, whiche the more massy it is, the lon­gar time dothe it requyre: newe herbes nede the lesse time, when they are stiept or weekt in wine or other liquor: for they be the tenderer, and if they shoulde be let stand long, they woulde haue a certaine hoarinesse: the same dryed muste stande a little longar: then the seedes: last of all the rotes: so that almoste double time is necessarye for them that folow to yt which goeth afore them: as to new x herbes .iii. dayes: to dry, seuen: to sedes and most parte of spices twelue or fourtene, to rootes eight and twenty, or lesse if they be newe. There be cer­taine Phisicions that bid let metals stande fortye dayes, the chymists and destillers of liquors yet longar. Thys is also to be considered, whether the thinges brosed are straight wayes put in: for they nede much shorter tyme perauenture by the half, then those that be put in hole. In goulding waters (as they call them) spices sometimes hole xx are wonte to be stiepte a fewe daies in wine, then taken out and brosed, to be poured in againe and to stand yet a few dayes.

The putrification of herbes to be destilled in horsse donge, is wonte to be done almoste by the space of .xiiii. daies, but in Balneo Mariae. ii. or .iii. naturall daies. Brunsvvick.

Suche thinges require chiefly putrification, whose substance is somwhat dry, gros, thick: raw haue les nied which are contrary wyse, and ar di­gested xxx and prepared by nature or the sun.

[Page 73] Putrification is soner done in cloudy wheather then in fayre. Vlstadius.

To the moste parte of thinges that are prepa­red in hors dong, some salt is cast, as vnto beasts bloud, to flesh, to fyshe: Guainerius.

To digest, take a blynd lymbeck: if the matter be pure, as pure liquor, then take a vessell for cir­culation, of whiche sort the pelecan is the best: al­though it can skarsly be made, and not withoute great cost. &c. x

But in digestion or putrification, the hoal ves­sell would be hid with hors dong or with the re­fuse of grapes. &c. To circulation the halfe of the vessell, or at the least the third part, must loke out into the free and cold aire (as also to destillation.) Vlstadius chap .viii. wher as he teacheth at large of putrification in hors dong.

Of the rectification of liquors xx destilled.

WAters destilled in Balneo Mariae, ought to be set in the sun and to bee rectified, namely in a glasen vessell, (the mouthe wherof let it be bound aboute and stopt with lether) full of the destilled water, so that the third part muste be lefte empty. then set it in hoat sand by the space of forty daies, that all the fleme may be consumed, the third part of the vessel must xxx be hid in the sande. Destilled waters of hot ver­tue, [Page 74] poured first into wine or burning water, least they should hurt a man by the meanes of theyr o­uer muche heat, let them stande for the space of a monthe or more if the water be hotter, in moyste sand, in a cold place. Likewise the thirde parte of the vessell hid in the sand: or two parts of the ves­sell (two third partes) let them be digd in the earth in some wine celler. Brunsvvick. Euery water if it be destilled again, specially vppon the dregs and grounds well pund and broken, it may so be recti­fied: x and the more, the ofter it is destilled againe: but for the most part of waters, it is sufficiente to repete the destillation of them thrise or .iiii. times. But you muste take heede that at euerye time the fleame be diligently remoued and separated, whi­che a man shall do if he receiue by it self the firste liquor, or if burninge water be destilled, the laste liquor, which is watry. &c. The fleame once sepa­ted, last of all rectification by circulation (wherof is spoken now last of all, and more shalbe spoken xx in the title of quintessens must be added.

But ye the brentnes yt is in these, may brethe out it shalbe best to kepe opē a while the phials wher­in the liquors stande: not withstanding you muste take hede that the grace of the smell in the meane season & with it much of the strengthe and vertue therof, do fume oute. Syluius. Destilled liquors of diuers sortes if a man mixte them together some­times they become troubled and pudled like thin milke or whay, and for the moste part an olde ly­quor xxx mixt with a new troubleth it. But you shall [Page 75] make them cleare and pure againe, if into three poundes, you cast six or eight drops of white vine­gar very sharp: for they wil driue down the pudly matter to the bottom: Brunsvvick.

Destillacion by a Filter or a list of Wollen cloth.

DEstillation by a filter is more in vre wt x the Chymistes and destillers then wyth phisicions, inuented to try out the ligh­ter, purer and more subtil part from the grosser and the dregges. Therefore the iuyces of herbes may thus be destilled, put in some vessell, wherein a pece of wollen clothe muste be put, the broder end wherof only must be in the vessell: the narower part and that that is sharpe at the ende: ether wt one poynt, or deuided into .ii. or, iii. muste hāg without the vessel, the vessel must lean a litle xx towarde that side that the list hangeth on. A man maye put in also aboute the brimme some lystes of clothe, euerye one of almooste a foote longe, by the which the liquor shall be deriued and conuey­ed into a vessell set vnderneathe. If you wyll de­still the same iuyce or liquor agayne or the thirde tyme, in the same manner: sette the vesselles vypon a payre of stayres. The fyrste wherein the liquor is highest, the seconde lower and so forthe, wyth listes of clothe putte in euerye ves­sell xxx and hangynge oute into the nether, the laste [Page 76] the laste vessel onlye and lowest shall haue no li­stes, whiche muste onlye receiue, not yeld forthe. The destillation by a filter is doone also in two croked vessels of glasse well clayed, the one wher of must stand higher then the other, when you wil draw precious and swiet smellinge liquors from the matter (digested firste in Balneo Mariae,) as Vlstadius maketh mencion. Chap. 56.

To the sirrup which is made of the sower iuyce of the citron, that iuyce muste a man destill by a x clothe, liste or filter, or elsse it will gather into a courd when it waxeth colde, and likewise ye iuyce of Lemons and Orenges.

By a liste some destill also the decoctions of herbes sod wyth a softe fyre, whiche afterwarde by little and little they sieth till it be as thicke as hony, as of the rotes of black Elleborus or beares foote. Other thinck it sufficient only to sethe it or straine it.

Of burninge vvater or single xx Aqua vitae, and of the strength ther­of, and manifold vse.

BVrnynge water or Aqua vitae is drawne oute of wine, but wyth vs out of the wine lies only, speciallye of them that sell it, and by this onli almost get their liuing. And para­uenture it is neuer a whit ye worse that it is drawne oute of lies: for Lullus teacheth xxx that it may be well destilled of corrupt wine: yea if [Page 77] it be destilled often, it shalbe made the more effec­tuall, that is to say, hotter and drier: for dregs al­so or lies brente, are very hot, and geue the hottest oyle, which they call oyle de Tartaro, but that bur­ning water that is destilled out of wine, me thin­kes it shalbe the swieter, and more plesaunt bothe in smell and taste, and without all brent taste: be­sides that more apte also for quintessens. Burning water is called also water of sapa, of whiche & oyl, mingled together soope is made, for it brenneth ye x body. This water is made, as lie, half or thre par­tes ashes, and on lime: and that is the strongest water that wil make an egge cast therin, to swim highest without or aboue the water. Therfore the first being so made, is stronger then the second, to the vse of searing or burning of woundes. Mona­chus in Mesuaem.

Burning water oft destilled, is broughte into such sharpnes yt it can not be drunk. Cardan. But this is commonly known: they that sell it commō ­ly xx are wont to destil it only twise: but to the vse of glasiers for the burning in of their colors in their glasses, foure times, except I be deceiued. We de­clared afore, how when it is once or twise destilled in serpentins or writhen or crouked vessels or in other accustomed vessels (with pipes of brasse as big as a mans arme) may afterward be perfected in ashes, vntill all the steame be put awaye: by the which meanes it is made not only hoter and more subtil and finned, but also more pleasaunte bothe xxx to the taste and smell. Neither do all men vse one [Page 78] forme or fashion of the bodies and heades whiche they call limbeckse, to destill all [...]uyces: for some draw the water out of wine put in a great brasen vessel, standing vpon the fire, the necke or mouthe wherof is great and broad, vpon a three fote, and vpon this necke standeth the heade of brasse also with a top like a spire steple, & a thing like a paile or bucket. D. compassing it, ful of cold water, that the large vapoure maye be thickned the soner by the head made cold, and least the water of ye wine x should so resemble the fire. Some vse in the stead of a necke or heade to receiue the vapoure wyth a pipe of white plate or other mettall, verye longe, writhen into manye boughtes and tourninges, like vnto the maner of serpents, (wherupon they name them cōmonly serpentins) the greatest part therof standing in water. Some haue also yet an other fashion, Syluius. We did see diuers fashy­ons of vessels set out in figures to destill burning water or aqua vitae, in Gualter Ryffius & Andro Lo xx nicerus. Bulcasis saith wine may be destilled after the same maner, as vineger, the destillacion wher of he described. Read within, streight after the ti­tle of destillacion in ashes.

Some make a longe rounde pype. A. goynge vprighte from the couer of the Caudron contey­ning the wines or lyes, whyche pype is larger be­neathe after the fashion of a figure in Geometrye called conus whiche they bowe at the top almoste wyth a streight corner, and by a bucket ful of wa­ter xxx set somewhat hie, they directe it, but a syngle [Page 79] not a crouked nor wri


then cours: and so they say, shall a man haue more plenty of water. Suche lyke lyttle in­strumentes certain a­pothecaries do make, and call theim blad­dars, for thys pur­pose, that if they nede x anye certaine lyquor to the destillacion of a­nye herbe, they maye make it by and by. Yea they poure water vpon it that it be the more plenteous, which I cā not commend.

Aqua vitae is thought then to be stilled inough, that is, after it be stilled foure tymes at the leaste, and pourged from all his fleame, whan as if a xx manne sette it a fyre, it wyll consume euery whit wyth the flame, that no token of moysture be lefte in the bottome of the vessell: or elsse, if a lyn­nen clothe dipte therein, and sette a fyre, it burne not the clothe, whyche is a greatter to­ken of perfectyon, as that also, if a droppe of Oyle bee lette fall into it, it goeth to the bot­tome. For Oyle is aierye, wherefore a fyrie sub­staunce, whereunto Aqua vitae soo ofte destyl­led shoulde atteyne, oughte too bee lyghter xxx then it. But besydes the heate, of so destylled [Page 80] it should also become thin and pure, more & more, and when euery fire, the thicker and grosser it is, the more it burneth: contrariwise, the thinner, the lesse: that which is most thin should burn leaste of all. By the same cause it commeth to passe, that a drop of Aqua vitae poured in the palme of a mans hand, the better it is, the soner it vanisheth awaye and is consumed. I heare that this is a laudable note of this water, if succinum amber being set on fire and put to it into a spone do burn. Whan wine x (saith Vlstadius. 10▪ chapter.) is destilled twyse or thrise, you shall cut a fine sponge into pieces, so great, that on euery side they may touch the cucur bita or bodye within the vpper parte (that is in the inner circuit) the spōg must be tied in thre or four stringes hanging withoute, when you shall set on the limbeck, so that the sponge can not fal into the bottome of the still: let the sponge be dipt in oyle o­liue, and crushed out a little again, least pexauen­ture the oyle should fall into the pot or body of the xx stil, and be mixt with the matter: then settinge the limbeck vpon it, shit it close with wax as is afore­said, or with purified rosen. By this spong the spi­rits shalbe best destilled, and the fleame shall not passe through, because of the oyle: & by this menes shall a man do more with once destilling, then o­therwise with thrise. Notwithstandinge the lim­beck must be made withoute the gutter and circle within like to a blinde limbecke, but it muste not lacke a nose. Thus saith he. That whiche remay­neth xxx of the lies and dregs destilled in the bottom, [Page 81] y mē of our time call it dead water: for it is vnsa­uery and stinking. Such, that is the stinking water, whether it be yeilden of lies onlye, or also of wine, I haue not tried.

For the destillation of aqua vitae or burning water, a man muste chuse the best wine, blacke, red, or white. Black and old, yelds more plenty and also better water, then any other. The fire at y first must be light and soft, & after more vehemēt: but you must take hede in anye wise yt the wine sethe x not. The water that is gotten theroute, is surna­med burning, or the soul and life of the wine: and when it is destilled twise or thrise, then they cal it flaming water: Albertus as some alledge.

Of fiue partes of lies, whē it is twise destilled I heare, one remaineth or somwhat les. Whan y fleame is one cleane consumed, nothing is lost af­ter in the destilling, but the hole is yeilded again. Of .iiii. measures of wine, for the moste parte one measure of burnyng water is gathered in the first destillacion or there about according to the good­nes xx of the wine. Then in the next destillacion for one measure, there commeth the halfe. In y third, one part offiue is cōsumed. In y fourth, as much is yelded as you put in, for the most part if the de­stillacion be done accordingly. Notwithstanding if you continue destillinge, the water shall be the more perfect, in so much that at the ninth or tenth destillacion, it shal come out most perfect, But for as much as to the repeting of destillinge so ofte: a xxx man must bestow both more time and more coste, [Page 82] for the most part we are content with the third or the fourthe destillacion, and call it perfecte. And surely it resteth much in the instrument, that the water should be perfected soner or slower. For the vapour is more destilled and perfected in the first destillacion in a serpentin (that is in a croked and bowed pipe) thē thrise destilled by a streight pipe. Note further that ther diuers waters may be gathered in the first destillacion, wherof the firste is perfit, that is, that whiche burneth and is consu­med x with the fire, and a linnen cloth dipte therin and set on fire is not burnt. (You shall proue ther­fore nowe and then, and when the water ceaseth burninge, looke what remaineth in the still, you may cast it away, as vnprofitable. The second is a meane betwene good and bad.) The thirde is good for nothinge, saue that it cleareth the eyes and the face, if thrise a day they be washte therin, morninge, noone and euening, but this vertue of the third water, perauenture is true, if the destil­lacion xx be made with wine: but if it be with lies, as they be wonte with vs, it is not true. More ouer the stil must not be filled aboue .ii. parts, but that the third part may remaine emptye, and that the vapoures maye haue their scoupe and romthe. Hitherto Lullus.

Of the strengthes and vertues of Aqua vitae, in the boke of Arnold, De Villa noua, which is written xxx of Aqua vitae.

[Page 83] ARnold in his boke of Aqua vitae descri­beth many qualities therof both of it a­lone, and also mixt with other medicins after the destillacion, obseruing the or­der of the .xii. signes, from the head to the fete, for as he saith, a man must minister much more effec­tuall remedies to the head, if a man haue nede, at such time as the mone is in the ram: and likewise in the other, which thinge how true I iudge it, I wil not say at this time: notwithstanding this wil x I say, the better learned any man is in oure time, the les credit haue they geuen to suche perswaci­ons as the Arabians haue broughte into phisicke. Aqua vitae simple and alone (saithe Arnold oute of one Theoricus I can not tel whome) breaketh an impostume or recours of matter bothe within the body, if it be dronke, and without, as botche, if it be annoynted therwith. It helpeth read and dus­kish eies. It stauncheth the running and wate­ring of the eies. It is good for them that haue the falling sickns if they drink it. It cureth the palsy xx if they be anoynted therwith. It sharpneth yewit it restoreth memori. It maketh mē mery & preserueth youth. It putteth awai fracins, ring worms & al spots of ye face. If it gargild it remedieth y diseas in ye throte called synanchen y squince, & the iuila faln down wt humors, also the salt fleme, the rose drop & the touth ache. It is merueylous pro­fitable for frētik mē & such as be melācholy. It erpelleth poysō, The smel therof burnt, killeth flies xxx & cold creping beasts, It doth sieth flesh & kepeth [Page 84] fishes from roating. It restoreth wine that is tur­ned or putrified. It draweth forth the vertues of herbes and rotes, if they be laid in it .iiii. daies (o­therwise .iiii. houres) excepte onlye the Violet. It oughte to be set vp in a glasen or siluer vessell and to be wel stopt. There is more of it & better made of old wine pure and read. This he. He that desy­reth more concerninge the vertues of Aqua vitae, let him read that which we write aboue of ye ver­tues of certain liquors, which our men call goldē, x and waters of vertues. For they ascribe all those powers for the most part as well to Aqua vitae, as to the other, specially to simple Aqua vitae, & much more to compound or Aqua composita, but chieflye to the quintessens therof. Reade more ouer Lullus in the boke of waters. I haue sene also a certaine broken worke ascrtbed to Albertus, of the vertues of Aqua vitae. But practicioners, ignorant of thin­ges and times, or els of a purpose to deceiue mē, as many as they could, haue most impudently fa­thered xx many things vpon Galen, Hippocrates and Aristotle of the vertues of Aqua vitae, or burnynge water, as writen by them. All kinde of cold passi­ons or greues, that be curable, it helpeth in shorte space, specially diseases of the brain, sinewes and ioyntes. Also wormes in the bellye, biles and all scabbines, if it be washt oft therwith, it healeth it. It helpeth ye splene, it killeth all wormes. It mē ­deth a stinking breth. It taketh awaye the disease of the loines. The hurt members if they be anoyn­ted xxx therewith, it will restore them to their former [Page 85] health. It preserueth fishe and flesh from corrup­ting, but before they be eaten, they must be washte with common water. Camphora put into it, will dissolue. If cōmon water be poured into it, it go­eth to the bottom: and likewise oyle. This writeth Albertus as some alledge.

The taste of it excedeth all other tastes, and the smel all other smelles. Lullus, It comforteth the natural heat more then any other remeadye: it is most holsom for the stomake, the harte and the li­uer: x it norysheth blud, it agreeth meruelously and most with mans nature, it openeth and purgeth ye mouthes and entrances of the membres, vaines and poores of the body euery one, it auoydeth all obstructions and comforteth them. Yea it chaun­geth the assections of the minde, it taketh awaye sadnes and pensiuenes, it maketh men meri, wit­ty and encreaseth audacitie. Lullus. Anoynte the head therwith and it helpeth it of the head ache: it killeth the wormes drunken fasting: it putteth a­way xx sowning: it healeth the biles in the priuy mē ­bers, if they be washt therwith: it easeth them that be diseased in the stomacke, it stauncheth all run­ninges: it preserueth bodies from corruptinge by wormes: It auoydeth and kepeth a man frō gray heares. It is not permitted to women with child. It redresseth the fleame and reume of the hed. It encreaseth the ability of accompanying with voe­men. It is good against thick hearing, poured in­to the eares. Mixt with wine and drōk, it healeth xxx the falling sicknes. If a man hold it longe, it ta­keth [Page 86] away diuers kinde of touth ache. It putteth away the blemishes and whit spots in the eies, if it be poured into them: and auoydeth the running and watering of the same, if a man do but hold it in his mouth. It letteth the leprosy a space and hi­deth it It helpeth rotten and materinge biles, if linnen cloutes be dipt therin and laid vpon them. With a little decoction of parcely, it driueth away the stones in the bladder. It maketh womē apt to conceiue, but anoyeth them that be greate wyth x childe. It cureth diuers greues, it is profitable to be laid vpon broken bones hot, with towe or with some plaster. It slaketh the cramp in the legs, if a man anoynt them therwith. He hath no name ex­prest that sheweth these qualities. But the most of them seme to be taken out of Lullus.

I knew an old woman, that was cold and Ca­thectica, to be restored by a handkerchief made warm with Aqua vitae set a fire within it.

Some alledge the testimony of Constantine, of xx the vertues of burning water.

Aqua vitae besides other things is commodious and profitable for the strangury and other disea­ses of the bladder, for the tertian ague and quar­tain also which are ioyned wyth colde humors: a­gainst the disease called the Wulfe: againste wor­mes: againste the sens or painefull fealinge of a mannes bodye lyke vnto biles. It furthereth and prouoketh wemens floures. It breaketh and putteth awaye the stone in the reins, and expelleth a xxx dead child without anye greate paine. The issues [Page 87] of the bellye and fluxes, it helpeth, what so euer they be. They say, that Aqua vitae is perfite when often measures is made one, (whiche I suppose will come to passe in the thirde or fourthe destil­lacion). Annoynt the heade therewith, and it hea­leth wormes, the scuruinesse and scabbes, pusculs and skailes. It putteth awaye the spottes in the face and other wher. Broken egges or egges that that lacke a shell, put them in Aqua vitae and it will sieth them. It healpeth the numnesse of a x mannes sences called Apoplexia, swellings, stea­mes, tenesmum or desire to the stoole and weary­nesse. It amendeth the morphew beinge drunken or annoynted theruppon. It maketh the skinne softe and pure. To conclude, it is good againste the bitinge of a mad dog. It will heale any woūd excellentlye, if it be washte therewith, and so that no euill effect shall come therafter by the meanes of the same wound.

I perceiuinge Aqua vitae to be hotte and to dry, xx did sometime mixte with it honye, whereby it was bothe swieter to dryncke and gentler profi­table for the colde stomacke, speciallye in wynter. Som mixt it with water made wt honye or rather with mede, called apomel [...], which with vs cōmon­ly they make of hony cōbs. &c. Som wet figs ther in & set them on fire, then eat them hot. A mā may also mixt any sirup therwith, one or other, accor­ding as ye disease shall requyre. To preserue wine y it be not troubled nor putrified, put to it the tēth xxx part of Aqua vitae. in dede sulphur is far better for [Page 88] the same purpose, but it bewrayeth the crafte and the smell there of. The same will alum do, but be­ing bothe hurtfull, they are verye noysome to the health. Cardane.

If wine by the meanes of the sauour of the vessels or taste of the grapes be corrupte and soured, poure Aqua vitae into it and it will restore it. The same purgeth hāging wine that is new: also wine that is putrified and soured also: for it conuertes vineger. To conclude it bringeth a good smel and x tast also to any wine be it neuer so euel or corrupt and good wine also it makes it better, Albertus as some alledge. When the wine is to be drawen into an empty vessel, most vse to put in a ball of brim­ston set a fyre: other vse Aqua vitae, dipping towe therein.

Wine that is made to haue anye taste or smell, out of hand in a momente, is both a curious thing for rich men cheiffy, which wil aduaunt them of ye sortes of wine: and also profitable. For the quali­ties xx of diuers remedies may be communicated by this meanes with the wine. Herbes, sedes, or spy­ces whatsoeuer they be, let them be poured into Aqua vitae for the space of .xxiiii. houres for so the strength of them shalbe drawen out. Then ye wa­ters so affected and died, shall be mixt with a lyttle wine when ye wil drink. Arnoldus de v [...]lla noua.

How that wine is made which they calcommō ­ly Hippocras, with Aqua vitae and certaine spices stiept therein, I will declare when I shall speake xxx of wines.

[Page 89] Of the quintessens of wine I shall speake with­in, in the title of quintessens.

Of such thinges as be destilled dry, put into any liquor.

THe thinges that be dry can not be destilled, ex­cept they be stiept in some liquor. Of theis wil I write in this place. Of those that whiles they be new, be stiept and wet in some liquor befor thei be destilled, I wil speake hereafter amongst wa­ters x compoundes, in the beginning. Although the waters wherof we speake, here may be counted a­mong the compoundes. Dry thinges therfor first let them be broken and grounde: then let them be stiept in some liquor, wine, vineger, rain water or of the wel spring, and those ether raw or destilled, (Vineger and wine are destilled for this purpose somtimes once, sometimes ofter) or in some other destilled liquor. They maye be stiepte also in the iuyce of som herb or plant, and that likewise ether xx rawe, orels (that is better) destilled, Aqua vitae rectified semeth to agre best to the stieping of spy­ces, except we wil auoyd to much heat, wherwith the thynges destilled in them myghte be infected withall, when the liquor is drawne awaye.

Some still Cinnamon beaten with spring water poured to it, as we shall shewe amongste Oyles. Sedes also and other spices, wheroute oyle is ta­ken, are stiept in some of the forsaid liquors. It is best according to my iudgement to destill all these xxx thinges, dry thinges I meane infused and poured [Page 90] into anything in ashes with a softe fire. Of wa­ters of vertues or golden waters, that are wont to be made with saudge & other smelling herbes & spices, set in wine, I wil speke within amongst the cōpounded waters: & of them that are put in burning water, emongst the composed waters of life. It is to be considered also how long they stād to soke in wine: for new thinges, & they yt be thin or opē not massy, nede les time thē dry, grosse and thick, & beaten things, thē hole: the rotes then the x sedes & spices: & they againe les then the herbs. Read befor whē we gaue rules of ye preparacion of things to be destilled. The cōmon custom is to destil thē almost only dry, set in wine first a fewe daies, as spices & smelling herbes. But all other things also whose smel or tast what maner so e­uer it be we wil haue kept in the liquor destilled, they are rightly destilled by soking in wine, as I taughte afore also, whereas I made mention of wormwod water, & of the preseruation of the ver­tues xx of remedies in ye waters destilled. And sure­ly in those which when they are new & abound wt much moisture & therfore haue ye les smel, as gentian, astrantia, ye flour deluce, y beries of iuniper & other: I wold more alow ye liquors of drithinges set in wine or other wher: but if ye thinges be thin or slendar, or of no sauor, or ought to coul & moistē they should be destilled rather new. Sometimes the time of the yeare causeth a man to take dryethinges because of the lacke or scarsity of fresh. xxx

Gentian water. Take .iiii. pounds of the fresh [Page 91] and new rotes or rather dry cut in small peces, of great Gentian or white Gentian, (whose rotes are moste fat, and beinge set in wine, they nether corrupte them selues nor suffer the wine to cor­rupt, as I haue tried my self by the space of these ii▪ yeres) set in a couple of great glasses in a stoufnie the fornace, or hang them if you wil, the glas­ses diligētly stopt, and put into them pure good wine, so much that the wine be .ii. fingers aboue thē: & you shal euer put new wine vnto them stil, x til the rotes wil drinke no more, and so the wine being aboue it a two fingars, as I saide, let the glasses stand a moneth, and at length put thē in­to .ii. cucurbitas, ye wine and the rotes destributed together, & destil them in Balneo Mariae, or els in ashes with a soft fire. Of the water of Centory y les and gentian together destilled in wine, reade within amongst composed waters.

Iuniper beries also dry set in wine, geue a ve­ry good liquor & swiet smellinge: but wormwode xx (soked a few daies,) geueth a water very effectuall and most bitter, and the more if it be destilled in ashes, which both waies I haue tried.

Pelitory other fresh or dry is set in wine or vi­neger destilled or vndesti [...]led▪

These thynges also sookte in burnynge wa­ter (as I sayde) do communicate theyr strength wyth it: but I heare it is done muche moore effectuallye, if the thynges be beaten at the be­ginnynge and myxte wyth the lyes of wine re­dye xxx to bee destylled (for of theese rather then [Page 92] of wine, the men of our country draw Aqua vitae.) So also did one teache me in counsell as a greate secreate, that Wormwode water and other maye be best made. I haue not tried it yet.

Water of Roses wyth drye Roses is so made. Pour water to dry Roses, not more thē is suffici­ent to stiep them in: then put them from thence in­to glasen cucurbitas or leaden, and destill them by little and little. This water shall be profitable in medicins, and also to garnishing and trimming, x or to the smel. Ther was a certain man put to one pound of dry Roses, ten poūd of water and destil­led Rose water indifferente good. But thys is not done saue when a man hathe not newe to make Rose water of. Bulcasis. If the Roses whyche we call commonly incarnation Roses, dried & moyst­ned with the vapor of hot water be destilled, they wil geue good Rose water. Syluius.

The water of the nux vomica or spueinge nut, or the iuice gotten out with fire, is like the water xx in colour, not in smel or tast: the chiefest remedy a­gainst poysō, Cardanus in his second buke de sub­tilitate. And a little after. If the poyson newly ta­ken remain yet in the stomake, the best kind of re­medies be they that prouoke much to vomit strōg­ly, milke, lie, oyle, the water of the spewing nut, I suppose he meaneth by the iuyce gotten out by the fire, nothinge els but the water destilled thereof. For he nameth water that is like it in colour, not in smel nor tast, which agreeth with destilled wa­ters. xxx But when as the spewing nut euery whit is [Page 93] most hard and dry, it apeareth that his shel must be sookt in some liquor as water, wine, vineger, Aqua vitae. I wold soke it rather in vineger, whi­che by it self resisteth poyson, and is good to pro­uoke vomitting.

Waters destilled of new and fresh plāts (saith Brunsvvick) ought to be preferred, whiche if they can not be had, ether for some other cause or be­cause they be brought out of straunge countryes only dry, as spicknarde, lauander, stichae, scoenan­tum, x the hard time. &c. Thou shalt destill oute of them dry in this manner. In the month of May euery yere before the sunne rise, when it hath not rained the hole night, & the sky is fair, thou shalt gather dew out of som medow ful of diuers kind of herbes and flours, no watery ground nor wet, nor in a holow place, but rather vpon some hil, if it be possible. Thou maist gather it thus, draw a fair linnen cloth sprede abrode vpon the grasse, til it haue dronken much of the dew, then wryng xx it out into some vessell: and draw it again and fill it, euer wringing it out againe til thou haue ga­thred inough. This dew thou shalt destil thrise in Balneum Mariae, and rectifye it also in the sunne, (that is in hot sand, for the space of: xl. daies) and kepe it a yere. Thē what time of the yere so euer thou lakst liquor of dry herbes, do thus. Take as many herbs as thou list dried in the shadow (the leaues being taken away and kepte apart by thē selues) put them in a glasse, and pour vpon them xxx thrise so much water of dewe: or at thre times, so [Page 94] that first thou power on so much, that the herbes be sufficiētly ouercouered with water: and againe twis so muche. Then set it in hors dung twoo or three daies, still it, and putrifie it againe, so that it be thrys putrified and destilled by course in order. This water surely shalbe muche better, then if a man, as Bulcasis wryteth, to one pound of dry ro­ses (or other herbes or floures) shall put ten poūd of common water and destill it by and by. A cer­taine cunning phisicion wryteth that if water bee x destilled out of dry thinges after this forsaid ma­ner, sooke in dew, not thrys only destilled, but nyn tymes, it shalbe better water then if it were made of freshe and newe thinges, whiche haue muche fleame in them. The same affirmeth that dew nyn times destilled doth drawe out the vertues out of the herbes that be put in it no les then aqua vitae. Hitherto Brunsvvick.

And in the dew it selfe also there is a certaine medicinall vertue as Brunsvvick techeth in an o­ther xx place to be in the water therof destilled. In the falling sicknes, if thou make a cake of meale knod with nighterly dew of saint Iohn, and bake it vnder the ashes, then giue it to the sicke to eate, thei say it wil make him hoal. Alexāder Benedictꝰ.

Of quint essence of remedies.

QVint essence they name to be, the chief and the heauenliest power or vertue in any plant, me xxx tall, beast, or in the partes therof, which by ye force [Page 95] and puritie of the hoale substaunce, not by any e­limentall or sensible qualitie (although it be not without qualities) conserueth the good health of mans body, prolongeth a mans youthe, differeth age, and putteth away all maner of diseases. Of this first of al mē writ Raimūdus Lullꝰ, although it wer vnknowen to al the physicians of his time, nether written of in any booke, nor tryed or gone aboute in any vse. After him foloweth besides o­ther Iohannes de Rupe scissa, (whome one certain x man thinkes he flourished before Lullus, as I writ afore, I iudge they were both in one tyme) Hieronimus Brunsvvick, Philippus Vlstadius, and perauenture a few other whiche writ sumwhat of the same. Sum kind therof is simple, as yt moste famous quint essence of wyne or Aqua vitae, of che­lidony or selandyn, of mans bloud, of strawberys, of Antimonii. &c. Other ar cōpounde that is whē certain remedies ar put to sum quint essence now perfited, yt it may draw out yt vertues of thē, wher­unto xx gold yt may be drunken, ought to be assribed.

But here springeth a doute, saith Cardane, whether a man may make ye water tēperat, which thei cal quint essence: It wilbe, as I shal proue, of the nature of the firmamēt, that is a most pure & thin substance moueable, & which by the mouing retei­neth a temperat heat, & very muche therof. This thefor is of power to cōserue al strengths, & topro long life. For being most subtil, it mixith it self wt the first moistur, pearcing the massy thinges, & se­parateth xxx the excremēts, which be cōteined therin. [Page 96] And because it hath much heat, it expelleth what soeuer is vncleane, and therfore restoreth the na­tural heat. For age is nothinge els then a lesse­ning and diminishing of natural heat, which is therfore diminished, because the mouinge is hin­dred: as I saide of fire: for there is like reason of this vnto that. Mouing is hindred, because of ye aboundance of earthy matter, because the earthe only hath very muche matter, and is destitute of all mouing. Therfore that water being of so tē ­perate x a heate, it shall nether vexe the hearte, nor noysom to the liuer: wherfore this onlye can per­form the things that we haue spoken. When bur­ning water therfore or Aqua vitae reteininge hys purity and subtil matter: by the longe mocyon of circulaciō, hath put of and rid away his heat and sharpnes of taste and smell, it is becomed of the nature of the firmament: and then firste of all it smelleth swiet and fragantly. For a fragrāt smel is nothing els then a sharp smell when it is mo­derate. xx Example of peper, whiche hathe no fra­grante smell. &c. Therefore Aqua vitae, if it come once to a temperatnes, the thinnes and purity re­maining stil, it must nedes be made fragrāt and swiet smelling: and if it be once fragrant, it must necessarilye be turned into the nature of the fyr­mament. There is also a water made of the flesh tyrꝰ or an adder, that restoreth youthe: there is made olso of Elleborus, which I sawe at my fa­thers. But these vexe and vnquiet the body, and xxx make disceitful image and likelines of youth: the [Page 97] firmamentall water dothe it in dede, whiche re­teineth long that which a man hathe and adour­neth the same. But is the firmament more pure then the fire which is moste hot▪ It is surelye so: for it is next vnto the heauen, and therfore most lighte. For by his circulacion it moderateth the heat caused in it by the starres: and after ye same manner thys water, broughte to the moste puri­tye by the heat of the fire, by mocion it self is co­led again and obteineth a temper. Wherefore bo­the x this and the firmamente are as it were in a meane betwene mortal thinges and immortall. For hauing a place and temper, and also substāce next vnto the heauen, it can not be corrupte. But whiles it is constreined and driuen beneath, it is couled, and so after a lōg time it is corrupt. Ther fore it is in a meane betwixt mortal and immor­tal▪ (of which kind the Stoikes beleue mans soule to be.) Al this write Cardane.

The vertue of euery thing resteth in the quin­tessens xx therof, hot, cold, moyst, and dry. &c, and the same operacion it hath, which it had afore in his mixture or with his mater, but much more swift­ly, & more merueilouslye manye waies. After the destillacion vpon the lies certain times repeated, letting the water haue euer a new digestiō, eueri water ought alwaies to be circulated so longe in hors dōg or other wher, vntil it haue a most swit sauor. For such a fragrancy is required in euery quintessens. Somthings it is sufficiēt to destil thē xxx once or twise, and then circulate them & after a [Page 98] few daies, if any part of the earth or lies remain in the botō of the circulating vessel, to put it awai pouring it forth. The quintessens of wine wyll no more burn the mouth, nether is it burning wine any more, but more subtill, and is called heauen: wherunto we say his starres is added, when as herbes of diuers qualities, and such as be excel­lent againste diuers sicknesses, are sokte & stiept therin, as we shall shewe hereafter in Aqua vitae compounded. To be solificate or made goldē, is x when we procure the vertue of the sunne, that is, gold to be in it, as it is declared before, in the tre­tise of potable gold or gold that may be drounke. These thinges for the most part are out of Lul­lus boke of quintessens.

The quintessens of any medicine hathe a thou­sand times the greater vertue, then it had before, whiles the thing had yet the element in it. Vlsta.

Hovv the quintessens of all things xx may be drawn out, to minister them or the vertue of them, to mennes bodies: oute of the first boke of Lullus, intreatinge of quintessene.

THe quintessence of any thinge may be drawne out from it, as of wode, frutes, floures, rotes, leaues, sedes, stones, metals, fleshe, and of what spices a man will, in this sort.

Anye thinge that you wil separate the quintes­sence from, you shall put it into the quintessence of xxx wine (pure and perfect as is said before) and you [Page 99] shal set it forth to be solified & sonned in ye spring, or els in a vessel to a lighte fire, and within three houres you shall haue the quintessence of ye thing mixt with the quintessence of the wine, which shal be conuerted into such a nature as is of ye thinge that is put in, whether it be hot or cold, moyst or dry, purge or what other condiciō or smel so euer it be of: and it shal not only haue the same opera­cion, but also in the same degre, yt is nether more nor les. &c. After this he reherseth remedies one x by one which are hot in the first degre, then in the secōd, third & fourth: & likewise he maketh tables of cold, moist & dry things. Then he teacheth ge­nerally of ye degrees of remedies & of ye art of mixting the same. Last of all he addeth also tables & rehersals according to ye second qualities, as thei term thē all which we let passe, because we write vnto the learned & phisicions, nether is it conue­nient to confound the partes of sciences one with an other. Then in ye secōd boke for euery disease xx (those only that be most greuous and counted cō ­monly almost vncurable) he teacheth what remedies or medicins ought to be mixt with the quin­tessens. Rogerius Bacho also writ a little booke of the qualities & strengthes of Aqua vitae, through­out the .xii. signes according to the diseases from the head to the fete, adding waters and medicins according to the nature of euery part and disease, for one, one, for an other, an other. Thys booke some ascribe to Arnold de villa noua. xxx

Ihon Brasescus a man of our age moste exercy­sed [Page 100] in the misteries of the Arte of liquors, as hys writinges do testify, in a certain dialoge, the spe­kers whereof be Raymund Lullus and Demogorgon, (which ye author set forth in Italian, with an other also vpon the exposicion of the bokes of Ge­ber. Ihon Petreius at Norinberg Prynted them both in Latin withoute the authors name) affir­minge that quintessens whyche serueth for the conseruing and lengthening of mannes life, is not to be lokt for out of plants, beastes or precy­ous x stones, but of only metals: he wryteth thus. Raymund. Seing it is necessarye that this medi­cine should be vtterly vncorruptible, and in thys thinge it ought to passe and excede al things that haue any part of the elementes in them: it muste nedes be drawn out of such a matter as is moste far from all corrupcion, and leaste subiecte to the same. Demogorgō. Yet thou saidst in ye boke whi­che thou writst of the secrets of nature, yt it shuld be drawn out of red wine, ye same cōfirmeth Iohn xx de rupa scissa, other suppose it shuld be made of Celedonie, other wold take mans blud. Ray. Thou art not a litle deceiued, if thou think ye writinges of philosophers ought to be taken & vnderstāded according to ye bare letter, chiefly in this science, ye more clearly & plainly thei speke, so much ye more darknes haue their writings, for thei haue spokē by similitudes & ridles in ye darkest form of spech. Demo. In this thing what similitude haue they vsed? Ray. Senior the philosopher saith this medi­cine xxx is tourned and altered from coloure to co­loure, [Page 101] and from taste to taste, and from nature to nature: and therfore the names therof are multi­plied. Also Minois a philosopher, if a man aske (saieth he) why is it made rede before it receiued whyt: Answer, that it was twys made blacke, twys turnid into orrenge colour, and receiued twys red coloure. Seing nowe that it receiueth twys red coloure, as red wyne and mans bloud, that is to say, after the putrifaction and in the de­stillation: therefore the olde menne speakinge by x similitudes called it red wyne, mans bloud, & dra­gons bloud, and suche lyke, &c. A little after also he putteth those signes and tokens of quintessence now perfit, whiche Io. de Rupescissa doth: that is, that al men entring into the hous may be marnei lously allured vnto it set in a corner of the hous: & an other. that all birdes that perceine that swiet­nes of sauoure, may flocke together vnto it set in the top of a toure: this is expounded allegorically, that by the toure, the fornace set in a corner of the xx hous, may be vnderstanded, in. the whiche fornace a glas cōteining the matter to be decocted is put: by them that enter in to this hous, and by the byr­des yt fly vnto it, maye be signified those spirites and vapoures whiche by the vertue of heat are caried vpwarde and ascende aloft by the neck of the vessell or box: whiche when they are fastened and ascende no more, it is a token (saith he) that their watery moysture is now finished and the matter swietened, and the medicine ended. And in this xxx opinion Rasis also was. Thus saith he.


❧ Of the dravvyng out of the quint essence from wyne, out of Vlstadius and Raymund Lullus.

THou shalt take the best wyne thou canst get, what colour soeuer it be, let it be wyny rather then swiet, destill it .iiii. tymes in a lembeck, so as commonly burning water is made. If so be it, it be ofter destilled, it shalbe the better. To knowe when it is sufficiently destilled, you shal consider, x if it be set on fire in any vessell (of syluer or tyn) it will consume hoally, so that no moysture remain in the vessell. When it is therfor prepared in this wyse, let it be put into a pellicane, that is a vessell with eares or handles on ether


syde one, whiche also some call the vessell of Mercurius, by the hoal wherof in the top, the mat­ter that is to be circulated, may be put in and out. And when the xx vessell is diligently claied, and cemented with stif claye, by the often going vp and downe, the water shalbee turned into true quint essence. Then the wyne so destilled as we haue said, whan as it hath all the foure elemēts, yet by the oft mouing agitacton and going vp and downe, it passeth and is turned from corruptible into almost vncorruptible. If so be it that by the often ascention and descention of destillation, the xxx grosse from the subtill, the inpure from the pure [Page 103] is separated, how muche more doth it come to pas in a still where it is tossed vp & downe a thousand thousand times. By this mouing therfore, it is to be supposed, that an elementall matier is turned in to a substance voyd of all elementes and a body incorruptible, so that this quint assence is of so muche the further from the corruption of a body that hath parte of the elementes in it, as the heauen it selfe is more vncorruptible thē the foure elemēts. But when this circulation is many times done, x at length let the hoal that is in the top be opened: whereas you shal know by the moste precious and swiet smell, whether any part of the .iiii. elements remain, not conuerted yet in to quint essence. For if it be perfitly done, there will issue forth a moste fragrant and pleasant smell, so excellent that they that fele it, shal thinke them selue to be rapt from the earth into heauen, and to haue the fruicion of a certain heauenly sauoure. This vapour if it chaunce to insinuate it selfe into some close place xx of the hous, it shall so fill the hous full, that thou shalt thinke thou neuer feltest any thinge more swete, more pleasaunt or better smelling, a maruei lous thing to be spoken and almoste incredible.

If it be set in the top of a toure, it will allure all kynde of byrdes vnto it, that be there aboute. But if that excellent grace of sauoure appeare not yet, then thou shalt shytte it close againe in to the Pe­lecane, & when it is diligētly clayed, fet it in again to the circulating destillation, vntill the perfit xxx quint essence it selfe appeare, or els as Raymundus [Page 104] in his first boke the second chapter, calles it quick Mercury. And it hath not only that moste excellent sauour and tast, but also a certain vncorruptible nature to be occupied aboute other medicines.

And surely it hath no brentnes in the mouth as aqua vitae, nether any moysture or fleame, bycause all the earthy & elementall matter is settled down to the bottome.

Hovv qvint essence may be dravven x out more easely and with les cost, for poore mens sakes, out of the same.


PVtt Horsse dung A in great & dee­pe vessell B or in a pitte made for this purpose: and in midst of the dunge set xx the still, C full vntill two third parts of the matter to be destilled, so that the third parte remaine withoute the dung empty, that the matter may ascende & descende, and so to bee turned into cleare water. But the dung must be renued once at the least euery wieke. The same xxx may be done in the drose of vynes that remaine [Page 105] after they be prest in the wine haruest: or els in the dog daies with the sunne. It is possible also to draw quintessens out of troubled, vnclean and corrupte wine, if it be not sower or like Vineger: For we see euen of corrupt wine, if it grewe in a good place, althoughe it be troubled and of an ill taste, yet verye good Aqua vitae maye be destyl­led therout.

There is also an other waye to drawe it oute without fire and labor. Take Aqua vitae the best x you can finde: put it in a glasse


with a longe necke, in the toppe wherof must be a hole, why the oughte to be closed and stopped with waxe prepared according­ly (as Vlstadius techeth after in the tēth chapter.) Then let it be turned vpside downe, and with the neck let it be put into the dung, so the grosser matter shall settle and lie in the bottome of the xx still, whiche when it shall be a longe time buryed in the dung, at length shalbe drawn out by it gē ­ [...]lely, in the form, as it is put in. Then shalt thou see the separacion of the pure from the impure, & the subtil from the grosse: For all the groser mat­ter shalbe about the necke of the glasse. Therfore with a fine pen k [...]ife, and a sharp, thou shalt bore through the wax vnto the water, & when the pen knife is drawne out, the grosser matter shall run out which was setled in the necke. When thys is xxx cleane run oute vnto the subtil and pure matter, [Page 106] that is, the very quintessente, stop the hoole wyth thy finger & turn the glas vpright. So hast thou quintessence, but les precious then thother afore. In like manner may burninge water be put in a glasen vessell, not turned, but buried vprighte in dunge for a certaine space. After by streinynge may you separate the groser mater which is set­led to the bottome, from the pure that is aboue: but this is yet les precyus. Notwithstanding it draweth out all the vertues of the herbes, and o­ther x matters, wherefore it is not to be set lighte by. There maye also other wayes be inuented, but I commende wyth all my harte, vnto al men the firste waye, as the best and most excellent: it is no great labour and light cost, nether shal you repent your self ether of the one or of thother: for you shall finde a treasure wyth a greate gaine. These writes Vlstadius the .viii. chap.

After thys he addeth the waye howe to drawe oute quintessence oute of newe wine, yet hot in the xx vessell in haruest, whiche is done wythoute anye harme to the wine, whiche for shortnes sake, and because it is not touched of other authors (as far as I know▪ except perauenture of Lullus) I wil let it passe.

In vvhat places Vlstadius in his heauen, teacheth to drawe out diuers quint essences. xxx

[Page 107] HOw the quint essence of wine is drawn forth, wherin golde may be resolued to make potable Golde, or Golde to be drunke .xi. chapter.

Howe the quint essence of hony is drawn forth, whiche is put into the confection of potable gold xii. chapter.

Quint essence of Chelidonia. xiii. chapter.

Ofmans blud, egges, flesh. &c .xiiii. chapter

Of apples, peares and other frutes. xv chap. x

Of flours, herbs, and rotes .xvi. chapter.

Of antimonium. xvii. chapter.

And of the same euerye one thou shalt rede in Lullus, in his first boke of quint essence.

Quint essence of wine som cal quick Mercury, som heauen, and the key of philosophers, this (as men say) doth extract and drawe oute within the space of .iiii. hours, the vertue and strengthe of e­uery thing that is stiept therin.

Ihon Brasescus, by red wine, wherout quintes­sence xx should be drawn, supposeth somthinge el [...]se should be vnderstanded and some metally thing, as we mēcioned afore, wheras we intreated ge­nerally of quintessence.

A merueilous vvater that hathe a contrary operation to Aqua vitae which may be called cold quint essence.

THe flours of samoncus elder, y flours of hors houf, which groweth vppon waters hauing xxx great leues & the flour of giluū (otherwise y flour [Page 108] of nenuphar, which I think to be true, and so doth Rogeriꝰ interpretate it) of ether of them a pound. Purslan sede, lettis sede, of ether .iii. poūd, (other wise half a poūd) of the leaues of salonum night­shade .ii. sru (otherwise as muche of nighteshade as of al thother.) Al these must be taken grene & destilled .vii. times & kept diep in ye erth in a glas. This water whē it waxeth hot in the sun about midday, it wil make glasses, or thin wodden ves­sels, the images or shel of egges to flie in the aire x (this place semeth to be corrupt & depraued, or els the thing to be false.) If a cloth be wet in it & cast into ye fire, it wil lepe out of the fire without harm and what so euer is dipte in it, it will not suffer the heat of the fire. Nether shal that cloth be hurt by fire that is moystened in this water: If Aqua vitae be sprinkled vpon it, & then cast it into ye fire, or set it on fire with a candle: it wil burne but not cōsume nor waste, nether leue any sign of burnt­nes in ye cloth. If so be it part of this water, when xx the sun shineth hot, be put in a dishe or boule, and thrown into thair with a strinkle, it will make a great cloude and thicke sodenly, and mitigateth the heat of the sunne for a great space. It staun­cheth the floures of wemen: it kepeth a man from sweating: it stirreth vp the appetite: it putteth a­way the head ache, speciallye that cometh of a hot cause, or by the heat of the sunne. It vtterly staū ­cheth and putteth awaye cleane the Canker. To conclude, it hath manye and great vertues: for it xxx is medicinable in hot causes, as Aqua vitae in cold [Page 109] Wherfore the vse therof is good in all agues as well hoat as burning agues: in all hoat diseases, and grieues of the eyen and head, that cōmeth of heat: also againste the irkesumnes and lothsum­nes of the stomack: for the diseases called Lupus, and the fistula, and the pain of the syde, & the heat of the priuy members through the act of genera­tion, and all diseases aboute thies priuy partes, what hot causes so euer thei cum of. And after the deliueraunce of wemen, it is very proffitable if a x cloth be dipt in it and laid vpon the wombe or mother, (the preuy place) and vpon the place where the grief is, if the grief be outward: if it be inward then take some of it and mynister it by the way of a glister. If ther be any fault in the stomack, take of it morning and euening half an egge shell full▪ If a mans yard be sore within, let therof be con­ueied in by a pype for that purpose. Against the obstructions and stoppinges of the liuer & splene and other diseases of hoat causes, wette a linnen xx cloth therin and lay it to the diseased syde thrys a day: for it purgeth the bloud very greatly. but you must take good hede that the cloth that is moyste­ned therwith roole not vpon the stomack, nor cum nye it.

A certain water in Raymund Lullus booke of waters, semeth to be of the lyke operation, which he describeth in this wyse. A water compounded accordinge to the contrary of Aqua vitae: Take whyte Camphora, roses, whyt pople and blacke, xxx lettis, cichory, porsulane, violets, Solanū or night [Page 110] shade, maidenhear, cymbalaris, singrene, vermicu­laris, rostrum porcinum, cardicellum. The leaues that be to be punned, let them be punned and de­stilled.

Of the extracting and dravvyng forth of all the vertues of Chelidonia or selandine: by the whiche example, euery man of any vnderstanding, may vse to drawe out the vertues x also of other planetes.

BY the quint essence of selandin, Ioan. Brasescus thinkes sumwhat els to be allegorically vnderstāded, as I declared before wher we entreated of quint essence generally.

Chelidonia, Selādin (saith Vlst.) hath innumerable vertues: and the quint essence therof, which we wil teache here to get out, goeth xx to the making of potable gold or gold that may be drunck. Selandine when it is moste rype, take it with the herbe, routes and floures, cut it small & beate it in a morter, then put it in a cucurbitam or body of a still of earth glased: when the body is ful shit it close, and clay it round aboute, then set it in now hors dung, for the space of iii. weekes. After put it in a limbeck and destill it in Balneo Mariae, with a slow fyre, and the fleame shall auoyde out of it. Then shall you drawe out the dregges, and xxx when they are very fine ground vpon a marble [Page 111] stone, put thē again in a cucurbita with a blynde lymbeck, and let them stand in Balneo Mariae a se­uennight, or in hors dung mo daies. Afterwarde the matter by litle and litle being couled put on a nosed limbeck, and destill it in ashes, according as in the .x. chap. of the separation of oyle from the earth, we haue spoken: and there shall issue oute a clear water conteining in it selfe aire and water. Thou shalt separate the water from the aire in a new cucurbita by Balneo Mariae, with an easy fire: x for the fleam shall ascende and the oyle remayne, whiche thou shalt reserue and kepe. Then shalt thou grynde the dregges agayne vpon a marble stone, and power .iiii. partes of the fleam to one of the dregges, mixt them, and incorporate thē, and let them stande in Balneo Mariae seuen days at the last thou halt destill thē in sand with a great fire, and the fleame shall issue oute first, then a radishe water, or rather an oyle, whiche is the element of fyre, from the whiche thou shalte separate the xx fleame in Balneo Mariae, as is before sayde. But the dregges that left, whiche conteyne nothinge els but earth, must bee vrged with a stronge fyre and brought vnto lyme, by the space of ten daies. (that is in a fornace of calcination or reuerbera­tion, or a very lyme kiln, as I haue taught in the tenth chap.) Then grynd them again vpon a marble stoone and sooke them in the fleame, and lette them be destilled in a limbeck, vntill you see in the matter lyttle whyte stoones lyke salt. And xxx this salt must againe bee dissolued with water, [Page 112] out of whiche you haue destilled it, and after, you shall destill it again, and againe so ofte, vntill the earth chaunce and put away from it all vncleane and earthy colour, & be brought to a very whyte (to the whytnes of wax) and so it shalbe rectified earth. The other elementes also ought to be recti­fied, so that euerye one bee destilled seuen tymes, powring euery time the fleam to the aire and fier, and after separating them as is afore said. When as thou wilt do this an easier way, dissolue euery x elemēt with his own water by equall portiōs, &c. whiche I let pas, bycause they are declared sum­what obscurely. There is also an other way more subtill, to reduce euery element to his perfection or quintessence, but it must be presupposed that e­uery element be first iustified. Then let it be put in a vessel of circulation in hors dung or in Balneo Mariae. xxx. daies, and then destill it againe. So shall the very body as a gros matter be chaunged into spirite or moste subtill and pure substance. xx Sum do it with more ease, taking foure partes of earth, and one part of one of the foure elements whiche a man wil, and by digesting, after the for­said maner, and circulating .xxx. daies, they dooe chaunge any element into quintessence. The mat­ter is iudged to be sufficiētly circulated, whan the quintessence swimmeth aboue the other matter.

Of the vertues of euery one of the liquors of Selandine. The element of the water is good for al the diseases of the body, both hoat & cold. It tem­pereth xxx also al the veines about the hart, and dri­ueth [Page 113] all ve nom from the hart: it cureth al the dis­eases that chaunce vnto the lunges. It purgeth the bloud, and preserueth a man from all corrup­tion of the natural strength and power. At once, it is good for all sicke men in what disease so euer they be.

The element of air, like vnto oyle, confirmeth and encreaseth the strength and beauty of yong persons, if they vse it sometimes with meate, for it letteth the bloud frō corrupting by any menes. x It burneth vp, consumeth and expelleth all salte fleame: it taketh away melancholy and all brent­nesse of cholor.

The elemēt of fire, if so much as a wheat corn in quantity be mixt with the best wine ye can get and poured into a sick mans mouthe, yea if he be half dead, it restoreth and refresheth al the strēg­thes of the body: for it perceth vnto the hart, and maketh it warme: and expelleth all poysons and moist superfluities from the hart. Lullus with the xx quint essence of wine mixeth a little drop of thys oyle, to restore thē that are about to die, and past al hope, in that within the .xx. part of an hour.

Som draw out the quint essence frō Selandine an other way and shorter. They cut Selandine together with the rote and flour in smal peces they wey it, & pouring wel water vpon it, they sethe it til it be brought to the same weighte. Then they pun it in a stone morter, and when the iuyce is streined out through a linnen clothe and purged xxx from the dregges, they decoct and sieth the resttil [Page 114] it be ad consistenciam mell is as thick as hony. Af­ter, they put it in a cucurbita so that it be half full, & by destillacion in Balneo Mariae, they gather ye water or fieme. Then translating the vessel into ashes, they receiue the aiery oyl, wherupon when they se an other kind of oyl swim aboue (the fyre being encresed) they set vnder an other receiuing vessel, wherin the element of fire is gathered. E­uery one of these liquors must be rectified, that it may be mete for the medicins of mans bodi, that x is, by the repetinge the destillacion .vii. times: of the water or fleme in Balneo Mariae, so yt at euery time the cucurbita be diligentlye washed, (made cleane) from the dregges which remaine, whiche ought to be mixt wt the element of thearth, which remaineth in the bottome of the cucurbita after ye destillation of ye fiery liquor. Likewise thou shalt rectify thair, destilling it in ashes .vii. times, mix­ting the dregs with thearth. Afterward ye liquor of fire likewise. The earthy matter, in such ma­ner xx as is said afore in the other fashion. To these thinges thus dressed, they attribute y same ver­tues yt we rehersed afore, to euerye one of them: which it nedeth not to repete: onlye those thinges wherin they differ, we wil rehers. The waterye liquor of Selandine putteth away al heats & poi­sons out of y brest. It is good for the stoppinges of the liuer and lunges: for it consumeth ye super­fiuous humors & fleme: Ty cōclude, it deliuereth a mā within the space of .ix. daies, free frō all in­firmities. xxx The aierye liquor suffereth no blacke [Page 115] choler, no bitter, nor fleme in ye body to get ye moi­sture. It encreseth blud, & destributeth it into all the partes of the body by his pearcing. Wherfore they that vse this oyle, do let blud the ofter. If a mā be in ieoperdy [...]f losing of an eie, let him drop in a drop or .ii. therof euerye daye by the space of xxx. dais, & it shal do him merueilus much good. The firye liquor is muche more effectuous then the watry or aiery, & helpeth where they fayle. It conserueth the youthe, it maketh age liuelye and x youthful, it refresheth ye hart, & being receiued wt water of a kind of whete, it is saide to be elipir of life. Moreouer ye earthy matter rectified by dissoluciōs, coagulations & ielyings: calinatiōs & sub til salt of ye erth, wherwith al metals may be tur­ned into stone, & al spirits may be fixed: hauynge radicable & naturall moisture. It norisheth lepre mē. Of this ye aunciēt philosophers made a stone which they called ye philosophers stone. The ma­ner to receiue y for said liquors within the bodi is xx thus. Three drops of ye fire of Selādine, iii. spone­ful of rosewater, put to it a litle sponeful of y san­guin air (y is the liquor of the air) & geue it to be drunken fasting, if the disease be hot, with wine: and if the man be past .xxiiii. yeres of age geue it him wt Aqua vite. In hot agues it ought not to be taken in no wise. Al this writeth Vlstadius.

Of drawing out the four elementes from Se­laudine and bay leaues, reade also Io. Ganiuetus booke, whych is entituled Amicus medicorum, a xxx frend and a louer of phisicions. 4. chap. 7,

Hovv quint essence is dravvn out of frutes, as Appels, Peres, plummes, Cheries, Chestnuts. &c. out of Vlstadiꝰ.

WHen the fri [...]te is small cut and stampte in a stone morter, mixte it wyth the .x. part of common salt. Then put it in a cucurbita with a blind limbeck, and set it in hors dung, as is said afore of mans blud. &c

Oute of Floures, herbes, x and rootes.

GAther the Plantes, when they be well ripened, in faire weather, in the spring of the mone: and when it is almost at ye ful, wash them and cut thē very lmall: beate them in a morter of marble with the tenthe part of salt, and thou shalt sower them in a circu­lating vessel or blind limbek, in hors dunge for ye space of a month. Then shalt thou destill them in xx a nosed limbeck in Balneo Mariae, encreasyng the first fire to the third degre. Thē take the dregges out of the cucurbita, and grineding thē very smal poure the destilled water vpon them againe, and when they are putrified in dung again as before at the length thou shalt destil them, deminishing the fire by the half degre. Then grind the dregs again. &c. as before, and when thou destillest thē again, deminishe and lesson the fyre, yet also by ye halfe degre. The putrefaction also must alwaies xxx decrease by the half degre: that is to say, like as in [Page 117] the second digestion, it may be putrified by y space of one and twenty daies, in the third .xiiii. daies, in the fourth .viii. daies. When the fourth destillation is done, put it in a circulating vessell (close a­boue and beneth and large, na­rowe


in the midst, with a short byl holow coming out of the vp­per part of the nether bely, loo­king vpward) and let it be dige­sted in dung or a bath with a fire x of the first degre, or els in y sun, or in the dros of grapes, by the space of a moneth. The water shall be so muche the more precious, ye oftener it is destilled. And so hast y quint essence: which not withstanding shalbe the more effectual if thou shalt destil the water of the herbes, seedes, or routes: and poure it again vpon his owne dre­ges, then digest it by the space of seuen daies, and afterwarde destill it by ashes, the very same way as it is sayd afore of selandin that euery element xx may be had seuerally, and that rectified.

Of quint essence of mans bloud, egges, fleshe, and hony.

HOwe quint essence is gotten out of mās bloud, egges, and fleshe, reade Vlstadi' the xiiii. chap. They put vnto them the tenth part of salt, wherwith they ar wel mingled, putrified and destilled and that four ty­mes, xxx by cours, first the one then the other: and at [Page 118] length they are perfited by long circulation, vntil they come to the moste swietnes of sauoure, and pure fynnes of substance: Lullus also in his first booke the .iiii. chap. mencioneth of quint essence, but the printed bookes left out that, that salt must be added vnto it. It semeth that salt may ryghtly be added to the destilling of moyste thinges, spe­cially those that woulde easely corrupte, suche as chiefly the partes of beastes are.

A moste precious water of Albertus magnus, as x I found it in a certain wryten booke. Destill the bloud of a healthfull man, by a glas, as men dooe rose water. With this, any disease of the body, if it be anoynted therewith, is made hoale, and all in­warde diseases by the drinking thereof. A small quantitie therof receiued, restoreth thē that haue lost all their strength: it cureth the palsey effectu­ously, and preserueth the body from all sicknes. Tobe short it healeth all kyndes of diseases. All be it I can nether allow the making of medicines xx for men of mans bloud, whiche although reason and experience would moue vs vnto it, yet religiō semeth to forbid it, namely when there is so many other medicines. &c. Nether yet do I lyke the pre­paration of this Albertus water, if it be his, when as he wylles it to be destylled only once and sim­pely. The composition that followeth hath more reason with it, whiche I founde also in the same written booke.

Holy oyle or lyfe oyle (bycause it preserueth xxx the lyfe of man) of Hevve Gordones, wherewith [Page 119] he cured many mooste greuous diseases: Three pounde of read bloud of a helthfull man or helth­full men of .xxv. or thyrty yeare olde, Spermaceti, the mary of neet of ether a pounde: Lette them be destilled in a lymbeck well clayed and closed, and a water shall issue oute first whyte, the next pale, the thyrde yellowe, the fourth read, and sumwhat thycke. An oyle so destylled, when the moone en­creaseth and decreaseth, therefore they name it holy. If so be it then gyue a sycke man that hath x loost boeth all his strengthe and speeche, three dropes with a lyttle wyne, he shall bothe speake by and by and be stronger. If a man euerye daye drynke a drop of this oyle with a sponfull of wyn, he shall become lusty in mynde and strong in bo­dy throughoute all his membres, and shall pro­roge and put of age very longe, and shall be hurt with no poyson. It cureth also fistulas, old brea­ches and temporall byles, if they become sum­what drye before with the washyng of wyne. xx Anoynt freshe woundes therewith and it healeth them in three dayes. It cureth the fyges or blai­nes of the fundament without and within.

It healeth diuers diseases, the Leprosy, the Morphew, the Palsy and other, if a man fastyng drynke a droppe of it with whyte wyne. Many boaste muche of mannes bloud sublimated, as a certayne man Bartholomevve de Montaguana, made at Padua, but surely he was ignoraunt howe to prepare it, whiche if thou wylt vse, make xxx it on this wyse.

[Page 120] Take the bloud of sanguin yong mē vsing a good diet whyles it is newly letten, and let it stande a whyle, and put away the water that swymmeth aboue, thē with a litle salt punned chauf it a good and put it in a vessell well closed and clayed, after set it in hors dung fortie daies. At the length de­still it certaine tymes, euer powring the water a­gaine vpon the dregs. At the last thou shalt haue a marueilous water, which being mixt with sum zulapio (ielup as we call it) is wonderfull proffi­table x to them that haue the hecticall feuer. It shal be ye better if after it be destilled you put it to stiep again in hors dung fortie daies. A man may also mixt other holsome medicines for the hectical per­sones, together with the bloud. Gnaynerius.

To draw out the foure elementes from mans bloud, read the booke of Ioh. Geniuetus called the friend of physicions. 4. 7.

Of mans bloud destilled simpely, read Brun­svvick, in the duche booke of destillaciōs. He wri­teth xx that this water, and the water of mans excrementes and ordure, if they be mixt together, will bryng to pas certain marueylous thinges. My hart riseth against suche medicines and abhor­reth them.

Io. Bracescus, is of this opinion that the olde wryters woulde signify allegorically some other thing, & that of metall, when they speake of mans bloud: as I recited before, wher I write of quint essence generally. Vlstadius in the .x. chap. of his xxx booke called the Heauen of philosophers, wher he [Page 121] teacheth how quint essence of wine is made, euery element drawne out apart by him self: And thys (sayth he) which is destilled in the seuenth time, is called mannes bloude, whiche the destillers, chieflye searche, and it is verye ayre. This saithe he. In deede the liquor of the aire, whiche in the mooste parte of destilled thinges is oylye, semeth to be called by the name of mans bloude, for as much as our bodye consisteth of foure hu­mors as elements, wherof the blud is compared x to air, hot, moyst, & somwhat fat [...]y &c. But Ihon Brasescus, mans blud is a certain metally thing, so called of the color.

For the extracting and drawinge out of quint essence from honi, which goeth to y making of po­table gold, read Vlstadius the .xii. chap. and .xxii. whereas he prescribeth also diuers waies to ga­ther thre maner of waters, and reherseth the ver­tues, wherof he spake nothinge in the .xii. chap. & declared to get out only two diuers waters. xx

Of quint essence of metals.

IHon Brasescꝰ in the dialog of Raimund and Demogorgon, when he had affyr­med that quint essence whiche is profi­table to the preseruacion and lenge­thening of mannes life, can not be had of anye o­ther thing thē of metals only, he addeth at lēgth. When as accordinge to the opinion of the aunci­ent philosophers, euery metall after theyr simi [...]i­tude, xxx vertue, name, coloure and proprietie are cō ­prehended [Page 122] in euery metall, as it is plainly decla­red, in the boke of the expositiō of Gebrus bokes: therfore this our medicin also although it be ex­tracted and drawn out of som one metal only, yet neuertheles it shall haue the vertue of al metals and plantes, and the vertue ouer the hole bodye of man to heale manye infirmities that be cura­ble. Ioan de Rupescissa speking of our radical and naturall moisture, and of quint essence vnder the name of Aqua vitae, wolde signify the same, for he x saith that burning water doth conteine in it selfe the good vertue of all metals, and that it is not the water of the vine, but of life, because it geueth life vnto men. He that will knowe more of thys thing and more plainly, let him read the dialoge of the same Brasescus, wherein he expoundeth Gebrus.

Of the dravving out of quint essence from Antimonia, lead, white lead out xx of Vlstadius.

QVint essence of antimonio is thus made. In­corporate and mingle the pouder of antimo­nii most finely beaten, with most sharpe vineger destilled, and let it stande til the vineger be tour­ned into a very red colour. Then driue the vine­gar oute, and in a cleane vessell put other destil­led vinegar vppon the antimonium, and set ouer a little fyre till the vineger be colored▪ This shal you repete so ofte, till the vinegar will be colored xxx no more. So much of the vinegar as is colored, [Page 123] thou shalt destill it in a limbecke in ashes. Firste the vineger it selfe will run oute, after thys thou shalt see a matter issue forthe of a thousande cou­loures, and thys is that quint essence whyche is called of the Philosophers. Philosophers leade, and of some virgines milke (it differeth notwith­standinge from it, whereof shall be spoken here after, saithe Vlstadius) & it is almoste like blessed oyle in coloure. Put thys in a Pellican to be cir­culated for the space of fortye dayes. It dryeth x vp woundes, and is profitable for all woundes in steade of Balme, for it cureth all woundes ea­selye and quicklye: it is merueilous good for all impostumes.

Yea also quint essence is extracted and drawn oute of leade or white leade after the same man­ner as out of antimonio, pouringe destilled vine­ger vpon it, that the vineger be ouer it foure fyn­gers deepe: after let it be digested in dunge, as it is sayde of quint essence of hearbes and floures. xx Then let it be destilled and fyrste ye shall see the vineger it selfe ascende vp: after that a certaine liquor like to oyle. And thys also is called oyle of lead or quint essence of leade: and it hathe in it a certaine swietnesse lyke▪ as the oyle of antimonii. It is good againste all burnynges wyth fyre and hot water, as also againste itches, as ringe­wormes and chollericke bladders.

But a manne muste noote, that the white lead oughte firste to bee washed often with water xxx of Rooses, dreiuynge it by a linnen clothe. [Page 124] vntil none of the pouder of the white lead remain in it. Then whē it is dried, reserue it to your vse. So doth Bulcasis & Ioan of Sanct Amandus vpon the Andidotarie of Io. Mesuae, wil to be done.

Of the drawing forth of quint essence out of di­uers metals, as golde, siluer, lead tin, vitriol, or coproos, iron, coper, brimston, read orpment, ya­low ocker, antimonio and marcha [...]ta leaden, who so listeth, let him read in Lullius in his booke of quint essence. x

The spirit or quint essence of vitriol is cōmen­ded of certaine men against the falling sicknesse, and Apoplexia or the benumninge of the sences. The spirit of gold against the diseases of the ly­uer. The spirit of [...]irall againste the stone of the raines and bledder. But of these and certaine o­ther we shall speake hereafter amongste oyles of metals and otherwhere.

Of diuers kindes of Aqua xx vitae composed.

VVAters of life composed are proprelye called, when as certaine medicins are stieped in the veri Aqua vitae and destil­led together, improperly when as they are put to after & not destilled together. Ther be also waters of vertue or golden (as they cal thē) when as the medicins stieptfirst not in Aqua vitae but in wine, but of which we wil write hereafter: xxx & certain of these haue many things commun wt [Page 125] those that we describe here: sauing that they are les vehement and les hoat and drye.

Sum sortes of aqua vitae are commaūded to be made simpely, putting the medicines into y aqua vitae: other into aqua vitae thrys or foure tymes de­stilled. Sum there bee also to whome a certaine tyme of infusion or digestiō is prescribed, as. xiiii daies. &c. Sum are put in punned in the begin­ning▪ other hoal, and broken after a certain daies fermentacion and stieping. Sum are destilled on x ly once: other twys or thrys. And sum only in Balneo Mariae: other in Balneo Mariae once ortwys & thirdly in ashes, as that which Vlsta. describeth xlvi. chap. although there is nothing elles done but infusiō in wyne. In the same authour .xliiii. chap. Aqua vitae is described to be destilled thrys, the first water wherof is called Blessed, the secōd Aqua vitae, the third, the mother of balm. Againe the destillatiō of certain is repeted twys or thrys, that the water first destilled, be always powred xx again vpon his groundes or dregges, as Vlstad. teacheth in the .xlix. and .lvi. chap. Also sum are commaunded to be drawen out with a slow fyre in Balneo Mariae. Other in the same with a strong fyre, as the the water described in Vlstadius. xlvi. chap. Many tymes in the first destillacion, only freshe herbes, and freshe seedes are put with the aqua vitae: and dry swiet smelling thinges, spyces and other, also hony is added after to the water drawen out of the herbes or seedes, and then are xxx they destilled again: afterward amber, moske and [Page 126] camphora put vnto it, thirdly, folding the limbeck euery fote with moyst clothes with the whytes of egges and bran together. Reade Vlstad. li. chap. and .lvi. Concerning the matter, none almoste is composed without spices: vnto diuers also swiet smelling herbes are added: vnto some, bothe the flowers and the siedes, sumtymes also other de­stilled waters: Also malmsey, hony, sugar, figes. To conclude, vnto some hoale peces of golde: I suppose it to be added in vain except it be quēshed x in the liquor. But all thies thinges shall appeare more plain by examples. Vlstadius described .xiiii. kindes of aqua vitae composed, whiche we let pas because of breuitie & shortnes. We reade in Vlsta. the .liii. chap. of aqua vitae, with spices and hony, &c to be destilled in Balneo Mariae, and an other lyke­wyse, but without hony, the .liiii. chap.

Vlstadius describeth a certain marueilous aqua vitae in the .lvi. chap. First he bids to digest diuers freshe and new medicines, in Balneo Mariae. xiii. xx daies, in aqua vitae powred vnto them: then to bee destilled in ashes with a slow fire. After he addeth spyces and other dry thinges: and bids digest thē xiiii. daies: and destill them again in Balneo Ma­riae. Afterward he added camphoram, rhabarb, sa­fron, amber and mosch. If so be it (saith he) thou wilt haue the water yet better, put vnto it certain precious and costly powders or spyces of confec­tions made of amber, made of mosen, made of pre­cious stones. &c. and a fewe ducates of the fynest xxx gold, with halfe a pounde of sugar: and thou shalt [Page 127] digest it three daies in warm water of Balneo Ma­riae, afterwarde destill it by a filtrum or list of wol­len cloth in croked glases well clayed, so that the one glas stand higher then the other. And this (saith he) is the moste excellent Aqua vitae amōgst all other.

An aqua vitae, whiche may be a remedy against the moste part of diseases, put rosemary, cinamō, ge­loflowers, ginger, and maces, and two or three peces of gold, (whiche will bee neuer a whit the x wors for being thus vsed) into aqua vitae, foure ty­mes destilled. Vse this water .iiii. tymes destil­led, morning and euenyng before slepee. It dry­ueth awaye dyuers kyndes of diseases, and re­storeth youthe.

What aqua vitae can dooe, wherein rosemary is stieped, see hereafter where we make mencion of oyle of rosemary.

Take three vnces of Dianthos made with su­gar, put it in three poundes of wyne, three dayes, xx or in water of wyne, destilled once for olde men, (that is, that whiche cummeth furth first, not that whiche runneth last) moreouer lette it be destil­led by a Filtrum. Sum destil it in a lymbeck, and keepe it vnto their vse. Sum mixt the thyrd parte of Rosatae nouellae, that they may asswage the heat and dryth of the Dianthos.

An aqua vitae against pestilence. Take Rewe, Sage, the floures of lauendula, maioran, worm­wod, rosemary, red roses, blessed thistle, pimper­nell, xxx Tormentill valerian, the beryes of Iuniper, [Page 128] beries of baies, terrae sigil. (that is groūd sill) bole armoniack prepared, of euery one two drames. Dictamni, angelica, bistorta the bark of citron, me­lissa commonly called baulm, zeduaria, inulae cam. gentian, rhaponticum or centory, of euery one thre drames. Coriander prepared, flowers of borage, buglose, sandali or saunders whyt and red, the sede of sorell, basill, rewbarbe, ben whyte and read, the graines of paradisi, peper, of euery one a dram and a halfe: ginger two drammes. Cinnamon, saffrō, x spyces of confections against pestilence, electuarii liberatis, lectuarii of precious stones, diamoschi y is swiet, diacameron diambre, diarhodon abbatis, laetificantis Almansoris, of euery one a dram. Cala­mi arom, egloflowers, maces, nutmegges, cubeba rum, cardamomi galingall, agallochi, of euery two scrup. The bon of the hart of a hart, spiknard, cam phora, of euery one halfe a dram, eight leaues of gold, half a scrup of mosch, chosen triacle .iiii. vn­ces, Mithrida [...]ii two vnces. Sublimated and rec­tified xx wyne two quartes. Destill thē in a limbeck.

Aqua vite against pestilence, proued and vsed with great and marueilous succes by a certain physicion of our tyme of Solodurn in Heluetia the yere of our Lord. 2547. In so much that scarsly euery tenth of them that receiued it, died.

TAke the best perles, Hyacinct of the east, mo­ther xxx of perles, corall whyte and read, of euery [Page 129] one .ii. ounces, halfe an ounce of the horne of an vnicorn, saffron, mirhe, Boli armon, terrae sigilla­tae, zedoriae, Venetae, wode of aloes, euory, Mithridatii, triacle of Alexandria, chosen cinnamon ben white and red, the barke of a citron and the sedes of euery one two ounces, al sortes of saunders, of euery one an ounce & a half. The litle bones of ye harte of a hart .xii. of them, the kirnels of peony, beries of iuniper, of ether .xl. Conserue of buglos ii. ounces. The rotes of tormentil, cōmon dictāni, x inulae, astrantia, selandine, cōmon Lybistici, mor­sus diaboli, ari. Valeriane, that kind of Saxifrage whiche the Germans call bibinel, angelica, of the rotes of euerye one of these hearbes .ii. ounces. Sage, Scabious, Rew, wild mint, peny royall, the les centauri, Wormwode, white Rooses and Red, of euerye one a handfull. Liquors destilled of Rosemary, Gentian, Melissa or baulme, Betain wilde Roses, sonchos or cicerbita, called sowthi­stle, or gose thistle of the Dutch menne, or blessed xx thistle, hyssope, floures of Burrage, bigger plan­taine, floure Deluice, of euerye one .v. ounces. These thus gathered together, take the liquors of them destilled in Balneo Mariae accordinglye, and mingle them with the best old Elseter wine, or rather wyth .iiii. poundes of Aqua vitae. vi. ti­mes destilled, put them in a stronge cucurbita of glasse, that wil hold .iiii. good ale quartes, which thou shalt claye well and let it stande in Balneo Mariae. iiii. daies. Afterwarde, then thou shalt xxx burne the hyacinctes, coralles, Pearles and mo­ther [Page 130] of perles into pouder, as men do lim, & grind them vpon marble diligently, til thou canst fele no roughnes in the pouder. Put thys pouder into some vessell, and make it with Rose water into a liquor, & what so euer remaineth sharp or rough, which is not mixt with the water, grinde it again, and wash it the second time. A man maye resolue the coralles into water when they are once pund or ground, setting them in the iuice of Berberies, which way is better thē the other. After this beat x the rotes meanly, and likewise the sedes of the iu­niper and paeony the herbes thou shalt cut. After­warde put the herbes, rotes, and precious stones moystened and made liquid with the Rose water, into a strong glasen cucurbita, that will holde sixe great ale quartes, there about I ges .vi. Dutche mooses to bee, which I thinck he meaneth by Mē ­suras,) and pour vpon them the Aqua vitae whych is dygested wyth the destylled liquors in Balneo Mariae, and when the cucurbita is defended & clo­sed xx round about with clay of wisdom, put it into a pit digged in a moyst place, as in som celler vnder thearth .ii. cubits diep, iiii. cubites or there aboute wide and lōg, which thou shalt fil with hors dūg and lime strawed and laid by courses, now one lai er of the one, now an other of the other, til it be .ii. fote aboue the pit. In the midst hereof thou shalt let the cucurbita stand for a monthe, then take the dung away by little and litile: and the matter whiche it conteineth to be destilled, thou shalt de­stribute xxx it into .vi. les cucurbitas, and destil them, [Page 131] in Balneo Mariae, with so slow a fire, that from the falling of one drop, til the falling of an other, thou maiste tell one .ii. iii .iiii. till thou come at ten. For thou must in any wise, take hede that the bath be not to hot, whē the destillacion is once ended, stur the dregs that be left in euery one of the cucurbi­tas with a sticke moderatlye, and poure the water that is drawne oute of them in againe, and destill them again with a slow fire as before. When this destillacion is once ended, pour out all the dregs, x and distribute the liquors, gathered in .vi. cucur­bits, into .ii. cucurbits, of .iii. greate ale quartes a pece, and destill them in Balneo Marie gentlelye. So hast thou a treasure and an incomparable re­medye againste the pestilence. The vse thereof is bothe to preserue, and also to cure prouokynge a sweete after the drinking therof. So sone as any manne perceiueth him selfe enfected with the pe­stilence (so that it bee wythin xxiiii. houres that it enfecteth hym, for after that tyme there is no xx hoope or verye lyttle of anye remeadye,) lette hym dryncke halfe an ounce of thys liquor, and lyinge vppon a bedde couered moderatelye wyth clothes, and tarye for sweate: the chamber muste be cloose from any ayre entrynge in. Wythin an houre and a halfe or there aboute, the sweat wyll begin: whyche a manne muste suffer and abyde iii. houres at the leaste, it shall be better if they sleepe a lyttle more, or .iiii. houres, absteyninge from dryncke all the whyle, and wypinge hys xxx face euerye foote wyth a lynnen clothe.

[Page 132] After remouing the clothes by litle and litle, and wiping the bodye, when the sicke is risen, let him eate sodden Barlye, or a little meale of Oates broyled, mixte wyth Vineger and Rose water or Vineger onlye, whiche shall be mixt alway with his meate also for the space of a sennyghte. For his drincke he shall take a decoction of Barlye with raisons and Licoris, when it is wel couled, let hym dryncke as much thereof as he liste. Let him abstein from wine .iii. or .iiii. daies: after let x him put water to his wine. Therefore when he hathe taken meat after swet, let a newe bedde be prepared for the sicke man, or suffer him if he be so disposed, to tarye in a chamber, but wythoute aire, for the space of .iii. or .iiii. daies. If so be it he perceiue yet anye inwarde heate by the menes of the sweate, let him drincke the liquor destilled of coulinge thinges, as wilde Poppye, Mulbe­ries, or Blacke beries, Endiue and Cikorye, the floures of sambucus, Eldar, or Acetosa. And if so xx be it, while he sweteth, the botch called authrax or bubo do rise as it chaunceth often times, then thou shalt vse theese medicines. Cut an Onyon on the one side, make it hollowe and put triacle into it, tormentil, Dictamni diligently broken and punde, in equall partes, and put the cappe that you cut of the Onyon on agayne, fold it in moyst towe, then roaste it vnder the ashes by the space of .vi. houres, then punne it in a morter, and wrynge it throughe a lynnen clothe, puttynge xxx Vinegar made wyth Roose water vnto it.

[Page 133] then lay the moyst cloth to the place, and as oft as it dryeth, moysten it again. If a man drinke, once a moneth, halfe an vnce of this liquor and sweat vpon it, he shalbe preserued. It is very good also, if a man hold a drop or twoo therof euery daye in his mouth in the morning.

Vlstadius in the .xlvi. chap. describeth an other aqua vitae commended both for the pestilence and for other diseases.

An aqua vitae or quint essence, whose effect is re­dy x and present against poyson, specially lest by the byting or stinging of beastes, described by Mat­thaeolus Senensis, in his sixt booke of his commen­taries vpon Dioscorides. A pound of our antidotū now described, (the description wherof we let pas for briefnes sake: a man may vse good triacle in the place of it, or Mithridatū, or an other effectuall antidotum) and a pound of syrup of the barkes of citron, mixt them with fiue poundes of aqua vitae so oft destilled, till it cum to quint essence, and put xx them in a cucurbita of glas as big againe as the thinges do occupy, (that is of .xiiii. poundes,) and when it is well clayed moue it moderatly & softly so long till the antidotus be holly resolued & mixt with the liquor. So let it stand a moneth, mouing and chafing it in lyke maner twys a wieke. The moneth being ended power out softly by litle and litle the clere water whiche is ascended aboue the antidotus whiche is sattled in the bottom, into an other vessell of glas, and reseruith very well clo­sed. xxx This liquor is so effectuall, whiche I haue [Page 134] proued by innumerable tryales, that if halfe an vnce therof be dronken with wyne, or with any cō uenient water destilled, or els alone, it restoreth a man infected with the bytyng or stinging of any beast althoug he haue lost both his voyce and his sences, and calleth him again to the great wonde­ring of all mem. For the moste parte also the hu­mors nowe infected are auoyded by vomite. The same vertue hath it against poysons which a mā hath reciued in meats or drinkes. For ye strength x of this liquor is so subtile and effectuall, that euen in a moment and furthwith it peerceth al the vay­nes of the body. It healeth lykewyse also other many and diuers diseases as euery leerned phy­sicion may consider by him self, chiefly it resisteth the pestilence, both by preseruing and also curing them that be infected. This wryteth Mattheolus.

Aqua vitae for the diseases of the colike. Take a great ale quart of aqua vitae rectified, put therein half an vnce of cinamon .ii. or .iii. nutmegges, clo­ues. xx ii. scruples, all pund, and let them stande a hooll daye: when a water is destilled thereof in a limbeck of glas, giue the sick man a sponfull therof. Andro Furnerius.

Aqua vitae deuised by George Alapide. Take cinamon cubebarum, ginger, nutmegges, cloues, galangal, of euery one an ounce, freshe sage .iiii. vnces, wyn that is sublimated six tymes, made of the best of the wyne, not of the lyes, as muche in weyght as all the rest, that is .x. vnces. Take so xxx muche euery day of this water destilled in a lym­beck, [Page 135] as a filberd nut wyll holde. They saye that M. Gallus the physicion of the Emperour Char­les vsed this, and liued. Cxxiiii. yeares.

A moste noble water of vertues, worthy to bee preferred before siluer and gold, out of a certaine wryten booke. Cloues, cinamon, maces, galāgal, zedoaria, bay beries, graynes of paradise, of euery one halfe an vnce. Peny royall, sage, hyssop, rue, betyny, ceri folii, camphorae, serpentine or dragons of euery one half an vnce: Inniper beries, fenell x sede, percely sede, the seede of aquilegiae, withy of the mountaynes, the flowers of costi, the seede of apii of the herbe called paralysis castorei, of euery one two drames. Destill all thies in wyne for the space of .xiiii. dayes, then dreyn the wyn oute, and grynde the spyces, then mixed againe with wyne, and let them stande .viii. dayes: then destyll them, and at length cast in a fewe sage leaues freshe.

They asscribe the same vertues euery one vnto it whiche we mencioned before in waters of ver­tues, xx and .xx. seuerall vertues or ther about ar as­scribed to sum one of them. The conseruation of health, the restoring of youthe, and other, whiche also ar ascribed for yt most part to simple aqua vitae

A certain kynd of aqua vitae is commended in a certain booke wryten against the leper and pesti­lence: in the composicion whereof Fumetetrae, the les netle, the leaues of bedegnar, let them bee stie­ped in wyne in Balneo Mariae, a moneth: then let them be destilled, casting into them also a dram xxx of gold beaten to pouder.

[Page 136] Afterward put to destilled wyn decocted and sod­den with peper, that there may be equal porcions of both liquors, whiche ioyned together, and stie­ped eight dayes together in Balneo Mariae, must be destilled again. He willeth a sponefull of this water to be drunke euery day for the space of a moneth, and the leprous places to be anoynted ther­with. They say it purgeth bloud & dissolueth the congeled bloud, and chaungeth the hoole tempe­rature of the body: and if a mā may beleue it, it cu­reth x well nye all diseases.

An aqua vitae of a certain practicioner, cōposed after a singular and excellent preparation, for di­uers diseases. Take crow fote, iuae moschatae, sage, the tender crope of ebulus, betony, saint Iohns wurt, germander maioram, chamepityos, organy, peniroyal, hyssop, rew, caryophyllatae, gentiā, roūd aristolochia, of euery one halfe a handful. Polypo­dy, squinātum or schoenoanthū, spike, cassiae ligneae, folii, of euery one a dram. halfe a dram of bay be­ries, xx two drames of chamaemall. The kernelles of peeches, balhamitae, pimpernell, selandin, agrimo­ny, of euery one two vnces. Rosemary an vnce. Dictamni, tormentil, scabiosus whyte, of euery one foure vnces: an vnce & a halfe of the great bursied. Anissiede, fenel, serpyllum or sauery, alkekengi, iu­mper beries, persely, of euery one halfe an vnce. Sauin, cresses, of ether halfe a handfull. Carui, cu­min, water withy, of euery one half a dram. Cine­ris vespertilionis, tamariscus, the route of ye floure xxx deluce with ye flowers, of euery one halfe an vnce. [Page 137] Make a pouder of all these, which shalbe deuided into .vi. partes, wherof thou shalt put one part in Aqua vitae thrise destilled, and let it stand to sower or to be seasoned a naturall day, then destil it, af­terward stiepe an other part of the pouder in this destilled water, and destil it likewise. And so forth euery one of the other partes when they are all stiepte, destill them likewise, and keepe the laste liquor. Then take nutmegges, Mace, cardamo­nium, folium, cinnamon, zedoarie, of euerye one. x iii. ounces. Agallochu, Saunders white and red, of euerye one two ounces, one ounce of the bones of hartes, hartes, one ounce of olde Triacle: ginger, amomum, cubebe, and the graines of pa­radise, Galangal, peper, of euery one .iiii. ounces, one ounce or more of chosen Muscke, at the leaste not les then half an ounce. Pun all these and put them in the forsaide water .iii. daies, then destyll thē againe with a slow fire in Balneo Marie thrise alwaies pouring the water drawn forthe vpon y xx dregs. At length ad vnto this liquor half a pinte of mooste cleare oyle of Oliues, and as muche of the best honye clarified, and when they haue stan­ded quietlye, destill them as afore saide. This ly­quor is good for the headache, fallinge sicknesse, frensye, swindle or turnsicknes, duskishnes of the sight, lack of hearing, stuffing of the brest, the dis­ease of the hart, called cardiaca: also against poysō gout of the hands or fete, gutta, arthrîtis. It pur­geth blud, it taketh away al agues of cold causes: xxx it strengtheneth the stomack. It cureth the col [...]k, [Page 124] the debility of holding the vrin, the obstruction & stopping of the splene and liuer, the swelling and watry dropsy and all diseases bred of cold causes. To conclude it is a most chosen remedy for the cō seruacion of ye body. They geue men to drink ther of half a philberd full in a cup of pure white wine.

An other. A pounde of clarified hony: halfe a pound of Aqua vitae, iii. ounces of ligni aloes. ii. vn­ces of gum Arabick, Nutmegs, Galengal, cube­bae, cinnamon, mastik, cloues, spicknard, musk, of x euery one .iii. drams, ii. drams of amber: beat all these together, & when they are mixt wyth ye moi­stures, destil thē. This water helpeth the stinking breth, maketh the tethe white: it cureth ye deafnes and tineā capitis: it healeth al woundes, if you dip a linnen cloth therin & lay it vpon the wound. To cōclude it cōserueth youth & reuoketh ye beuty lost.

A water of great vertue in the palsy, whyche a certain frend let me haue the knowledge of, as a thing known by trials and profe. Cloues, galan­gall, xx zedoaria, nutmegs, both kindes of pepper, iumper beries and bay beries, the bark of the Citrō and arantii, white ginger, sage leaues, basill, ros­mary, maiorā, mint, peny royal, gentian, ye flours of sambucus, red Roses and white, spik, lignum a­loes, cardamomum, cubebae, calamus aromaticꝰ, sti­chas Arabica, germander, chamaepytis, maces, Mercury, the sede of mugwort or motherwort, carikes passulae, dates without the stones, almonds swiet and sour, pinapples, of euery one a dram both the xxx kinds of camfrey, tasil, ben white & red, of euerye [Page 125] one .ii. drams, Scolopendra a dram & a half, half a dram of Laureola, v. drās of whit hony .iii. poūds of triacle, suger, Mithridatum, of ether .iiii. vnces Six poūds of Aqua vitae destilled iiii. times. Let them be destilled in a double vessell, with a slowe and continual fire, til the colour be chaunged, thē chaunge the receiuer, and do that thrise.

Tvvo compositions of Aqua vite oute of the boke of Raimundus Lullus, x of waters.

IN the cōposed waters of life folowing, althoughe Raymundus do not expresse whether wine or burning water ought to be put to the medicins, that they mai be destilled together, yet we haue thoughte good to rehers them in this place, because Raimundus seemeth vtterlye to wyll these medicines to be de­stilled in burning water, thē in wine, as one that xx alloweth euery where the more perfect liquors & the oftest destilled. Take the rotes of fenell, rusci, maidenheare, sperage, Rapes, parsellye, eryngii, mill of the sunne, scariolae, of euerye one like much mixt them and destill them wyth a slowe fyre. (It appeareth that thys liquor is good to prouoke v­rine, and against the stone.) An other.

Take cloues, Nutmegs, mastik, doronicum, ze­doaria, galingal, long peper, ye bark of citron, sage sambucus that is elder (perauenture it shoulde be xxx samsuchus, that is Maioram) dill, spiknard. Wood [Page 140] of Aloes, cubebe, cardamonuum, Lauendula, Mint Peniroyal, organy, calamus aromaticus, both kin­des of sticas, germander, chamepytis, of euerye one like much, and a litle muske. Pun them and destil them. The vertues be all one wyth simple Aquavite, but farre more effectuall. Or the same that are attributed before to other waters of life com­posed of many medicines. Then foloweth a wa­ter composed of manye colde medicines, not in hys place (as it semeth) which I made mencion of be­fore x in the colde quint essence. Afterward is placed a most perfect Aqua vite (as he calleth it, that is, because it is composed of verye manye thinges, and that most hot.) Take Euphorbium, Serapinū, opopanax, pyretrum, Capers, squinanthum, spodi­um, bdellium, long peper, and white or blacke, cu­bebe, castoreum, zedoaria, of euery one equal por­tions, to the which thou shalt put good Mastick, and a little Amber, Saffron, and of the bone of a hartes hart. Also take all the thinges aforsaide in xx the composed waters, and let them be destilled with a slowe fire. For it is a merueilous water, & the mother and chief of all medicines, whose ver­tues are merueilous and innumerable against al colde diseases. It is made in this wise. &c. he des­cribeth streight way the maner of destilling biser­pentins (as they call them) he addeth also other thinges which all do agree with the simple Aqua vite, in so much that I suppose the boke to be cor­rupted by the fault of the Printer. xxx

VVhat medicines be mixt vvith Aqua vitae, without any destillation, first within the body, then without.

MAny times instrumentes, time or cost faileth a man, that those medicines, whose strength he wold haue in his aqua vitae (as though it were by a certain metempsy chosin, y is a transposinge of the soules or principal vertues) he can not mixt them with it by destilation, whiche onely waye is x the chief and best of al other to mixt thinges toge­ther, for both by disgestiō, as though it were a preparation in a moderat heat, first one mixture is made, then in destillation twyse as muche, first of the vapours by the least and moste pure partes of the spirites, then by dropes when they gather together into water: but circulatiō is it that brin­geth a perfectnes and absolutnes to all mixtures: and without doubt, no mixtur that men deuise or inuent, can more properly and ny imitate the na­turall xx mixture: whiche is plain by this argument taken of the ende and effect: for thinges prepared in this wyse and mixed, do les corrupt then by any other meanes, and hauing gotten a certain moste simple and moste pure substaunce that they seme to the sence, to be simple, and of an airy or a fytte substaunce, they attain vnto a certain incorruptiō as nye as may be. This is euidēt, loke how much any thyng shall haue the partes wherof it consi­steth les exactly and throughly mixt, so muche the xxx nerer it is to corruption: whiche first and chiefly [Page 128] in those bodies that are called met [...]ora, that is thinges bred on hy in the firmamēt, moreouer in many other thinges mixed ether by nature or by arte, is easy to be vnderstanded. But for so muche as in so diuers states of men, sum for one hinde­raunce, sum for an other, thei can not alwayes fo­low that whiche is best, if quint essence can not be made, at the least the second or the third, or as many as may be: let the destillacions be repeted with a slow fire. for any mixture is done better by litle x and litle, and slowly, then sodenly and violently. And if a man can not destill together with the a­qua vitae, the medicines whose strengthe he desy­reth to mixt with it: yet at the least wyse let them be broken and stiept a whyle in it: for it draweth vnto it the vertues of all thinges that are put in it. There is a booke of Arnoldes de villa noua, or rather of Rogerius, whiche I haue written, wher in is declared particularly, to what diseases and sicknesses, what medicines ought to be put to soo­ke xx into aqua vitae, for euery part of the body, which he doth attribute to the twelue signes of ye zodiak.

It is well knowen in many ages hitherto, that gentian is the best preseruatiue against certaine moste greuous diseases and poysons: but sum vse to power the pouder of the same with burning water, as muche more effectual, into the throotes of beastes, whome they knowe or thinke to be hurte with poyson in their meet or drinke, or els by by­ting or stinging: and if gentian can not be gotten, xxx the burning water by it selfe. To the remedy of [Page 129] certain sicknesses of man, specially of the bulke or brest apomeli may be put. for both certain men coūt it otherwise for dainty, to haue apomeli mixt with burning water, & also a toost of breed mixt therwith, many take for a breekfast. A mā may also against diuers sicknessess, giue men to drinke the water of gentiā artificially destilled with wyn, mixt after with apomeli or swiet hypocras.

Wormwood wyn most excellent, sum make on this wyse, they power to the leaues of wormwod, x specially when it is dried, the best burning water and so much malmsey. Of this they take a little sponefull and mixt with a litle draught of wyn, & so giue it to drinke. So is it made by and by and effectually, and is long preserued. I my self gaue it once to drinke for the colick, and had good suc­ces. The same meanes a man may vse also in o­ther as wel herbes as spices. &c. For both the vertue is drawen out so in a short space and the drink is also the more plesaunt, and besides that it may xx be kept long inough.

Grien aqua vitae, Take Melissa called baulm, & balsamita dried both in the shadowe, of the first .iii. vnces, of the other two vnces, put them into .iiii. poundes of aqua vitae destilled fowre tymes in Balneo Mariae eight daies: then vse it, ether alone or mixting with it other kyndes of aqua vitae com­posed to comforte the stomake.

The herbes must bee dried in the shade, that the colour may bee made grien and moste beuti­full. xxx For if a man dry them in the sun, the water [Page 144] shall proue darke as the iuice of any other herbe. Vlstad. lvi. chap. A man may also dy it with other colours, whiche may encrease both the grace of ye coloure and the strength of the medicin, as with saffron, with red or yallow parsnipes dried. Sum put to it in summer black sower cheries, whereby also the tast is made more plesant, and the heet is les (perauenture moor) asswaged.

Sum put into burning water, mint cut & bea­ten, and set it in the sun foure daies or fiue, then x sighe it and set it in the sun again. With this they wiet the tip of their noos, against corrupt and pestilent ayre.

¶ Hereafter will I put the vse of burning water, with other medicines without the body.

Many mixt a litle burning water with hoot oynmentes, as Martiatum, Arragon, dialthaea, at suche tyme as they should vse them, and wil them so to be annoynted vpon the griefes. xx

A water that norysheth and restoreth the heat of the brayn, wherewith the head is to be rubbed. Two vnces of aqua vite, Moschocarium, Cloues maioram, cubebe, long peper, of euery one halfe a dram. When they are pound mixt them, and rub them vpon the head a certain space. Sum put to it a scruple of euphorbium, Epiphanius a practicioner: other put to other smellinge and hoot things, as sage six vncees: rew, ginger, graynes of para­dys, cinnamum, flowers ot rosemary, the bark of xxx a citron of euery one half an vnce: an vnce of oyle [Page 145] de bay: a dram of spik: a dram and a half of casto­reum. And in a destilled liquor they hang mosch & amber of ether of thē a graine. Thys they say is good to annoynt the hed, and also with the smell it putteth away the palsy, and apoplexia.

A merueylous water of the same mannes, for the impostumes or botches of the priuye mem­bers. Three yolkes of egges hard rosted and cut small, pun them in a morter, poure in to them ten ounces of Aqua vitae, wyth a scruple of Alam .ii. x drams of Camphora, and a halfe of rust, all pund together when they are stiept a while, streine thē wyth strength throughe a linnen cloth, wet a lin­nen cloth in this liquor and laye it vpon the swel­ling .iii. or .iiii. times a daye, thou shalt meruel at the working of it.

A vvater to vvashe the partes ta­ken with the Palsey.

MYrrha, aloes, ladanum, right turpentin, casto­reum, xx of euery one .ii. drams: zedoria, Galan­gall, cubaebae, Nutmegs, long peper, pyretrum, of euery one .iii. drams. The little white Dasy with the red tops, iua, Arthritica, stichas, Arabica, sage, Maioram, mint, penye royall, the les Centaurye, Roosemarye, of enerye one halfe an ounce, when they are all punde, poure them into .xii. poundes of destilled Aqua vitae. iii. dayes. As I founde in a certaine wrytten booke: but perauenture there is xxx [Page 146] to muche Aqua vitae. For to euery pounde thereof, vi. drams only (with a scruple perauenture) of the species are put.

In the disease called the French pockes, som­times the iawes and throte are eaten wyth euyll destillaciōs, whiche onles a man finde remeadye for, oftentimes the gargil is wasted, oftentymes the corruption passeth to the very bones. There­fore a man muste purge them, and turne them a­side. &c. There is a marueylous water made for x the same purpose. They destill Triacle in Aqua vitae and vineger in a limbeck a most cleare wa­ter issueth out of many vertues, but chiefly it hel­peth where the strength of the medicine oughte to be conducted sōwhat diep, if therfore thou dissolue in it bole armoniak or sphragida, and touche the partes that be freten, thou shalt both kil the cause of that contagion, & heale al the freting, Fracasto­rius, in his .iii. boke of contagions.

Of destilled vvaters composed, xx but wyth other, then wyth Aqua vitae.

SVche waters as are destilled of two or mooe medicines mixte together, I call them composed. Of thys sort some are vsed for medicine, some for smel­linge, some are inuented for garnishinge, trym­mynge and deckynge. There be some that wyll xxx [Page 147] do two of these or all. Notwithstandinge we wyll referre euerye one to one kynde, that is, wherein it excelleth mooste. Againe, of theim that be v­sed in medicine, some are receyued into the bo­dye, other some are minystred onlye wythoute other some bothe wayes. We will make onlye two Chapters, for all thoughe some bee vsed bothe wayes, yet they are moore vsed other wythin and wythoute. Agayne, of them that bee receyued into the bodye, some are moore symple, x whyche wee shall fyrste descrybe: secundarilye those that bee composed of moe. Of the kyndes of Aqua vitae composed, where the spices are sooked in pure and onlye Aqua vitae, we haue written se­uerallye by them selues. Heare wyll we putte the other (as I sayde,) and those which they call wa­ters of caponum, and one with certain medicines put into swines bloud.

To be sooked in wine and after to bee destyl­led, it seemeth to bee ordeined, chieflye for those xx hearbes and medicines, whyche haue little iuyce of them selues, as Sage, Betanye, Melissa cal­led Baulme, Wormewode. &c. whych more ouer by that meanes, do retaine more firmlye theyr owne sauoure, the wine drawing it and drinking it vp, that it canne not dispersed for the thinnesse, we shall speake heare of certayne thynges to bee stieped in wyne, but whyle they be newe, for wee haue entreated of .iiii. dry things stieped in wine other liquor, and so destylled. xxx

Betany, commonly called betany, and in dutch [Page 148] eerenbreyʒ, is stiept in wine a few daies, & like­wise melissa. They shall haue the same vertues & strengthes, but more effectually and more subtil, then the herbes by them selues alone.

Melissa, that is citraria (saith Lullus) let it be put in wine to be destilled. Let a man drinke a spone­full of this wine fasting. It sharpneth the vnder­standing and the wit, encreaseth the memory. To a man that stutteth▪ lay a linnen cloth wet in thys wyne vppon hys tounge and he shall speke right, x excepte he stut by nature. He that is sycke of the palsey, let hym drincke it fastinge wyth a litle tri­acle and he shall be cured perfectly. It cureth the stinkinge breath, and putteth away touth ache. Fleshe or fyshe layde therin corrupte not, and may be kepte as longe as a man will. Being put into turned wine, it restoreth it. It breaketh the stone It prouoketh vrine and wemens floures. It is good agaynste the fretting of the guttes, and pain of the raynes. It oughte to be drounken agaynst xx kirnels vnder the chin, and a plaster to be made of the hearbe. If it be drunken fastinge, it breaketh all inwarde and hid impostumes. It healeth all stitches, whyche tende towarde the hart or sides. It is repugnant against al kinds of worms with in the body. It taketh away all corruption of the body quick or dead. It healeth al that it toucheth, and preserueth it in good health, & in good quart▪ It cheareth the spirites, it is good for al the mem­bers and healeth the kyndes of colde droppes. xxx Aboue all thynges it comforteth the synnewes. [Page 149] It is moste profitable against scabbednes cum­ming of could. It sharpeneth ye sight of him that drinketh it. It taketh away duskishnes, teares of and superfluous humors of the eies. It is hol­some for the brest, profitable for cōcoction against euill humors that letteth it. Drunken with good wyne, it stireth the appetyt. It putteth away spots and frakenes of the face that is washt therwith, if so be it a litle baulm be put to it & then the face washt tnerwith, it maketh also good colour. It x healeth the iawe bones. The smell of it killeth al gnates and wormes. It cureth the dropsy cum­ming of a coulde cause: and superfluous choler with drinking and washyng. Al maner of woun­des may be washt well with it, and so they shal be preserued from all putrifying. It healeth all kindes of agues, but moste of all, quartaines. The drinking of this wyne letteth the diseas of saint Lazarus from encreasing. It is good also for them whose brain is perished, and for the frantik. xx Also if a man eat a spider by chaunce, and drinke this wyne stregthway vpon it, he can not be hurt of the poyson. Theis wryteth Lullus. Melissa bea­ten is stieptin wyne a night. Men say this water destilled and drunkē euery day and holden in the mouth, it cureth the benumming of the senses: all so the falling sicknes, the dropsy, the quartain a­gue, and other diuers diseases of black choler or fleume. It is ministred also to the strangleng of the wombe, and toth ache, Remaclus. F. xxx

A water of the les centory, worthy to be compa [Page 150] red vnto gold.

Take one part of gentian, two partes of cētory: when they are pund and sookt in wyne fiue daies destill them. This water drunke morning and e­uening preserueth the body from all kyndes of diseases. It putteth away all impostumes: it ma­keth good colour: It resisteth the pestilence, it he­leth the sick of the phthisik, it auoydeth the stuffed stomack: it breaketh the stone in the reines, it separateth and putteth away the watery humors of x the splene: it helpeth forwarde the flowers, if it be drunken nyne daies together in the morning, and purgeth the bely. Also it purgeth al choler and corrupt bloud. It heleth all woundes within the be­ly: it clereth the sight: it cureth poysoned bytings: to the healing of woundes, the pouder of centory also ought to be put vnto thē. Lulliꝰ in his boke of waters. Certain at this day stiep dry routs of gē ­tian in wyn, & destil a most effecual water therout.

The sage and penroyall of ether lyke much, & xx when they are beten in a morter destill thē. This water heeteth a man that is ouermuch cold. Whē it is soden with castorium, as oft as a mā drinkes it, so many daies it prolongeth his lyfe vntyll the tyme ordeyned of God. Nether is it possible for a­ny man to be so greatly couled, but if he drinke it with castoriū nyn daies, he shalbe perfectly made hoole. Drunken fasting, it remoueth the disease of the bely, & all gutta, & scabbidnes, it maketh good bloud & the best colour in the face: It is profitable xxx to many other thinges drunk .iii. a day. Aegidius.

[Page 151] A water of iuniper beries stiept in wyn whyles they be newe, is destilled. I soockt dry beries in wyne, wherupon I had very good and swiet ly­quor when they were destilled.

The routes of the flowr deluce beatē, ar stiept in whyt wyne .ii. or .iii. daies, and then destilled.

But the routes of any herbe a man will, which are vsed in physick or may be vsed: if they be cut small and stiept a certain daies in wyne, they yeld a water of the same vertue & force, but more pure x and subtill, &c. A man must put les wyne to new routes then to dry: and perauentur, les also to thē whiche ought to refrigerat and coule, or els mode­ratly to heat: wherfor we shall destill the same ra­ther newe and freshe, then dried, to thintent they may nede ye les wyne: or els if new can not be got­ten, we shall stiep the dried rather in water, or in sum other conuenient liquor, sumtimes vynegar, specially if it be to be vsed without the body.

Gualterus Riffius reherseth the routes that bee xx stiept in wyne to bee destilled, as hereafter follo­weth. Garlike, Angelica (whiche sum thynke to be our Alexanders) that is sowen, and the other that is called water angelica, arum, hollow aristo­lochia, as they call it cōmunly in Germany, asarū or asarabaccha, bistorta, bryonia, carlina, dragones, eryngium, hibiscus, hirundinaria, flowre deluce, inula, Sorrell, Lilies, Meu or yalowe caret, Piony, Parsnippes, Petasita, Pencedanum, Pim­pernel, or rater Saxifrage, Polygonatō, Pyretrū, xxx cōmō radish & wild rapes, rubia or rubea, satyricū, [Page 152] Scrofularia the bigger, Symphytum the bigger, Valerian. Here whyles he asscribeth to euery one his vertues, he makes a hoole booke. When as notwithstanding he bringes none other vertues then suche as be attributed to the medicines them selues alone, and that before destillacion, whiche if he had toucht with one word at the beginning, it had been sufficient. And truly I maruell, seing he wryt forth his bookes with suche earnestnes, and endeuoured by all meanes, to augment his x thinges vnto a huge greatnes, why he left out o­ther many routes, yea rather why he rehersed not all that be in any vse of physick, euery one with his vertues repeted: and that he did it not, I sup­pose he lackt no will, but remembraunce hinderd with hast.

The wyld radyshe, whiche communly they call the byggar, cut small and stiept in wyne a certain daies, I wold thinke it would giue an effectuall stilled liquor. for it wil lose easely his byting tart­nes xx and leue it of in the liquors wherin it is stiept in so much that euen certain swiet routs as Par­snipes sooked together with them in vinegar, becum more tart, & the slices of Radish leue their tart [...]es. Against the stone, it may be stiept in vinegar, together with the rout of percely, and anyse sede. &c. and to be destilled in asshes.

The rout of Pyretrum fresh (or also dry) beaten and stiept in wyne is destilled, or also for touthe ache and to cause one vomit vp fleume, in vinegar xxx other new or destilled, as Riffius teacheth.

[Page 135] A profitable water againste rottennes of the tethe. Mixte the rotes of Pyretrum beaten small, with the best wine ye maye get, and make a mix­ture that may be like to Aqua vitae composed. Whē ye will vse it, taste a sponefull (holde it in youre mouthe) in the morninge or whan ye will, for ye shall perceiue remeady shortly. It healeth weke tieth, corrupted, holow: it pourgeth also and clea­reth them. It is good also for the putting awaye of all kind of rottennes or vnclennes, & to auoyd x it by spitting: one nameles.

A water against the falling sicknes, whereof ii. or .iii. sponefull oughte to be geuen in the ve­rye fitte, communicated vnto me verye latelye of a frend. The water of Angelica which a man mai stiep first in good wine a .iii. daies, and the water of Lauendula, in equall portions, mixte them and geue vnto the pacient.

Of wine and milcke destilled together, it is wrytten before amongste the symple waters of xx beastes.

Certaine composed vvaters, to be destilled other of the medicines by them selues, or wyth well spryng water: oute of the treatise of Rogerius. 4. cha. 6.

A Water drawne oute of the leaues of hi­sop, leuisticus, sauery, Horhound, inula, the floures of floure deluce, and that xxx trifolium whyche beareth many flours, [Page 154] about the bignes of a gaule nut, whose floures if they be sukt, they geue a swiet iuice. It dissolueth fleumaticke humors of the brest or chest, it fineth the spettle, furthers it, and breakes it.

A water destilled of gum Arabeck, white traga­canthum, lycoris, violets, Malowes, put in water and then destilled. It represseth the heate of the brest, and correcteth the drines.

A water of Plantaine, quinqueruia, Tormen­till and Roofes, if it be drouncke wyth hote wine, x it closeth the woundes of the brest of a hot cause, and altereth any hot distemperance.

A water drawne oute of the leaues or floures of white or blacke Iacea, Verbafcum, Roses, sauin the houked burre, it amendeth the cold imtempe­rature of the cheaste, and consumeth the fleuma­ticke humoures, and the woundes of the cheaste comminge of a colde cause, it healeth them and closeth them.

A water destilled of Minte, Betain, Melissa, xx Balsamita, Sauerye, Sage, Serpillum, Polium Peny royall, hasta regia, of the leaues of euerye one: it healeth the infirmities of the heade and stomacke comminge of a cold cause, it stauncheth the flixe of the belly, comming of the same cause, it helpeth concoction.

A water of the floures of Violets and malows altereth and louseth. xxx

Of vvaters of vertues or golden waters and certain other composed of many medicines, destilled with wine.

WAters of vertues, which the Germans name golden, all are destilled with spi­ces and odoriferous herbes (specially sage, which semeth to be a foundacion in these waters composed) put first a fewe dayes into wine: & they are in more vse to bee ministred x without, then receiued within the body, specially to the comforting of the spirites with their odour, and against the head aches. &c. Some bid simple­ly put thē in wine: other in a vessel wel stopt (som in a tin bottle) set in a wine seller, in hors dounge, in Balneo Mariae, in the sun, in chaf or chopt straw in lime wherunto raine water must be sprinckled in a bottell.

Waters of vertue. Guatlerius Ryffius in hys booke of destillacions, describeth verye manye xx with burnynge water composed, but verye fewe with spices and other medicines stieped in wine, whyche not with standynge they seeme to be pre­ferred, where the diseases bee lesse greuous, and the bodyes more drye, and ni [...]de lesse heate. They are also made wyth lesse coste and sooner.

And a manne maye in theese also gather foure kyndes of waters differynge in vertue, of the whych I would most chiefly allow the myd­dle. For thys is truthe, Aqua vitae commeth oute xxx [Page 138] out more pure at the beginning of the destillaciō, aboute the last end, it runneth somwhat watery. Of spices and gummes, the parts that are more moistened ascend first, the hotter and the drier fo­low, which euē the colour comming nie more and more vnto red declareth. Moreouer they smell of brentnes, and in tast they are les swiet & plesant. But without the body they are ministred effectu­ally. &c. But a .iii. kinds of water is gathered bet­ter of dry spices and medicines only rectified, not x in wine, but burning water which hath no man­ner of fleume more, in the which likewise, I wold chuse the midst.

With waters of vertues, some also mixte well smelling sedes, prouoking vrin, and fenel, violets parsly, saxifrage, mastik, pomum arātium: besides spices and odoriferous herbes, sage, costum, rew sothernwod, serpillum, the lilly of the vally. Thys is asscribed to one Arnold à Parisian.

There is without all dout a diuersity bothe in xx the kyndes of spyces, and also in the number and weight. Som vnto diuers spices, as cloues, nut­megs, cinamō of euery one half an oūce: (wherunto other ad zedoaria, galingal, lōg Peper, grains of paradise, of euery one .ii. drammes) put as mu­che sage, and Lauendula, that the weighte of them ioyntlye maye counterpoys the weight of the spy­ces. &c. Three or foure droppes of thys water, they counsell to mixte wyth the wine that menne dryncke at meeles, or els mornyng and eueninge xxx to be druncke seuerallye wyth a little wyne.

[Page 139] This water clereth the sight (as they say) confir­meth the brain and goodnes of the wit: putteth a­way palsey: maketh the face whyt and bright, clē ­seth the skin: and doth many other thinges.

Sum in the moneth of May or June, when sage and lauender bee in their force, take halfe of this (sir vnces) of the othe other twys as myche, & cut it small. They put to it Cloues, Ginger, nut­meg, mace, graines of paradys, cinamō, zedoaria, galingall, rosemary, of euerye one halfe an vnce, x they beet them and when they are put in wyne, they destill them. This water (they say) is better at the .iii. yeres ende then at the first. It hath all the same vertues whiche we reherseth before one by one, to the number of the .xx. in an other water of vertues. They say a certain Iew was the au­tor of this description, who attributeth all thies vertues vnto it.

A maruelous water and of muche vertue. Ca­riophyllata, ginger, rosemary in equall portiōs, xx put them in good wyne eight dayes and after de­still them as aqua vitae. It is good for the aking of the brest, for a weake stomack, for the griefes and gnawinges of the bely. It killeth wormes in the body and bowelles. If a man that is sumwhat gros, desyreth to be made, slender, let him drinke this: & if any lean man desire to be in better plyte, let him drinke it with sugar.

A water of vertues. Sage, Lauender, rose­mary, carui, and diuers spices, when they are cut xxx or pund, thou shalt stiep them in very good wyne, [Page 158] put in a bottell of tin, whiche thou shalt hyd all o­uer it vnslect lym .xiii. dayes and sprinckle vpon the lym rain water, afterward thou shalt destill it lyke rose water. In the heed ache, thou shalt laye a linnen cloth wet in this water, to the browes and forehead.

An other good and notable water. Sage a pound and a half nutmegs, ginger, cloues, gray­nes of paradys, cinamon, of euery one an vnce & a half, let thē be putrified in moste excellent wyn, x after the accustomed maner. Then let the spyces be beaten, and then de stilled hooll together.

Sum ad moreouer, the flowers of borage, red roses, the barck df citron, wode of aloes, of euery one half an vnce, & in the best wyn (whose weight shalbe six tunes as much as the other) let them be sookt .xiii. daies, then when the wyne is dreyned out, they beete the spices diligently in a stone morter, and mixt it again with the wyne, and they e­ther destill it by and by, or let it stande yet a fewe xx daies. Other put also halfe an vnce of newe and freshe sage, I lyke better dry, into the vessell that receiued the destilled water. Thies vertues are sayd to be in it, first. It keepeth all kynd of fleshe, fishe and other meates, that it is sprinkled vpon, sound and swiet from all maner of corruption, with his own sauour and taste .ii. It amendeth all faultes in wynes, as when they be troubled, ar hanging, or smel foysty, or be otherwyse corrupted, if a litle of it be dropt into it. By this meanes xxx thei recouer their taste and colour, sum within se­uen [Page 159] daies other within one: neither corrupt they afterwarde any more, nor yet is the remedy any thing perceiued .iii. Being sprinkled vpon spices, it conserueth their force & smell .iiii. It breeketh inward impostumes, & purgeth them downward before they cum to matter .v. Lykewyse outward impostumes if it be anoynted vpon them, it ope­neth and breeketh them, maketh them to run out and at length healeth them .vi. It cureth the ble­mishes or fautes of the eyes, as blerednes bothe x running and dry, and wheales & spottes, or whyt skines or the web, if it be stilled and dropt in mo­deratly with a fether .vii. What so euer groweth in the face besydes nature, and maketh any suspi­cion of the beginning of the leper, anoint it with this water with a fether it is made hoole .viii. Be­ing drunke it cureth al inward diseases .ix. Also y faults of the liuer, splen, bowels, bealy. It taketh away al il humors bred of rawnes in ye stomack .x. It separateth quick siluer from trew siluer .xi. xx It heeleth al maner of woūdes throughly that it is anoynted vpon, also dry strokes, & beatinges, & the smellinges that cū therupon .xii. It driueth a­way the dropsy being drunk & anointed vpon the grief: also the yelow iaundis .xiii. Being anointed vpō the brain pan, it remedieth ye destillatiō sprin­ging of ye reum of ye brain: being anointed & drūk, it taketh away ye griefs & aches of ye heed .xiiii. It redresseth the ye things amis in the mouth, if a mā cā hold it in his mouth on ye night .xv. It helpeth ye xxx il smel & stink of ye noos, & the reum if a man holde [Page 142] it a whyle in his noos .xvi. It helpeth the disea­ses of the teeth .xvii. It cureth the maladies of ye hart and brest when it is drier or moyster then it should be, or is sicke with the coughe or short fet­ching of breth. &c .xviii. It encreaseth the memo­ry, and taketh away forgetfulnes in a man, that receyueth oftentimes by tymes, no, but one drop therof .xix. Scuruines, skailes, scabbednes, by­les, wheales, and what soeuer vncleannes elles vexeth the skin, or elles the inward partes of the x body, it putteth it awaye, and driueth out poyson being annoynted and drunken .xx. Being anoyn­ted vpon the face, any wyse it cōserueth moderat­ly the colour and brighthnes of youth, that a man of .iiii. score yeres old shall skars seme aboue. 30 .xxi. It turneth awaye all leprosy that is a brie­ding. Thies I had out of a certain wryten booke in the douch tong, the author wherof was not na­med. It maketh a man mery & aswageth angar: it is also commended against the pestilence. The sa­me xx and like affectes are attributed of other, to o­ther waters of vertues also: or rather to diuers kyndes of aqua vitae composed, whiche are destil­led of spyces and odoriferous herbes, &c▪ stieped in burning water of the best, yea and almost vnto simple aqua vitae.

An other water of vertues. Ten vnces of sage noble ye flowres of lauēder .ii. vnces, rew, ginger, cloues, grains of paradys, nutmegs. of euery one an vnce: half an vnce of cinamon. Galingall, longe xxx peper, of ether of them .ii. drames. Spike, Citriū, [Page 161] castorium, wode of Aloes, graines of paradice, of euery one a dram. when all these are beaten toge­ther, let them be kepte in a tinnen vessell wyth a pound of oyle of Laurel, an ale quart and a halfe of good wine .ix. daies or .xiii. and in the mene se­son let them be .iii. or .iiii. tunes chafed and myxte together: at the length destill them. Other put to it not oyle of Laurel, but an ounce of the beries of Laurel, and as much Rew, and a dram of maces. They attribut vnto it the same vertues eueri one x which we ascribed to the next going before, about xx. Some prepare the same or one like, not wyth wine, but with burning water.

A certain Aqua vitae, suche as is made at Con­stantinople in the Emperoures court, as the same writen boke hath. Cloues, Nutmegges, ginger, Coriander, Galingall, long peper, iumper beries Arantia, Sage, Basilicus, Roosemary, Amaracus, Mint, Lettis, bay leues, peny royall, Gentian, the flours of Sambucus or elder, white Rooses, spike­nard, xx wode of Aloes, cardomum, Mugwort, of e­uery like much. A Pomgranate .ii. figs, Passul [...], almonds, dates, of euerye one a little. When these are pund, mixt a part of hony and suger. Stiepe thē al in good wine .v. daies, & destil thē. That is the best liquor yt runs out first, the next is weker, ye. 3. wekest. That which remaineth in ye bottō [...]ke to on oyntmēt, is profitable to mani cold diseases. The first liquor is good for all blemishes & spots of the eies, rednes or blud (cōgeled). It cōfirmeth xxx the stomak, chereth ye mind, remedieth the disease [Page 162] called gutta, the drop, the agewe, the coughe, the wombe, and the wormes in the heade, to conclude it maketh good colour.

Vlstadius describeth certain waters of life, the most of them composed with burning water, thre with wine, in the chapters .xlvi. xlix. and .lv.

Peter Andrevv, Matthaeolus Senensis, teacheth to cure the french diseas that is sanguin and cho­lerick, and but newly gotten, with water whiche he calleth philosophicall (the .lxx. leafe of the boke x in time past printed at Basil) composed of diuers medicines, iuices, syrups, and wine, for the space of .viii. dais stiept together) & destilled in a vessel of glas in a bath of hot water, wherwt a quāntity of sande is mixt together. He receiueth .ii. maner of waters, the firste cleare, the seconde more red▪ Afterward, for the fleumatike or melancholy dis­ease of Fraunce, he putteth an other composition likewise to be destilled. If so be it saith he, thou desire a more effectual remedy against melan choly xx thou maist ad vnto it .iii. or. iiii: snakes, long ons, black ons, flaine, and the bowels taken oute, well chafed both with a good deale of salt a good space and also with vineger, that they may melte toge­ther, for this is most chiefly profitable, not only to the french disease, but to the leper and mani other diseases, which at this present we thoughte good to omit. But the composition of this water & the vse who so listeth shal read in the author him self. He saith he hath cured certain him self at the tēth xxx time drinking of it, other in longer space, in whōe [Page 163] the disease was more greuous.

Io. Almenar, in the .iiii. chapter of his booke of the way to cure the french pockes: When the hu­mors (saithe he) are once euacuated and purged, a man muste procure an alteration of the mem­bers: for the whiche intent, let a bath or a stouf be made with swiet water, wherein muste be boyled Mallowes, Bismalua, Melilot, Chamaemel, Ro­ses, Sorell, Fumaria, the third day after the pur­gacion. And when the sick beginneth to sweat, let x him take this water hereafter described. ℞. the rotes of greate Malowes or holy Hokes, Fumi­terrae, Sorell, Inula, of euerye one of them halfe a pound: when they are cut small, put them in .iiii. pounds of Malmsey a day and a night: thē put to it an vnce and a half of triacle .x. yere old or more. Let them take .iii. vnces of this water destilled, wt ii. vnces of Buglos in the beginning, as it is said. And this stouf let it be vsed again euery day, till vi. or .vii. daies be finished, drincking this water, xx whiche is the best, and singular, and in thys dis­ease a great secreat, and the last remeadye and ex­treame refuge.

A vvater of certaine remedies for shortnes of breath and harde fetchinge of a mannes winde.

CAlamint, Hyssop, Adiantum, Horhound, Sca­bious, Tussilago, of euerye one an handfull: round Aristolochia an ounce: an ounce and a xxx half of flour deluce: as much of the sede of nettles [Page 164] Fenel rotes, persly rotes, of ether .ii. vnces .iii. vn­ces of the heauenly lily: half a pound of inula cam­pana: musterd sede and cresses, of ether of them an vnce and a halfe: fiue drams of costus .x. of spike, iiii. ounces of bay beries: an ounce and a halfe of nigella: when they are beaten small, let them stād vi. daies in .vi. ale quartes of white wine: then let them be destilled with a soft fire. Thou shalt geue the pacient to drink therof in the morning .iii. vn­ces. Epiphanius Empericus. x

A water for the stone of the raines and blader. Sperage, Ruscum, Apium, Fenel, Perslye, rubia of euery one halfe an ounce: fiue of the siedes of diur etica, ligusticum, lithospermō Ammi, Radish, sese­lis Maslili [...]sis, daucꝰ, Saxifrage, of euery one .iii. drams: adianthum, matricaria, ceterach, scolopen­drum, trifolium, gramen, senecion (I vnderstande cardaminam. liuerwort, the sede of peucedanum, of euery one a handfull: halfe an ounce of the floure Deluce .vi. drammes of Xilobalsanum, two oun­ces xx of Licoris .iiii. of Cummun sedes colde, grea­ter, cleansed of euery one halfe an ounce, grounde Iuy, Pimpernel, of euery one a handful & a half, kirnels of Cheries stones an ounce: spiknard .iii. drams: the gum of Iuy .vi. drams: Gotes bloude prepared an ounce: as much of Cinnamon, when they are beaten let them be put in .x. poūd of white wine, or asmuch as shal suffise destil them. A like water for the same purpose, is described of Roge­rius in his fourth treatise, and .vi. chapter, but de­stilled xxx with vineger, not with wine.

A vvater for the stone, described by Epiphanius a practicioner.

SAint Iohns wurt, Chamaedrios, Chame­pyteos, senecionis, (not erigerontem but si­symbrium, cardamine, doth he vnderstād) the gras of sinkfoyl, scolopendrium, helxines, ver­benae, eupatorium, peny royall, rew. of euery one a handfull, fiue routes of diuretica. Acorus, inula, rubea, asarus, tamarix, of euery one .iii. drammes. x Fine of the siedes of diuretica, saxifrage, lithosper­mon, daucus, radish, persely of Macedonia, ammiū, marathrum, carus, libisticus, of euery one. ii drams: peeche kernels half a dram: four of the cūmon sie­des, cold greater, clensed, of euery one a dram and a half. Lycoris .ii. vnces: Iuniper beries half an vnce. When thies are beaten, let them stande in­fused in fiue poundes of wyne, then destill them with a slow fyre. Giue the sick to drinck other af­ter bathing early in the morning warm, from xx halfe an vnce to two vnces.

Certain vvaters composed, destilled with vinegar.

OF vinegar it selfe destilled reed before, where we entreeted of waters destilled in Balneo Mariae.

A water that breaketh the stone in ye bladder, described by Epiphanius a practicioner, ii xxx poundes of the iuice of saxifrage, the iuice of mi­lium [Page 166] of the sun, Persely, Anise, of euery halfe a pound: whyt vinegar eight vnces: destill a water therof and giue it to drinke fasting.

A water of Swalowes is thus made. Yonge Swalowes when they ar beaten to pouder, mixt them with Castorio, and a litle good vinegar and destill them this water drunke of one fasting, is a trewe medicine of the falling sicknes, what cause so euer it cum of. And although a man haue had that disease .v. yeres, he shalbe heeled, if he drinke x of this water a litle, for the space of foure daies: & he shalbe heeled perfectly: The phrenesey also if it be drunken fasting, is cureth by it within nyne daies. It maketh a good brain more then al other medicines. It purgeth the stomacke, it mollifieth the brest, it cōforteth the sinues: it taketh the pal­sey away by the routs: it encreaseth nature: it he­teth them that be couled. Also sodde with Hyssop (with a decoction of Hyssop doo I allowe rather) and drunken, it cureth the Dropsey sprung of cold xx and agues cotidians. But let wemen with chylde absteyn from it, leest their fruit be destroyed ther­with. Drunck with Hyssop, it dryueth awaye the heed ache: it maketh a man sliep easely: and it for­thereth concoction and the auoyding of the vrin, (otherwyse ye bely.) It putteth away hear, wher­soeuer it is anoynted vpon the pure skin, & so that they neuer grow again. Lullius and Aegidius.

A water of Rogerius) the fourth treatise, the. vi chap. against the obstructions and stuffinges of xxx the liuer, splene and the mother, cūming of a colde cause: it breketh the stones of the reines and bladder [Page 167] It may be drunck alone or with sugar. Take the routes of Ruscus, Sperage, Dianthos, Hartes tung, Ceterach, Polytrichi, ✚ Pentilidion, Liuer wurt, Lumworte, G [...]amen, Senecion, Cretani ✚ simplicis, Centory, Psylii: the siedes of Citrulli, Melones, Gourdes, Cucummers, Rusci, Sperage, Smalage, Persely of Macedo. Fenell, Lenistici, Ammeos, Sileris montani, Damei, Saxifrage, Milii solis, Xilobalsami, Pencedani or flourede luce, Iui of the tree & of ye ground, the gum of Iui, kernels x of cheries, Cantharidum or Cariarborum, Lapidis Spongis, ✚ Plumbū, he Gootes bloud, whyt vinegar (Artichogh) the siedes of the les Tesill (pera­uenture the les siedes of Tesil) Cinamon, Spicknard, the sied of Acorus burned, Netels, Trifolii, Brēbles of ye sea, also


land Brēbles, of eue­ry one as much as ye list. Let thies be put in a great pot with a xx large bottom & a nar­rowe mouthe, whiche shalbe couered aboue with clay. Also ny vn­to the mouth let a hool be made where ye head of ye pyp called Embo­tū, may be set also let them bee tied, & their make a slow fyer vnder the first pot, so yt the mat­ter xxx siething may not tuch the heed of ye Embotū so y vapour passing by ye Embotū to an other pot, in [Page 168] the vpper mer shalbe gathered together, and shal be turned into a very cleer liquor & subtil, whiche is receiued in the nether pot. This Rogerius wry­teth: suche wordes as I suppose to bee corrupted of the writers or printers I thought good to note it with this signe. ✚

VVaters of Capons.

WAters of Capons, as men call them, ar x giuen to drinke to restore the strengthe, to women in chyldbed or old sickmen, in diseases of great weacknes, or through to muche euacuation. They are wont to sieth the capon very long in water, that al the flesh may fal from the bones, and be destilled together with the liquor, ether by it selfe, or other precious waters put vnto it, and spices, gold, syluer and precious stones. Sum allow the capon the more the elder he is: nether do they cut his throot, but strangle & xx chooke him: nether do they pluck of his fethers by hoot water, or skalding him, but with their hands (dry) and so when his bowels are taken out and he is cut in small pieces, they destill hym. Other do not take away all, but the guttes only.

A water of a capon restoritiue and sumwhat bynding. Thou shalt sieth the capon in water ac­cording vnto the arte, & put to it a pounde of rose­water: conserue of roses borage, buglos, of euery one an vnce. Of both kyndes of corall: of ether of xxx them two drams: of the spyces diarhodon abb. a [Page 169] dram. Small rasins without y curnels an vnce: Coriander prepared half an vnce: the fregmentes of all (precious stones) pearles, of euerye one an vnce and a half. Let them be destilled.

An other. Let the Capon be sod with a pound of bief til it be sufficiently sodde: whereunto thou shalt ad Malmsey, Roose water, of ether halfe a pounde: white breade, that it maye be sookte .iii. ounces: thou shalt beat these without the bief, and put to these spices folowing Spices electu. of precious x stones, Diarhodon Abbatis. Diamoschu that is swiet, of euery a dram. Diamargariton, spices of confection agaynste the Pestilence, of ether two scrup .viii. leaues of pure golde. Mixte them all with the iuyce or brothe and let them be destylled wyth a slowe fyre.

Some dres this water with saffron and cinna­mon. &c. for wemen in child bed, whiche be bothe weake, and theyr flours or loosenes of their body commeth not forwarde. It is ministred ether a­lone xx or with suger.

Some also dres it withoute destillacion thus. They sethe very long an old capon boyled & drest accordingly: then they beat smal the guts and the bones, and in a tinnen or glasen vessel wel stopt & set in a caudron ful of sethinge water, they sieth it for the space of .vi. houres. Som cast gold into it, as rings or coynes of golde.

A certain water with a capon or a cock or a hen soden together with diuers cōfortable medicins, xxx is described in Gnainerius in the chapter of curing [Page 170] ye hectical or cōsuming feuer: not to be destiled, but sodē only in a glasē vessel, put in a ketle of water.

VVaters composed for diuers disea­ses, within ye body chiefly, wherof some are made of medicins and iuyces, whiles they be yet newe, o­ther are infused and put into the iuices of plāts or waters destilled, whay, or bloud.

A Water causing slepe .ii. vnces of Henbane: an vnce of the rotes of Mandragora. vi. drams of Popy: Gith, Aumber of ether of them .ii. drās: se­dum x the bigger and the les, the water Lily, Let­tes, of euery one an handful, when they are pund, let them be put in .ii. poūd of water of popy, with an ounce and a half of the sede of Darnell for the space of .ii. daies, let them be destilled.

An other causing slepe. Take the seede of Dar­nell a pound: half a pound of the sede of Henbane: ii. poundes of the sede of Purslan: iii. vnces of the sede or rote of Mandrag: as muche of Alkekengi, whē they are pund, pour to thē a poūd of ye iuice of xx benes turned vp set down, as much of the rotes or leues of Henbane: half a pound of the iuyce of the leaues of black popy, or if it be lacking, or red, mi­nister an ounce of this water when it is destilled. It is vehement, and of great vertue.

A water called stony, ye third of Aegidiꝰ, becaus it breketh ye stone. The sede of Pimpernel, Petro­selini, Apii, Ari, (otherwis Caryophylli, Musterd sede, leuing out Aro & the bur: also Apii, bothe the herb & the rote for the sede is named before) burs, xxx Mastiches, of eueri one like much, whē thei ar wel [Page 171] pūd, let thē be mixt wt the blud of a linx, (otherwis a he Gote & better) & a little Vineger poured to it, let thē stand a few daies in a vessel wel closed: and thē at the last let them be destilled. It is good for thē that be troubled with the stone, what manner of stone so euer it be, red, white, sharpe, or plane: if so be it the stone be confirmed & gathered to some strēgth, let the paciēt drink of this water eueri dai for so shal it be brokē & brought into sād. If so be icabd heds be washt once a day wt this water, thei x shalbe made hole, & new heeres shall spring, & the scabs shalbe cured within .ix. dais (otherwise any kind of scabs washt therwt, is made hole wtin .iii. or .iiii. dais.) If it be drōk fasting, it maketh good blud & good colour) more thē any other medicin) merueilouslye, it strengtheneth the sinewes, and taketh away the falling sicknes, if it be drūk twise a day. Otherwise is added. It heleth clene ye pal­sy, if it be not dead in ye mēbres. Aegidius & Lullꝰ.

An approued vvater for the sores xx of the raines and bladder, by the cardi­nall of Tutellis.

CAudae equinae, plantain, red roses, the grains of Alkekēgi, the rotes of holy hok, shauen or scraped licoris, of eueri one an vnce: Iuiubarū Sebestē, of ether of thē .vi. drās: bol armoniak half an vnce: iiii. cummen sedes, could, great clēsed, of euery one .iii. drās: the sede of white popy .vi. drās half an ounce of cytoniorum, of the thinnest of go­tes xxx milk .vi. pound. Let thē stand .ii. daies in the [Page 172] infusion or soking, and after let them be destilled. Geue the sick to drinck .iiii. vnces warm, so longe as the disease continueth Epiphanius Empiricus.

An other water composed, the second amongst the waters of Aegidius: it is red of also in ye booke of Lullus of waters. Rue, Satyrion with ye hauds and stones, Selandin, (otherwise Rue, Agrimony, Satyrion, Chelidoni) Suger (otherwise Tutia) & the stone called Calaminaris, al of like weight pūd must be destilled with a slow fire. This water ex­celleth x in many vertues. No disease of the eyes is so obstinate and great, but it wil vanish awai and geue place to this medicin. Being drunke, it dry­ueth away all poyson, other taken wyth meates: for so it auoydeth the poyson by vomit. It cureth ye dropsy, it purgeth the stomak from al ill humors: it quencheth ye holy fire in one day, if flax dipt in it be laid vpō ye sore. It is good also against ye fire of a blak disposiciō & white without (or as a certain Dutch boke hath, against ye inward heat of ye fire: xx for if it appere red wtout, it shal in no wise be con­uenient to lay on a plaster. It healeth the canker if aloes be mixt with it, and a little towe of hempe dipt in it be laid like a plaster vpō it twise a day.

A water composed, the fyrste amongste Aegidius waters.

HIssop, peny royal, Charyo. Cikory, of e­uery one a drā: let them be pūd & destil­led. After take tutiae, persly of Alexan. Rue, Zedoaria, aloes, & the stone called xxx calaminaris, of euerye one a dram, when they are [Page 173] pund, sieth thē in ye forsaith water till y third part be wasted, & the liquor streyned with a cloth, thou shalt kiep it in a glas diligently closed nyne days (otherwyse .xl.) Afterward let it be giuen in drink euery day in the morning before day (other wyse, by the space of .x. daies) to the sick fasting. It is proffitable against the falling sicknes if he that takes it continue fasting after it six houres. And truly it is a moste effectuall remedy. It heeleth al resolucion of the sinewes, and the members are x strengthened therby. If it be drunck with Casto­rium, it is good against all goutes, whiche hath not taken rout yet in the members. If it be drunk ix. daies together fasting, it puttes away all ma­ner of agues, what matter soeuer it cum of (if it be drunk .ix. daies euery morning early. This water is also moste profitable to wash woūdes in which the sinues are cut.)

An other of Aegidius, the .ix. in number, other­wyse they call it double. The siede of Apii, the sied xx of whyt Popy, Apii, ginger (otherwise, The sied of Apii, whyte Popy, sugar, Carioph.) of euery one equall weght. Pund in a morter, put to it conser­uatiue water, (that is destilled of persely) and de­still it. This is the chiefest remedy for the cough and brest ill at eas. If a man drinke it coulde fa­sting, and in the euening as hoot as he can. If it be drunken hoot with Castorio, it is good against the disease called Apoplexia, it healeth also the mē bers sicke of the Palsy, if so be the Palsy be not xxx deed in the mēbers. It bringeth sliep & rest easly: [Page 174] it chereth all the members, it driueth away il hu­mors, and strengtheneth the heed and the brayne.

An other, the sixe in number amongst Aegidius waters. Gladiolus Hyssop, Sauin, Sothernwood, (otherwys the sied of Sothernwood, leuing out Sauin, I like it not) of euery one lyke much, beate them together, and let it stand a certain daies, thē destill it. This water is of greet strēgth. It with standeth all agues both hoot and cold. It prouo­keth wemens floures if it be drunk thrys, but it is x hurtfull to wemen with chyld, and will destroy it. It stauncheth the bluddy flyx and other flyx, (I would say rather that it styreth bloud rather eue­ry where, then to stop: an other booke speeketh of nothing but stopping the flix of the bely.) It pur­geth ye stomack frō ill humors. It killeth worms being drunken fasting, it cureth al the grief, with Castorio, it heeleth the palsy (if it be drunke daily very hoot) within .iii. daies. The same descriptiō fynd I in the booke of Lullus of waters. xx

A vvater agrinst the Pestilence, &c. of the bloud of a Wether or gelded Ram, out of a certain Duche writen booke.

TAke a Wether that is all whyte and in good plyt and well lyking: cut his throot, receiue ye bloud and stur it whyle it is fresh and new a good space with a stick of red Iuniper: and euer in the sturring, cast away the clotes that is gathered of xxx the bloud or lopperd bloud. Then cast in the sha­uinges [Page 175] of the same Iuniper & the beries of Iuni­per that be red lykewyse, to the number of .xxv. And vnto thies a litle of Agrimony, Rew, Pheu, Scabious, Veronica, commonly so called, Pimper­nell, Cicory, Peny royall, of euery one a handful. If so be it the mesure of the bloud excied thre Sex­tarts, then put to it .ii. vnces of Triacle, but if it be les, according the portion of the bloud, thou shalt lesson the mesure of Triacle. They must al be prepared redy at hand that they may be put into the x bloud whyle it is yet warme. When they are all mixt, draw out a stilled liquor, whiche thou shalt kiep diligently in a glas and set it in the sun .viii. daies: for it wil endure for .xx. yeares, it is knowē by experience that this liquor is excellent good a­gainst the pestilence, the impostumes of the heed and the sydes or ribes, or against the diseases of ye liuer and lightes, the inflacion of the splene, cor­rupt bloud, ague, swellinges, trēbling of the hart, the dropsy, vnnatural heates, il humors, and chief xx ly aga ynst poysons and the pestilent ague. The sick that is taken with any of the foresaid diseases shall drinke a spounful, or .iiii. or .v. droppes, and procure hym self to sweete.

Of pur ging medicines, composed destilled.

THey also are to be called cōposed waters, that xxx ar destilled of medicines composed, & stiept in [Page 176] wyne, burning water or other liquor. Certain cō ­positions of spices to restore the strengtes of the hart and the spirites, are mixt with waters of ca­pons, drest by destillations as I sayd before: also with burning waters, or rather Quint essence of wyne, against the pestilence and poysons, as we declared before. But also purging medicines, Ele­ctuaria chiefly in the whiche Dacry dium and other vehement thinges hurtfull to the stomack are re­ceiued, mixt with the liquors, specially with bur­ning x water rectified, or with wyne (perauenture also with milke and wyne, or with milck or whay alone, in hoot natures and diseases, it should dooe well) and sumtimes let stande in infusion or soo­king, they are artificiously destilled, that thei may be giuen to drinck to them that are deinty or rich, or exceeding weake, or haue their stomack abhor­ring against other medicines: whiche Lullius also prayseth greetly, and certain practicioners of any acquaintaunce haue vsed it with prayse. I know xx a certain man, that destilled chiesly an electuary named Hamech, & that whiche is of ye iuice of Ro­ses, and gaue to drinke vnto the weeker sort the liquor that he receiued by it selfe: to them that were stronger, he myxt sum of the elctuary with it: and so he said he purged sick men without any grief.

With Helleborum is a water made, that resto­reth youth: such one sawe I my father haue. But suche waters vex the bodies, and make a fallible image of youth. Cardanus. xxx

Gold Potable or that may be drōken.

OF potable gold, who so list he may read much in the booke of Vlstadius whiche he nameth the heauen of philosophers: & in the boke of Lullus of quint essence. That there is vertue in gold, whiche commeth of it made hot and quenched in water, that maye be an argumente, that the water wherin a wedge of iron or golde is slekt, is commended of Nicander x against the poyson called Aconitum: for it semeth to be vnderstanded of water, wherein these met­talles shoulde be quenched, when as he nameth none other liquor. Quench (saith he) red hat iron or the dros of iron, or red hot golde or siluer dip it in a troubled potion or drink. Where the expositer saith: Quensh iron in water and drink it, and a li­tle after: quench the dros of iron in hony & drinck the intinction, so calling the liquor wherein anye any thing is quenched. Dioscorides bids to quēch xx in wine (as Auicenna also hath, and Aegineta, and also Aetius, who saith that a miln stone so slekt is holsom, and that the wine should be druncke hot) with these wordes: and the dros of iron, or iron it self or gold, or siluer red hot quēched in wine, if yt liquor be dronk. And trueli it semeth that wine is more apt to receiue ye vertue of gold, then water. When as I on a time tasted water, wherin golde was often quenched, I could perceiue no quality of the sauor or the tast to be altered in it. Again, it xxx is credible yt burning water, specially suche as is [Page 178] brought vnto quint essēce doth draw more strēgth of the gold thē wine: & the more if the gold be bea­ten into most thin plaits, & most of all if it be betē into pouder. But the oyl that coms of golde shall pas al these. As for gold simplely sod, as in ye bro­the of capōs, there is no strength in it all, except a mās opinion cādo any thing, as I beleue withal learned men for the most part. Of the vertues of gold, rede Auicenna in his secōd boke. 78. cha. But because ye purest is to be chosē for medicins, I wil x bring in here Plinies words out of his. 33. boke a bout thend of the .iiii. chap. of ye purging of gould. Let gold be rosted & broyled with thrise as muche in weight of the clots or lūps of salt: and agayne wt .ii. procions of salt & one of the stonecalled schi­ston: so it yeldeth his strength to the things burnt with it in an earthen vessel, it self remaining pure & vncorrupted. I coniecture yt Plini in this place did mistake schistū the stone, for schistū an alū: for in an other place (the. 35. boke. 15. cha.) he writeth xx yt gold is purged with black alū. That kind of A­lum is most excellēt of al other, that is called schis­tum, yea and the reason taken of the vertues, ma­kes more for Alum: for he saith gold is purged wt salt only and schistu [...] put vnto it: but Alum hathe more like effect vnto salte then the stone Schistos, wherunto the old writers ascribe none other ver­tue, but yt which it hath cōmun wt the Haematit (of which kind it is) that is to stop bloud. But Alum is taken and vsed in the purging of metals: also xxx in Aqua Forti (as they call it.) Notwithstanding [Page 179] Plini may be excused, because the worde stoone is more cōmon and of larger signification with hym for he nameth both quick siluer and manye other metally things, stones, wherfor he might call the Alum Schiston by the name of Schiston. Albeit he shoulde not haue so done, for the difference of that which is proprely called a stone Schistus. In the same place of Plini, after the words now rehersed is put: The rest of the ashes (that is to saye, of the salt, with the which being burnt together, ye golde x is purged: or with .ii. parts of the salt, and one of Schistum) kepte in an earthen pot, and tempred wyth water, annoynted vppon the face, it healeth the disease beginning in the chin called Lichenes, or like foul breakings out: which shalbe conueni­ently washt away with Beane meale. It healeth also Fistulaes, and they that be called Hemorods. If so be it when it is beaten Spuma be put to it, it amendeth corrupt and stinking biles and sores. Decocted with hony and Melanthio, and annoin­ted xx vppon the nauell, it lightlye [...]oseth the bellye M. Varro saith it healeth wartes. Here in the first woordes, the ashes kepte and annoynted no man can doute, but he speketh of ashes: but that which foloweth of decoction and annoynting, seme to be long to the gould it selfe. But in my indgemente, ought to be red so that those wordes decocted and annoynted be referred vnto the ashes, as bothe the consequency of the text, & also the maner of the medicins do requyre. For salt is vsed of phisiciōs xxx (Diascordes & other) agaīst Lichenes, ringworms [Page 180] itches, against al maner of vucums, red inflāma­cions, & tetters: and broyled or parched with ho­ny, against running cankers. &c. The men of our country rub children warts with salte and soute. And alum, as Plini saith, asswageth rotten sores and biles, with fat: the frettinge cankers of biles with vineger or burnt with as much in weight of gals, with .ii. parts of salt (in which maner of proportion also it is mixt for to purge gold) the disea­ses that sprede abrode. Moreouer by the name of x Spuma which signifieth fome. Plini vnderstādeth Halosachnē, as also the. 31. of ye. 7. I find nothing noted by Hermolans or Gelenius vpon this place. But as gold is purged wt alum, so is also Misy, as the same Plini witnesseth. 34. 12. & bi an other me­nes, wt quick siluer, rede Plini. 33. 6. That it may be purged, it is sod with leed: the same. 33. 3. An o­ther way to pourge the same, Cardanus describeth in his .vi. boke of subtilty.

Potable gould. Take the hony & combes of a xx swarm of yōg bees, wherwith thou shalt mixt am­brā griseā, Sperma ceti. Agallochū, lōg peper, Cari­ophyllos nuce moschata, saūders & pure gold. Let these stād in hors dōg. 30. dais. After destil thē in a limbek in ye bath: then grind yt mater yt is remai­ning vpō a stone, & pour again vpō it y water de­stilled, & destill it again in ashes: This water dis­solueth gold. If the potable gold be hardned, take of it ye bignes of a pees, & put it into an egge hard rosted, ye yelk takē out: so shal it be resolued: geue xxx the sick this to drinke: it strengtheneth by it selfe, an author whose name is not exprest.

[Page 181] The chymistes make a lyquor of massy gould, whiche drinke, as they say cheereth the body. George Agricola.

It lyketh wyse men, that to eate meat drest in vessels of gould, or with the decoctiō wherof plai­tes of gould were adioyned: and to drinke wyne wherin plaites or mony of golde were quenched oftentimes, procureth vnto the hart good state, & hath great force. Arnold of conseruing youth.

In the Quint essence of wyne, gould, siluer, peer x les, and precious stones, also other metalles may be dissolued, to make potable gould. But this re­solucion of gould belongeth moore to chymistes then to physicions. Philip. Vlstad. the .ix. chapter, and furthermore: where as who so list shall reed more of potable gould.

Wyne wherin plates of gould haue bien quen­shed .xl. or .l. times, is vsed of certain in the steede of potable gould. Arnold de villa noua.

The same in his boke of wyn: Wyne that hath xx gould quenshed therin (saith he) hath a great pro­pertie in many condicions: it is made, by quen­shing the plaites of gould in good wyne .iiii. or .v. tymes: let it stande to cleere, and when it is dily­gently streined let it be kept, for it hath vertue to comfort the hart, and it drieth vp the superfluities of al other dregges from the bloud. And it is able to lighten the substance of the hart and the spirit with his brigthnes, to comfort it with his massy­nes: and with the temperatnes therof to temper xxx and preserue it, to purge the bloud, and with the [Page 182] ponderosity and weight therof to inclyne the su­perfluities to the partes of expulsion, and to con­serue youth. It conserueth the vertues of the principall partes in his actions, and by his temperat­nes it louseth the vrine restreined. It heeleth the falling sicknes and them that haue lost their sen­ces, it is holsome also for lepers. Many at this tyme riche men and princes wil haue certain par­celles of gould to be sodde with their dishes▪ other vse thē in Panellis with electuaries, other in pou­ders: x for in the confection of Diacameron the fy­ling hoth of gould and of siluer is vsed. Sum are wont to hold a piece of gold in their mouth and to swalowe the spetle. It is plain that siluer kept in a mans mouthe quenshed the thirst: and corrall comforteth the stomack, both holden in the mouth and hāged about the neck, so that it hang toward the stomack: for I haue tried that it letteth the troubling therof. Other conuert gould into a water that may be drunk, which way without doubt xx is the best and other vse it otherwyse, accordyng to the diuers condicions of men & temperamētes. Surely gold is a secret thing, most perfect composed of an equall temperature & marueylous pro­porcion of the elementall vertues, whereunto no mixt body may be compared. A woūd made with it is neuer inflamed: in electuaries it comforteth the sight, and maketh pure aboue all thinges the substance of the hart and the beginning of lyfe: it clooketh the leprosy and refreineth it. But thies xxx vertues ought to be attributed to trewe gould in [Page 183] dede and natural, not to chymisticall gould.

Elixir vitae which a certain friend of late cōmu­nicated vnto me by his letters with thies wordes The descriptiō of this medicin was sent vnto me from Rome, whiche whether it is able to dooe so much as it promiseth I haue not yet tried. Quēsh gould. iii or .iiii. times in wyne or ofter according to the quantitie of the wyne. Then destil it in Bal­neo Mariae foure times, and thou shalt vse it in di­uers diseases, as well hoot as could, adding hoot x or could medicines, and sumtimes sum good try­acle, as the disease shall requyre.

Sum extoll & prayse highly the spirit or Quint essence of gould, for to heele the defaues of ye liuer.

Certain vvaters composed against the diseases of the eyes.

A Marueilous water to conserue ye sight, and against the blemish or spot of the xx eyes. The leeues of Rewe, Mint, red Roses, Sage, Maydē heer (other leue out Mint & Sage, and for them ad Fenell, Veruin, Eybright, Betony, water wythy of the moū ­tayne, and Endiue) of euery one syx handfull, let them be put in in whyt wyne for the space of a na­tural daye, that is xxiiii. houres, then let them be stilled in a limbeck. The water that shal first run out, is cōpared vnto syluer, the second vnto gould, the third vnto baulm, and this must bee diligently xxx kepte in a glas. Lullius.

[Page 184] A water for all the diseases of the eies that bee curable, out of Aegidius and Lullius, we haue de­scribed it before emongest the waters composed for diuers inward diseases.

A water composed for the eyes. About the begin­ning of May gather Selandyn, Veruin, Rewe, Fenell, pun them seuerally, and take .iii. vnces of the iuice of euery one of them, then mixt them, put to a litle of the grien braunches (as the Frenche men call them the Pampes) of Roses .iii. vnces of sugar candy .iiii. vnces of the best Tutia, and as muche of Dragons bloud. Whē all thies ar pund thou shalt mixt them together and destill them in alymbeck of glas. The liquor that rūneth forth, thou shalt let stande .ii. or .iii. daies in a receiuer, & then vse it. It is of great vertue for eyes that bee ill at ease, red, or haue the web in the eye.

The water of the vyn together with hony sub­limated by the fyre, cureth the bleerednes of the eyes specially. The munkes in Mesuen. That is xx the water of the vyn (say they) whiche in vere the spryng tyme, when the vynes are cut, destilleth very cleer, out of the places that are cut, for cer­tain daies. This water without any destillacion, putteth away the prickings, and heet of the eyen, and clarifieth the sight hindred by a hoot cause, if a man put in both the corners of the eye one drop, Rogerius.

A water or an oyll made of Sponsa solis sharpe­neth the sight, and cureth any disease of the eyes xxx within fyue daies, &c. read after emongst the dec­king [Page 185] waters, emongste them that be ordeined to the dying of the heare. A water for eies in sōmer, to preserue the sight, described by Io. Maynardus in his Epistles the .vi. iiii. Three partes of Ro­ses, the herbs of Fenel and Rue, of ether one part and let them be wel mixte together: and after .iii. daies let a water be destilled, other in onlye va­pour of siething water, or in the sun, or in Balneo Mariae, as they cal it, so that a handful of the same herbes (better if they be dried, in mine opinion) be x put into the receiuing vessel, that the drops maye fall vpon them: and the mouth of the receiuer and the nose of the vpper vessel must be diligētly ioy­ned together and closed, that the vapors may not get oute.

Certaine vvaters for the eyes out of Rogerius.

FIl a stilful of the leaues of Agrimony, xx Veruin, Fennel, Rue, Memitha, & Leui­sticus cut: sprinkle vpon it a little white and cleare wine, and destyll it in claied vessels. This liquor represseth the swellinge of the eie lids of a colde cause: it drieth vp the blea­rednes: it stoppeth the flowinge of teares: it clea­reth the sight: breaketh bleamishes or spottes (I suppose he meaneth cornes or Pearles.) If thou wilt haue it stronger to breake spots or perls, ad vnto it Gallitricum, and Morsum Gallinae (anagal­lis) xxx with red floures.

[Page 186] A man may get a water oute of Fenell also for the same causes. For a liquor gathered of ye rotes and leaues of Fenell sod in water, with a basen laid vpon the water while it yet sietheth, is kept in a phiall, and one drop is put in the corner of ye eie euery dai morning and euening for the forsaid causes, by commun experience.

To breake the spot or perle, mixt with the for­said waters, myrhe, and Aloes pund: & put a drop of the liquor streined in ether corner of the eye x early and late.

A water destilled of the floures of white thorn and willow, putteth awaye prickinges, heates or rednes of the eyes: it stoppeth teares comming of a hot cause, and breaketh the spottes or pearles of the same cause.

A water of the leaues (flours) of Eufragia stop­peth teares comming of a cold cause, and maketh slender the eie lids that swell of the same cause: it breaketh spots or pearles of the same cause, and xx restoreth the sight that hath any impediment. I wold say that Enphrag did not heate, but wer tem­perate, or els doth coule moderatly in the first de­gree, and drieth in the second.

An excellent water for the debility of the sight, described by Gordonius. Take Selandin, Fennell, Rue, water withy of the mountain, Eufrage, Ver­uin, red Roses chosen, of euery one a half pounde, lib. s. Cloues, Longe Peper, of ether two ounces. When they are brused together destill them in a xxx limbecke of glasse wyth a slowe fyre, and put of [Page 187] it euery daye in the eyes.

An other of the same mans for Fistulaes, which it is certaine, it wyll heale. Two pounde of good white wine destilled in the same vessell that Aqua vitae is: the water of Rosemarye, Sage, of euerye one .v. poundes: Suger .ii. pound: when they are destilled againe, put to them an ounce of Sage, and as much of Rosemary. When they are stiepte together eyghte dayes, thou shalt strayne it and vse it. x

A water for the Cancar in what part of the bo­dye so euer it be. The herbe called Cancar, which is also called Doue foote, the floures of Quinces, the floures of Cerifolium, the bowes or leaues of the Breer Idaea (which the frenchmen cal Frambo­sia) and a few white Roses, hony and white wine, and the Alum whyche the Frenche men name of glasse. Let all theese be destilled together: Andre­as Furnerius.

A water of a Moldwarpe, &c. for all kynde of xx Gutta or drop, noli me tangere, scalles of the head, the roose drop and the wolfe: reade afterwarde a­mongste the trimming or deckinge waters, wher the waters inuented for the dyinge of heare are rehearsed. We wyll referre amongste the trim­myng waters also, those waters wherwith whel­kes and little Pushes or Biles in the face, are made hoale.

Of vvaters of svviet sauoure. xxx

[Page 188] DIuers waters are made for the onli de­lectation of smel, to sprinckle vppon the hands, the face and heare bothe of theyr head and beard: also vpon their linnen, napkins or handkerchiefs, garmēts, as wel that they weare, as also their bed clothes: wherunto it communicateth the pleasauntnesse of [...]auour, not only by sprinkling, but also when it is hot by the vapoure. Roose water also comes in vre to sau­ces of meates: and onlye it, as I thincke of all x these kynde of waters, for it is receyued bothe to season meates, and is poured vppon rosted fleshe whyles it is yet hotte &c. But of smellinge wa­ters some are moore symple, some composed of manye thynges. Vnto bothe of them waters of vertue, whyche oure countrye men call Golden, may be ioyned and reckened: for of these some are more simple, other composed. But golden waters for the mooste parte all are receiued wythin the bodye, and all are made wyth hearbes or spyces xx infused in wine or burninge water. Smellinge waters as we call them simplelye, otherwise as it shall be plaine by the example followinge. A­gaine, smellinge waters are ether destilled hoole, or els after the destyllacion, certaine precyous smelling thinges are added vnto them. Som are made without any destillacion at all.

The Pouder of the Floure Deluce, mixte wyth hotte water, maketh it to smell, and is vsed of Barbers. The Floures of Lauendula xxx [Page 189] or Lauender, and muche rather of that whiche is communly called Spick, both grien and drye are put into water, or wyn, or burning water in a vessel wel stopt & set in the sun, that thei may infect it with their smell. But if they be yet fresh & moyst, they turn the wyn almoste into vynegar, which if they be dry they do not so. The liquor shalbe made the more smelling if the flowers bee dryed in the sun in a glas closed, and afterward whyt wyne be put to it. If so be it a man desyer to haue a swiet x water forthwith and by and by, let him put a drop or two of oyle of Spick vnto a good deele of pure water, and chauf it together in a glas with a na­row mouth. Al thies although they be made with out destillacion, the same notwithstanding being right destilled, specially if certayn other thinges be mixt with thē, other precious▪ as Muske, Am­bra, ziuet, Caphura, Agallochū, or meaner thinges as Assadubis, Styrap, and Stacte, Myrh, or any o­ther spyces, chiefly cloues: or elles thinges of les xx estimation as Roses, the barkes of flowers or leaues of Orenges, Lymons, Arentii, Bay leaues, commun swiet herbes, Rosemary, Amaracus, Ba­sill. &c. they shalbe made much the swieter. Saf­fron is to strong, and stuffeth the heed.

Rosevvater vvith muske, Saffron, Cloues, Caphura out of Bulcasis.

WIth Musk. Put a croun of good Musk, beten in two poūdes of Rosewater, in the xxx bely of a glas still. And destill it by litle & [Page 190] litle, then put it in a glas well stopt. It is a water marueilous swiet, and conuenient for a king, that their clothes may be sprinkled therwith.

With Saffron. Put half an vnce of good Saf­fron in two poundes of Rose water (for the space of one day) and destill it. This water is holsom to be mixt with medicins, also for smel & garnishing

With Cloues. Put half an vnce of Cloues (be­ten) in a pound and a halfe of Rose water .xxiiii. houres and destill it. x

With Caphura. Destill an vnce of Caphura wt a poūd of rosewater & vse it in medicines for kings

After the same maner is Roosed water made with Saunders, and other spices (swiet smelling) what so euer a man will. Sum destill all thies in pure water in stede of Rosewater.

A thre leued herb thei cal it Tribulū at Rome, an herb most swiet of sauor, which they destil for per fumes and to make diuers other wanton swiete sauoures. The munkes in Mesuen. xx

A water of swiet sauour, wherwith the streng­thes of the heed, hart and stomacke are reuiued▪ foure handfull of the flowers of Lauendula. Ro­ses whyte and red of ether two handful. Rosema­ry, Caryophyllata, newe and freshe Cyperus, the barke of Citranguli, of euery one a handful. Mint Sage, Tym, Bay leues or Peny royall, of euery one halfe a handfull .iiii. vnces of Cloues. Ga­lingall, Nucis mosch. Calamus, Aromaticus, Gin­ger, Cinamon, the flowers (I thinke better the xxx rootes) of flower deluce, of euery halfe an vnce. Six poundes of whyte wyne (or q. s. that is as much as shall suffise.). When they are pund let thē [Page 191] be put into a glas well closed for the space of eight daies. afterward vse them. It is excellent to wash the handes, if thou mixt a litle of it with a great dele of pure water. A mā may vse it also destilled, & put in a scruple of musk. Epiphanius Empericus.

An other of the same mans, delectable with a maruelous swietnes of sauour. ziuet, Muske, of ether a dram, let it be tyed in a fyne linnen cloth & let it be set to sooke in two poundes of Rose wa­ter a few daies in the sun. x

An other of the same mans of a very swiet sa­uour. Basill, Mint, Samsuchum or Maioram, flo­wer deluce, Hyssop, Balsamita. (I take it to be Si­symbrium) Sauery, Sage, Melissa, Lauender, Rosemary, of euery one halfe a handfull. Cloues, Cinamon, Nutmegges, of euerye one an vnce. The pome Citrangula (of the kynd of Citriorum, the figure of an egg. of a yeloowe wax colour) iii. or .iiii. Let them be beeten and set .iii. daies in ro­se water, then let them be destilled with a slowe xx fyre. When the destillatiō is finished, put to a scruple of Muske, and set it in the sun.

An other of the same mans of most excellent sauour. Thre poundes of Rosewater, Cloues, Ci­namō, Saūders, Citrinorū, of euery one .vi. drā .ii. handful of the flowers of Lauender .vi. drās of Assa dulcis, Malmsey, Aqua vitae, of ether .ii. vnces. Let it stand a moneth to soke in ye sun, wel clo­sed in a glas, or vpon ye top of a furnace of a stouf. Then destil it in Balneo Mariae, and at half a drā xxx of Muske to the destillacion. Then let it stand .x. dayes in the sun or aboue the fornace, & so vse it,

[Page 192] It is marueylous pleasaunt in sauour.

VVaters of svviet sauour of Andreas Furnerius, in his Frenche booke of the garnishyng of mans nature.

A Water of wonderous swietnes, for the perfuming of the shietes of a bed, wher by the hooll place shal haue a moste ple­saunt sent. Put into a litle phial of glas x xviii. or .xx. graines of Musk and ziuet, and a litle of Ambra. After filled full of Rosewater, set it o­uer the fyre, and when it is hoot take it away, thē let it stande to coule well cloosed. after you haue let it stand soo a two daies, you may vse it from thence forward. It is as good as though it were destilled. When thou wilt perfume thy shirt or o­ther linnen, put it in a vessell with a wyde mouth, and spreed the clothes vpon it boyling that they may drinke vp the vapour and breth of it. xx

An other maner of swiet water, whiche men call Cassoleptam, that is Capsula. Power into sum litle vessell of laton, a litle Rosewater made with muske and a litle ziuet and Cloues, Agallochum styrap calamita, when they are all pund against a fyre mixt them, and perfume any clothes that ye will with the vapour ascending there from. It is a marueilous swiet sauour, whiche if thou wilt kepe, close the vessell diligently, and when thou thinkest good, put more Rosewater vnto it, that it xxx may be renued.

[Page 193] An other. Thou shalt put into .iiii. poundes of Roosewater, Assa dulcis, somewhat grose bea­ten, Stirax, and Cloues, Camphora, Agallocum, of euery one an vnce, Musck, Siuet, of ether of thē xx. grains. Put these together in a glas shit with a parchment, prickt through with .x. or .xii. small holes, and let the vessel boile .iiii. houres in a ket­tle ful with water, as thoughe it were in Balneo Mariae. After when it is cold, straine it throughe a fine linnen cloth, and kepe it in a glas, in ye which x v. grains of Muske shal be put, which once moi­stened and stieped with the water, thou shalt stop the glas and set it in the sunne .v. daies. So shalt thou haue a wonderful well smelling water.

A swiet water and vnknown, wherof one part mixte with .x. partes of pure water, maketh the hoole moste swiet .xx. graines or there aboute of Muske (as the smel therof pleaseth the moore or les) Nutmegs, Cloues, Galingal, Spikenarde, graines of paradise, Mace, Cinamō, of euery one xx an ounce. All theese pund, let them be put into a glas mete to destil in, with a pound a half or ther aboute of Roosewater poured vnto it. Let it stād so for the space of .iiii. or .v. dayes: afterwarde put to it thryse as muche Roosewater, and destill all thys in a limbecke in a kettle full of water, sie­thing as in a Balneo Mariae. Thou shalt kepe the water gathered therof diligently stopt, for y same vse that the former serueth for.

An other excellent water. Two pound of the xxx water of the floures of Citri. One pounde of the [Page 194] water of red Roses: of Myrtus half a pounde. Of muske Roses a good quantitye, & likewyse of Ias­min (that is to say of the floures.) Of cloues halfe an vnce .iii. vnces of Assa dulcis well beaten, one vnce of Vernicis. Styrax calamita & red Styrax of e­ther half an vnce. All these pund & mixt with wa­ter thou shalt destil them in a glasen limbeck, the head and the receiuer diligently closed with clay, with a soft fire, or in a Balneo Mariae, or in a kettle full of siething water. x

A water of most swiet sauor, with ye which oyl is destilled also. The last being mixt with a hun­dreth times as much of pure water, doth sauoure it all with the swietnes therof: but this with a. M times as much. A pound of Myrre chosen, pure, new and fat beaten into smal peces: half a pound of the iuyce of Rooses: when they are mixte toge­ther in a limbecke, let them be destilled in ashes, wher first thou shalt separate the water wt a slow fire: thē make ye fire bigger & separat ye oyl: at last xx deuide the water from the oyl. That water ma­keth the face brighte. It closeth woundes, effec­tuallye, as well olde as newe. The oyle is mooste precyous, and dothe the same thynges that the water dothe, but muche sooner, as for example, it dothe that in an houre that the water is aboute a hoole daye. An ounce of thys water destilled, mixt with certain hundred times as much of pure wa­ter, maketh them all notably wel smelling: but an ounce of the oyle, if it be put to certayne hundred xxx poundes of pure water, doth the same.

[Page 195] A certaine Roosewater made wyth Muscke, whiche is required and vsed also inother compo­sitiōs. Put a .xii. graines or more of Muscke in a glas that is wide beneath, and narowe aboue: & so closed with a parchmente, set it in the sunne a iiii. or .v. daies. Afterwarde, take an other glasse like vnto it full of Rooses dried and beaten, stop ye mouth of it wt a fine & thin cloth, other linnē or of hear. Thē put ye mouth of ye vessell yt conteineth ye roses into ye mouth of thother, wherin the musk x is conteined, and stop it aboute diligentlye [...]oyth clay, and set it in the sun, so that the glas with ro­ses be the vppermost, the other beneath in a win­dowe or other where, where the heat of the sunne is vehement. Thou maist also sprinkle the Roses moderatly dried and beaten with good Rose wa­ter and so put them into a still. &c. Thys water most swiet, thou maist vse when thou wylt bothe alum, and also mixt with other composicions.

VVaters destilled called Cosme­ticall, xx that is perteininge to garnishynge and deckinge.

DEstylled waters for garnishinge, are deuyded also into certayne differences, for some are for the face, to make the coloure of it whyte, ruddye, bryghte, to put awaye wrinckles, to preserue and kepe it from Sunne burning, or to abolish the spots and xxx rusty roughnes in it. Other pertain to the heares [Page 196] and to the chaunginge of the coloure in them. O­ther make the tieth white.

Al the vse of Cosmetical and garnishing thin­ges, oughte not to be taken for vnhonest and vn­decent for a man that is wel instituted and godly mineded, for Galen also the mooste famous of all phisicions, prescribeth cosmeticall medicines not a few in his worcke of composicion accordinge to places: and he declareth that the vse of thē is ma­ny times profitable and honest. For the leudnesse x of certain maried men is suche, that for small and light faultes of their wiues, they are turned from the loue of them vnto harlots and hores, and cer­tain faults or blemishes are such, that a man of a bashful nature wold be ashamed to be sene abrode with them: some also bring vexation, or griefe, or itch, as certain whelks in the face. &c. I write not this vnto wemen, or other men, but vnto Phisici­ons only, who should be good and discrete men: y both otherwise they may vse these honest remea­dies xx and medicins, and chiefly whē such as these be, are required of the wifes of tried honestye of Kinges, Princes, and noble men. More of these thinges, and what the art of garnishinge, wherin honest garnishinge is soughte for, differs for the commeticall and deceitfull, thou shalt read in Ga­len of composi medic. sec. locos, the first boke. 2. ch.

Such Cosmetical waters as be simple, we wil not declare heare, as be the waters of Bean flou­res, Strawberies, Dew, Gotes milke: Read be­fore xxx of the water of strawberies, and of the same [Page 197] and other in Brunsvvick or Riffius. Yea Aqua vitae hath a certain cosmeticall and garnishing vertue, as we rehersed in his place.

Waters destilled of the leues of the peeche tree and Willowe, of lyk weight mixt together, do hele the red whelkes in the face, (the Frenche men call them rubiz) being moistened therwith.

A spyced wyne for the garnishing of wemen, whiche maketh the skin whyt, fyne, pure, and wel coloured. Put Ginger and Cinamon in wyn and x destill them as Rosewater. It is holsome also a­gainst all could complexions and moste against palsy. Arnold in his boke of wyne.

A garnishing water, wherwith wemen amend their thick grose skyn, black and skaly or skuruy, with Quick siluer sod in a raw eg, &c. thou maist fynd in Nicolas Massa vpon the frenche disease, in his .vi. booke .ii. chapter.

A water for the bewtifying of the face. The spume of syluer half a pounde: when it is beaten xx sift it, and in two poundes of whyte vinegar sieth it till the third part be consumed, sturring it with a stick, when it is sod destill it. At length ad to it half an vnce of Caphura, Aphronitrum, oyle of Tar taro, clouen Alum, of euery one an an vnce. strein it through a cors cloth, anoynt the face and neck. Epiphanius Empericus.

An other of the same mans, for the brightnes of the face. Take Lily routes, Arus, Dragons, of e­uery one whyles they be fresh, half a pound. half xxx a pound of the flowers of Beenes. Eigth vnces of [Page 198] Roosewater, destill them, put to it Moschocarii, Cinamon, of ether two drames. Washe the face therwith twyse a daye.

A very good water of the same mans for the same vse. Take flowers of Beenes, bitter Almō ­des, the leeues of Peeche trees, of euery one .iii. vnces, Gootes milke as muche as of all the rest. When they ar destilled put six or eight whytes of egges sod, which must be mixt with the water de­stilled, by & by destil it again and mixt with it .ii. x drams of Caphura.

A frenche water for litle moules, all scalynes & freckmes of the face. A pound of Tartarū, or lyes of wyne burnd till they be whyt: Mastick, Tragacā ­tha, of ether half an [...]nce. Sir drams of Campho­ra, iiii. whytes of egs. When they are pund & mixt in Rosewater, let thē be destilled. They cure mar­uelously. Epiphanius Empericus.

A water procuring vnto the face a Rooselyke and faire colour. Take a pynt of Aqua vitae thrys xx destilled: an vnce of Prasiliū: Cloues to the nūber often, & as many grains of Paradys: fiue Cubebas when they are all pund & sifted, heet them a litle with Aqua vitae in a vessel diligently couered, that nothyng breeth out by any meanes. Afterwarde when this mixtur is could again destill it in a lē ­beck of glas, with a very slow fyer, and thou shalt haue a good water & a cleer. When thou wilt vse it, wiet the face & skyn of the person with a sponge moistened therewith, for it maketh without all xxx doubt a Roose colour fayre and bewtifull. And [Page 199] this dying wyll continue a long time, for .ii. or. iii yeares. If thou canst not haue Aqua vitae, take reed wyne of Rupella the best thou canst fynde, a­bout the measure of Semiloti, a dutche wourd for half an vnce, for they call an vnce a loot, for there must be more measure of wyne, then Aqua vitae. But Aqua vitae is much better to the preparing of this water. This water garnisheth a mans skin subtilly & maruelously. Out of the writen booke, the author wherof is not declared. A lyke vnto x this shalbe declared by and by out of Gordonius. An other that taketh away the wrinkles & spots of the face, and clarifieth the skinne, of whytes of egges destilled: Reede before emongest the simple waters destilled in Balneo Mariae.

A maruelous water that putteth away Napas (litle whelkes or pushes or litle teetes, sum call them Napas, I thinke the Italians) Lupinas a­corns, kurnelles, Porros, that is, wartes, & what euel so euer groweth in any place of the body it taketh xx it away ii. pounds of oyl de bay, whyt fran­kensence, Mastick elect, Gum Arabick, cleer Tur pintyn, of euery one .iii. drams: When they are be­ten mixt altogether and destil them in a lembeck. And in this water thus destilled put half a pound of Cineris terrae & destil it again: and kiep this water as a tresure. The author is nameles. But it semeth that this liquor wilbe rather an oyll then a water, & saue only that ashes is added vnto it, it migth haue bien well asscribed vnto Balmes. xxx

A cosmeticall water that bewtifieth the face & [Page 200] breeketh the stoone, is described before aboute the end of the title where we entreted generally of the vertues of liquors destilled. Reed also Rogerius, in his fourth tretise the fift chapter.

¶ Certain Cosmeticall waters for the face, shalt thou fynd also by and by, in the waters that folow ascribed to the heares. Ther be also emōgst the Balmes hereafter, which serue to garnishing

Certain vvaters Destilled for the gar­nishing x of the face, out of Andreas Furnerius in his Frenche booke of the bewti­fying man kynde.

A Water for the brightnes and whytnes of the face. The flowers of whyt Roo­ses, of water Lily, Elder, Lilyes the chydes take out, of Beenes of the flow­ers of euery one of thies a pound. Half a pound of the water of Strawberies. Crums of whyt bred xx as miche as you shall thynke good .xii. whytes of egs .ii. vnces of whyte Frankensence. Into all thies let Cerussa pund be put for a nightes space. Let them all bee destilled in a Lembeck of glas: when the water is drawen out let it bee set in the sun, and washe the face therwith morning and e­uening, so that ye wype it not.

An other, that the face and the other partes of the body may retein a faire and youthfull form .ii. vnces of Aqua vitae: the water of of Been flowers, xxx Rose water, of ether .iiii. vnces. of Lily water .vi. [Page 201] ounces, when they are all mixt, put to them a drā of the whitest Tragacantha. After this water hath stand in the sunne .vi. daies, streine it throughe a faire linnen cloth. The vse of it is in the morning so that it be not wipte of.

An other for the brightnesse and beautye of the face. A water of the whites of egges newe laide, made by a spunge with like measure of the [...]ice of Limons, destill it as rosewater. Put vnto this water afterward, about .ii. ounces of communly, x and the limō beaten hole (the skin puld of rather) put it into the rest: after .viii. daies wring out the iuyce from it and mixt it with water. Let the face be washt first with pure water and wipt, let it be washt with this water destilled. It procureth an hansome beautye, conserueth the skin, and is vt­terly the best.

An other which Isabella of Aragonia duches of Millen vsed, knede the flour of whete Mele, wyth a Sextarium almooste a pinte .xx. vnces of Gotes xx milke: then bake the bread therof gentlelye in an ouen, and draw it out afore it be to muche baked. The crums of this bread cut in smal peces, or els crumd betwixt ons fingers and put in other new gotes milk, let it stand so .vi. houres. Thou shalt mixt with it the water of .xii. whites of egs made with the spunge: lime made of eg shels an ounce: Camphora, Suger, Alum, white corall, of euerye ii. drammes. When all these are pund, let them be mixt wyth the moyste thinges, and destylled in a xxx lembeck of glasse. A notable good water shal com [Page 202] therof, and most profitable to put away all vexa­cions growing in the face. It maketh the beauty of the face as excellent as is possible to be made.

An other to beautifye the face. The leaues of Roosemary, white Tartary, mixt them with whit wine, and vse the water drawne oute of it by a limbecke, as ye woulde do the former medicines for the same effect.

An other for the same. Set the floures of bea­nes in good white wine a day or .ii. in a glas bot­tell, x then destill them wyth a softe fire. The vse of it is, to wash the face therwith morning and eue­ning, but you must washe it first with a decoction of Cerussa. And you shal see it shortly worke.

An other that taketh away al maner of spots. Put into a glas like muche of Cristall and Co­rall, with water of Limones so much that it maye couer them and be a fingers bredth aboue them. Stop this vessell and put it in some colde place in the earthe as in a wine seller a fewe dayes. Then xx caste away the shelles and wash the snailes with water somewhat salt so ofte, till all their slimines be washt away. Then destill them and keepe the water. Afterward thou shalt draw out a water of rapes cut small by a limbeck. When thou wilt vse it, take a sponeful of the firste water .iiii. of the se­cond, and .iiii. of the third, mixt them and washe ye face, which notwithstanding must first be washt with water and wipte.

An other maruelous for the same purpoose. xxx Take snailes wythoute theyr shelles: and washe [Page 203] them as is before rehersed, then sprinckle an vnce of Salte (otherwise salte Gemmae) beaten, in a glasse and put the snailes there vpon: then sprin­kle other Salte vppon them againe, and snailes vppon that, and so shall you do continuallye lay­inge salte vppon Snailes, and Snailes vppon salte, till the thyrde parte of the vessell be fylled. Then poure vnto them so muche of the iuyce of Snailes, that it stande aboue the salt and Snai­les, two fingers thicke, and destyll them: vse thys x water as is aboue rehersed. If so be it thou canst not commodiouslye destill them, set them all mixt together in a cloose vessell, tyll they receiue the forme of an oyntmente, and that shall you vse at euenynge, as the other aboue wrytten Oynte­mentes (the face fyrste washte and wipte) and the seconde daye after washe the face wyth water of Beane floures. This also did I reade in the An­tidotary of Gordonius.

An other not destilled. Twelue Snailes, cut xx euerye one in .iiii. partes, put in good white wine. This liquor shalt thou vse as the aforesaide. It shall come to good succes.

After thys followeth a destylled water of a yonge Storke of the same effecte, and operation, whyche I described amongste the symple Medi­cinall waters.

An other manner verye good and secreate, (or vnknowne.) Sixe newe laide Egges, halfe a pounde of Malmsey, a yong Pigion not yet hole­lye xxx fetheared, Chese new from the pres yt is made [Page 202] [...] [Page 203] [...] [Page 204] of vnskimmed milcke .viii. Arantia Poma: oyle of Tartaro. iii. ounces, an ounce of Cerussa. Let thē be beaten that maye be beaten, and mixte altoge­ther, that they may be destilled wyth a slow fyre. The vse of this water is like the other before. It maketh a fair skin, fine, tender as is possible.

A washinge or Kynges water whyche aboly­sheth all spottes. Take water of cleare Turpin­tine, as muche as can be gotten out of .ii. pounds of it: put therein halfe an ounce of Masticke, x iii. ounces of white Frankensence, halfe an ounce of Tragacantha. When they are pund mixte them wyth the water, and destyll them, keepe the wa­ter. Then mealte Swines grease of a male Hog, vnsaulted, and strayne it throughe a double lyn­nen cloth. Then take white Ginger, Cloues, Ci­namon, Euphorbium, Spiknarde, Camphora, of euerye one two ounces, three Nutmegges, when all these are pund, myxt wyth the strayned Swi­nes grease: put vnto these two ounces of quycke xx Siluer often times washte wyth salte and Vi­neger and wrounge throughe a piece of Leather, and with this mixte the drosse (la feuille ou de la­uenre, as it is wrytten in Frenche) of quicke syl­uer (de couppelle.) When all is mixte together, de­still them, and keepe the water. Afterwarde take vi. ounces of the water of the forsaid Turpentin, and of the latter water twise so much, mixt them: and when you wyll vse them washe the face fyrste wyth a decoction of Cerussa and wipe it. xxx

Then poure about .vi. droppes of thys water [Page 205] mixt together into the palm of the hand, and wher thou wilt anoynt, couering the place anoynted or wet with a linnen cloth till it be dried. A maruei­lous effect and operacion shall folowe therupon.

An other of Snailes .xxx. whyte Snailes .ii. pound of gootes milke .iii. vnces of swynes grece, or els of a yong Kid: a dram of Camphora pund, let them be destilled in a lymbeck of glas.

An other. Take six vnces of the crums of the whytest breed, and wash it .ii. poundes of milke, x mixt it diligently and destill it, as is aboue sayd, and washe with it.

The water also of the whytes of egges destil­stilled is thought good.

An other that purifieth the face, two vnces of Mirh, whyte Frankencence, Mastich, of ether halfe an vnce. Gynger whyte .ii. drams: one dram of Camphora: a pound or a pound and a halfe of whytes of egges. When all is diligently mixt, let them be put in the bely of a yong hen and welly­king, xx the bowelles taken out. If thou wilt, put to a hen simpely, but flein and cut in small pieces.

Put to also Asses milke or Gootes milke aboute iii. Sextares (that is .ii. pyntes & a half .lx. vnces. Destill thies in a lembeck of glas.

That the face may shyne elegantly .xxx. newe laid egges, stiep them in vinegar the sharpest you can get for the space of .iii. daies and night: then boor them through with a pyn, that the humor wt in them may run al out. Destill all this in a Rose­still, xxx that the face may be washt therwith.

[Page 206] A water clarifying the face. Take the rout of Dragons made cleen and cut in to thin roundles, stiep them .ix. daies in whyte wyne, so that euery daye half a pound or more freshe wyn be powred vnto them, then take the call of fat that is aboute the goutes in a kides bely, taken in May, to the number of six: rys beeten and sod in .iii. poundes of black nightshad: and a poūd of the meel of rys: half a pound of the water of wylde plums or bul­lies, blaūshed Beenes to seeth in the same water: x Put vnto this .xii. rotten Appuls and ten egges, two handfull of the routes of common flower de­luce, or els the flower deluce of Florence: a pound of Hony: halfe a pounde of bitter Almondes, Gum Arabick, Sarcocolla, Tragacantha, Borage, Camphora, of euery one two drams: shiepes milk six poundes: Venice Turpentin .ii. vnces: water of the floures of water Lily. Let thies be destil­led together in a lembeck with a smal fyer. The water destilled therof, let it be set in the sun, and xx moued oftentymes.

An other that taketh away the spots of the skin and whitteneth it. An vnce of Borage, halfe a dram of Camphora, thre drams of cōmun Alum, Gum Arabick, and Tragacantha, of ether of them half an vnce: Sarcocolla, Assa dulcis, of ether .ii. drames .iiii. vnces of Cerussa. Pun all thies mixt them and put them into half a pound of Dragons water and as muche of water of floures of Lily: together with water of the floures of Broum, of xxx Nightshade, of water Lilyes, of euery one foure [Page 207] vnces. When they are mixt, destill them in a lem­beck of glas.

To make the face cleer and youthlyke, that it seme lyke to the age of almost .xv. yeares. Newe laid hens egges .xii. without the sheles: an vnce of Cinamon, a pound of Asses milke, washe the face with that water destilled by a lembeck.

Certain cosmeticall thinges, out of the Antidotorium of Gordonius. x

TAke the routes of Lily, the routes of Dragōs Arum blanushed Cicer, Rys, Amylum, Cerussa washed, frenche Soop, of euery one .ii. vnces. Let them be put in a new pot couered, then sod or decocted in a furnace, and beten. Then take Tra­gacantha, Gum Arabick, of euery one an vnce, put them in water of flowers of Beenes. Then tem­per Porcellanas in water of Limons, till they may be mollified: put to half an vnce of Borax. Al thies with a very litle of swines grees, must bee mixte xx with water of Beenes. With that whiche is made of this, muche lyke an oyntment, anoynt thy hool face morning and euening, and washe it awaye with warm water strained through bran. This medicine scoureth, purgeth, maketh whyt: to bee short it maketh the face notable and marueylous faire, plain, equall, gracious.

An other, Lemons cut into .iii. or mo partes, let them be sodde in whyt wyne, wherwith let the face be washt. xxx

An other to make ye apple of the chieck ruddy (ye [Page 208] lyke also we described before.) Take Alum Bra­sill, the graines wherewith the Peeche is made reed, let them ve pund with the water of wyne de­stilled. Therwith let the place be very muche an­nointed, whiche ye lyst to make reed. If so be it ye ad a litle water of salt Ammoniack destilled, the colour should be the faster and abyde the lenger. Yet take heed of this water (Ammoniack) bycause it fretteth euery body, and if ye list to vse it, take but a very litle lest it corrupt the medicine. x

Whoso requireth mo liquors, specially destil­led, for the puritie of the face & brigthnes, let hym reed Rogerius in his .iiii. treatise the .v. cha. wher he describeth the water of Beenes and Limons, whose vse is ether by it selfe or with a certain composition. &c. Also the water composed with Bryo­nia and Dragons: & simple, of the herbe of straw­beries, of hasta regia, of herba Muscata, of the flow­res of Nigellae, &c.

VVaters for the dying of xx heares of the heed and other.

SPonsa solis beeten (otherwyse the siedes of Solsosium beeten) put it in milke of a woman that nurceth a boy, ten (other­wyse .xl.) daies, and then make an oyl. This oyll sod with leued gold, seething it gentely by the space of one day, is maruelous: for if a man xxx washe his heares therwith, they shall becum lyke gold: If the face be wet and rubbed with the same [Page 209] it shalbe plaine and cleare, that it shall seme an­gellike continuinge for the space of .v. dayes. It cleareth the sight also, and cureth any disease of ye eies within ten (otherwise. iiii) daies: and al kind of tothache within .iii. daies: and if the iawes be well rubbed with it, the wormes fall oute and dy. Aegidius, amōgst whose waters thys is ye fourth. If a man drinck of this water .ix. daies, he is he­led of the Palsy, what cause so euer it come of, al­though it haue endured the space of .iiii. yeares. x Lullius in his boke of waters. It appeareth that this water is not made by destillacion but by ex­pression, that is, wringing out only, as I shall de­clare amongst oyle of sedes.

A water destilled of larde, that the heares may be made long and yellow and shininge, & the face more elegant. Scrape larde as muche as ye will and shaue it very small: then beate it in a marble morter, til it be like paste knoden. Of thys destyl­led in a limbeck, thou shalt gather a white liquor xx wherwith thou shalt annoynt thy heares and face for it wil make them very fair and bright.

A water destilled of honye maketh the heares fayre and longe. Reade here after where we shall speake of simple quint essences: and amongste wa­ters that be destilled in Rosestilles.

A whitening water. &c. of a Mouldwarpe: the vi. amongste Aegidius waters. Bryng a Moule into pouder with brimstone and the iuyce of Se­landine put to it, let it stande a certaine daies, af­terward xxx destill it. With this water washe a place [Page 210] anye beast what so euer it be and it shall be made white. If thou mixte water, otherwise (the worde water is lefte oute) aloes and waxe, annoynt the place diseased and thou shalt heale al manner of Gutta: and as they call it nolime tangere, if thou lay a plaister made thereof vpon the soore. Like­wise it healeth the skalles of the head annoynted therewith, and cureth the guttam rosaceam layde vppon it in manner of a plaister. But mixt wyth the stone called Calaminaris and Aloes, it healeth x the Lupum perfitelye, laying a plaister of it ther­vpō twise a day, if also the superfluities be washt with the same mixture. It must in no wise be ta­ken inwardly within the body.

A water that dieth a Griene colour. A poūd of cuperoos (that is to say Vitriolum.) Half a poūd of Smerillum. Destil them and anoynt Epiphanius Empericus. The water of Capparorum, Capers destilled, maketh grene heares. Cardanus.

A water commodious for purgyng the tethe. xx Take Salte Ammoniak, Salte Gemmae of eue­rye one thre ounces: Suger Alum an ounce and a halfe. Let them be destilled, or soked .viii. daies in two pounde of water, and strained, rubbe and wash the tethe therewith. Epiphanius Empericus. Other .ii. like, for the same purpose shalt thou find after, next to the descripcion of Aqua fortis.

¶ Howe waters of herbes, floures, and rotes be destilled by descencion, that is downwarde. xxx

A vvaye to destill svviete vvaters, and effectuall, oute of Flowers and Hearbes by descencion or go­inge downwarde.

TAke an earthen vessell, vppon the whyche straine or spread a thin and fine linnen cloth and vpon it sprynckle Rooses, (for so the Roose­cake wil proue meruelous swiet) or coueslops, or other Floures or Hearbes. Then muste ye haue x a lidde to couer the vessell: and aboue the bottom putte the fire. So shalt thou destill not onlye a mooste swiet water, but also moste effectuall and most strong. The Rose cake is wont to be laide in the sunne closed, that it maye be purged from the smoky smel, when notwithstandinge it reteineth the smell of the Roose. Cardanus.

Freshe Rooses laide vpon a linnen cloth strai­ned vppon a Basin, if they take a vessell full of hoate coales, they destyll muche water and swiet xx into the Basin. In like manner other flowers. Syluius. In my minde this kinde of destillacion is commodious for all suche thynges as be colde, or oughte to coule, chieflye if they lacke smell, as the most part of binding thinges: & more also, such as be cold & moist to. Yea also we shall haue much water & in shorter time, & with les coste by this waye, nether is there any ieoperdy that they should fume out. But a man must geue diligente hede least the vessel laide vpon be to lyttle hotte, xxx and least it be left vpon longer then it shoulde be, [Page 212] least the water taste of burning.

If .ii. vrinals be set together, the vpper full of Roses and set in the sunne (with a linnen clothe betwixte,) a moste swiet water destilleth into the nether. Syluius.

Roose water, Moschata, how it is made by the sun by descencion, we prescribed afore in ye Chap­ter of swiet waters.

The liquor of yelow violet floures, that destil­leth by it self into a vial of glas, amendeth the eie x liddes that be turned inside outward. A vessell is filled with the floures whiche are sooked a good meany of daies continuallye in the sunne, where­vpon a certaine liquor is gathered in the bottom whyche is verye holsome to be put into the eyes. Alexander Benedictus.

Take the tender buddes of Fennel before they florish or go abrode, full of iuyce with the leaues. Put these in a Phiall of glasse, but fyll it not vp: turne it vp side downe and put the mouth of it in­to xx an other Phiall vnder it, and close it with dow, that the spirites brethe not oute. Put the Phials in some hoole in a wall towarde the hotest southe sunne. So within .vi. houres or there about, thou shalt haue a mooste profitable water to sharppen the sight and for blearednesse, whose goodnesse a frend of mine tryinge vppon him selfe, who also made the water his self, shewed me and made me priuy vnto it.

Scillae whiles they be fresh and newe, the vtter xxx barke pulled of, cutte with a knife, are put into [Page 213] a vessell full of hooles in the bottom, couered a­boue & well closed with clay. The bottom of this pot is put into another, put vnder it in a pit of the earth, and the ioyning of the pots is compassed wt clay cloos. Then make they a fier about the vp­per part of the pot by the space of one night (.x. houres or more. Soo the water runneth in to the nether pot, whiche mixt with meel or breed, it kil­leth mys quickly that taste of it: the sooner if thou mixt a litle Litharge or whyt Leed. Bulcasis in his x second booke, and Syluius out of him.

Sumtimes certain waters and oyles ar made by descencion, lyke as of Roseny tries when they are burnt pitche. Syluius. But of Oyles which ar made by descention we wil speeke hereafter. Cer­tain are made by a middle way between a discen­tion and ascention, as Oyll of Coperos, by a Cu­curbita layd along ouerthwart vpon the syde.

Destillation in Asshes, or Sand xx or Dros of metall beeten. &c.

IN Asshes are bothe waters and oyles destilled. Waters with a moste gentle & soft heet, whiche thou shalt discerne by touching with thy hand both the asshes and also the vessels of destillacion. And perauen­ture there is no difference, for the destillacion of any kind of waters, in Balneo Mariae or in Asshes, if so be it thou obserue the measure of ye fyer. For xxx in Balneo Mariae, the water that ye stillatory is put [Page 214] in, may be skalding hoot: the ashes may not be to hoot, that is when herbes, rootes, flowers or any liquors ar destilled to deriue a water of thē. Men thinke them to be made so muche the swieter & les smelling of any fyrines and brenning, being de­stilled in suche ashes because the thinge is doone more softly and with more leysur, so that the heed or lid be not hoot, and sumtymes betwene the fal­ling of the drops, a mā may tel swiftly til he cum at fifty. But the Oyles haue nied of a gretter fire x and a more vehement heet (that is) a dryer: there­fore although it may bee rightly doone in ashes, whatsoeuer is done in water, yet not cōtrary. for oyles may be made in ashes, but none in siething water. But this thing shalbe more euident heraf­ter where we shall teache of Quintessence.

The destillacion by asshes is easy and redy, if an earthen or brasen vessell, diep inough, and able to receiue the Cucurbita or body of the still, be fil­led with fyne asshes and sifted or fyned sand, so ful xx that the matter to be destilled which is in the ves­sell, may be cleen within the ashes and no part of it aboue. This vessell full of ashes shalt thou set vpon fiue or six iron barres, which ar laid ouerth­wart from one syde to an other: that is to saye .iii. sydes of the furnace being layd, they shall occupye two of them: the further syde it shall not nied, if it be done against a wall. The foor part of this .iiii. cornerd bielding shalbe lefte open, that the fyer may be made and put vnder therat. The length xxx [Page 215] of euery syde is sufficient to be one foote long, the heigth six fingars or there aboute. All thies shall we strengthen euery where with clay (and pieces of shelles mixt together) that the heet may the better be kept in .ii. breething hooles left in the cor­ners. But this maner is for vpon a soden and only miet for one vessel. I bielded once a more labo­rious fornace on this sorte. In a corner of the house I raised a foundacion of brick and lyme, a foote and a halfhy. Vpon the foundaciō or harth, x a round fornace, with one narowe door, long and brode lyke a lytle brick (so that a hand may be put in) which is set vp when I lyst to shit the fornace. There were .iii. ventes or breethyng hooles, the height of the fornace was about .x. inches. Aboue this fornace ther was an iron plait laid of ye same compas, of .ii. foote or more broode through the midst, about this was an edge raysed of vnburnt brick (for vnto the fornace I tooke burnt brick) in a compas wyse, the heigth of two hand breed. xx

This round place aboue the plait was filled wt asshes, in ye ashes round about was ther set about fyue stilles of glas, that at one tyme and with one fyre many waters or Oyles might be destilled to­gether. Rounde about the fornace was well fen­sed with wrought claye with verye salte water, wherewith sum Hors dounge was myxt.

This kynd of fornace is surely very cōmodious, bycause it niedeth litle fier, whiche also it selfe in this forme endureth very long: that it is almoste xxx [Page 216] inough to see to the fyer morning and euening. But it must bee made only of cooles, whiche are put in to the fornace with a litle fyer shouell, only that they may be goten in at the litle dore hansumly: the edges of this fier shouel must be a litle tur­ned vp, that it may holde the cooles ye better. Ther is nied also of long iron fyershouel (as the fornace shal require) turned in at the end according to a streigth corner, and ther in the end to be sumwhat made broder, wherwith the cooles within may be x moued and laid as a man will haue them, and put down frō the other fier shouel. But thies thinges are better knowen by experience. In this kynd of fornaces, and how soeuer they be in asshes, bothe other kindes of waters and oyles, as I sayd, are rightly prepared: and chiefly such dry thinges as are infused in wyne, & sumtymes stieped, the ves­sell being very well shyt that they may render the very same sauour and tast, as wormwood, lyke as I shewed before, Gentian, Iuniper beries, and xx spyces, the waters destilled whereof our cuntrey­men name goulden. &c. Then the destillacion of Aqua vitae is sumtimes repeted, in whiche I haue obserued this, that the better parte alwayes & the purest issueth out first, & what so euer is flegma­tyck (or deed water, as sum cal it, which is vnprof­fitable, hurtfull, and almoste stinking) foloweth last: whiche is well perceiued and knowen in a glas heed for the still: For whyle the purer mat­ter, that is, the fyry and aery substance issueth, no xxx sygn apereth in the heed of the still: but when the [Page 217] fleume comes once, and tokens of the water fo­lowing by straikes appeare manifestly, as ye see them, remoue the receiuing vessel, and what so e­uer remaineth in the Cucurbita or bely of the stil, poure it out as good for nothing: and begin a new destillation of fresh and that must be repeted, vn­til no fleume appeare any more, which chaunseth lightly in the fourth or fifthe destillation. After­warde there nedeth no more destillation, but cir­culacion, that the liquor be rectified, as they terme x it, and turned into heauen or quint essence.

Thinges destilled in the vapour of hot water, retein more perfitly the vertues and qualities of of plantes, but because they haue some corupti­on in them, they can not be kept long. Those thin­ges longar which by the heat of ashes or dros of metall beaten to pouder are destilled in vessels of stone or glas, how many so euer they be, vppon a long or round fornace couered with slates or tiles which may holde the hie sandes compassed wyth xx hie lead. But these vessels muste be made hot by little and little not sodenly, and couled likewise be fore they be opened to the colde aire, or els they breake straight way. Syluius.

Vlstadius prescribeth a certaine destillation in ashes wyth so softe a fyre, that thou maiste num­ber one .ii. iii. betwene one drop and an other.

Anye kynde of frute thou wilte, when it is well ripe cut small and beaten, thou shalt destill it in sand with a slow fire. Vlstadius. xxx

¶ A certaine waye to make water by and by.

[Page 218] WAter is made also vppn a sodein, whi­les the iuice is made hot or skalding, a glasen cup is set vpon it, in the whiche the fume passeth into droppes: and the droppes gathered therupon are driuen together into water. By this meanes Vineger is easilye tourned into water. Thys is holsome for spottes and blemishes in the eies, and for the web, to put them awaye: speciallye if Rue be sod in white Vi­negar. Cardanus. x

Som are put resinam larigenam in a trene ves­sell, whose bottome must be made by a tornar as thin as is possible, so that a man may see through it, so in a hotte place the purer parte and the thin­ner destilleth.

Of rosaries, that is to say instruments wherwith a destilled liquor maye be gotten oute of Roses and other medicines, fyre being put vn­der (for the mooste parte wythoute anye xx meane betwixte) either of cooles, or of chippes.

FIre in destillacion dothe more procure the sauoure of adustion and brentnesse vnto the water that is to bee destilled, then do cooles or water, whiche thinge to auoide put sande in the pan in commun Rosa­ries: or rather see that sande be betwixte the fyre and the panne, and also aboute the pan, and that xxx it be glased (or oyled as some call it) if it be an ear­then [Page 219] panne: for it is made also of brasse. The ioy­ning together of the pan and the lembecke thou shalt fense with clay, that is to saye with a lynnen clout perieted or closed with clay and hansumlye laid aboute it: and the receiuinge vessell with the nose of the lembecke likewise. Brunsvvick. Some nowe a daies make theese Rosarie pans of bras, and vpon the sand they lay the hearbes that be to be destilled: and round about the pan (and within it also except I be deceiued) they fill a voide space x with water, a pipe being made for the purpose to poure them in at. They [...]ut fire vnder it ether of coles or of very short chips, because the flame of ye fire may seme to be able to do les hurt, for the wa­ter that compasseth. But withoute all doute, all these shalbe much better destilled in glasses, or in Balneo Mariae, or in ashes.

Vineger is made white wyth destillation, as well for other vses of Chymistes and Phisyci­ons, as also to be mixte wyth Sirrupe of Vin­negar, xx whereuppon I wyll reherse Bulcasis wor­des. Builde an Atanor like vnto that wherein Roosewater is destylled, and euer take a stilla­torye vessell of glasse or of earthe glased: fyll three partes of it wyth good Vinegar, that the fourthe parte of the Vessell aboue maye be emp­tye, leaste when it doothe seethe the Vineger bee spilte and runne ouer. Then couer the vessel with some Vessell vppon it, as ye knowe, hauynge a noose, as the manner is in rosewater, and make a xxx light fire, not greate nor stronge: for if it be vehe­ment, [Page 220] the Vinegar shal not become so white. The vineger that is destilled muste be of white wyne, and verye sharpe. So shalt thou gather a whyte and pure liquor, which thou shalt keepe in store. After y same maner may wine be destilled. Thys writeth Bulcasis. I destilled it once in glasen ves­sels in ashes, which I kepe yet hitherto certaine yeares, like to Vinegar not destilled bothe in sa­uoure and taste, differing only in the coloure and substaunce, where in it is like to pure water to see x to. Bulcasis seemeth to be of this opinion, that vi­neger shoulde be destilled with fire or water, not in a Balneo Mariae, but in that maner that he ma­keth the first and second in destillinge of Rooses, that is, without water with fyre of woode or ra­ther of cooles. I haue destilled verye excellentlye in ashes. Pearles, eg shels, stone of the rains and bladder are dissolued with strong vineger, speci­ally whē it is destilled or with the iuice of limōs: so is also both kinde of corals, and they afterward xx dried, are readily crumled: praecipitatum and sub­limatum and cinabrium, and they retourne into quick siluer. Syluius. The Chymistes say metals are resolued with vinegar destilled: also wt mans vrine destilled.

The leaues of hempe tourned into meale, be­cause they pearse the heade, make drincke which wyll make a man pleasauntlye drounke. Cardan. It seemeth water shoulde be poured to it, and when they are made dowe together, then to bee xxx destilled: like as burninge water in a Rosarye or [Page 221] Rosestil, or lyke instrument where the fyer is put vnder without any men, and perauentur the de­stillacion should be twys or thrys repeted. I wold say the same of Ootes water, whereof lykewyse Cardanus wryteth: The Moscouites (saith he) by­cause they lack wyn, vse water destilled of Ootes whiche enflameth and maketh a man drunken no les then wyne. For Ootes being of a more gros substāce, it must niedes when it is destilled make hoot, becum more subtill and sharp, and draweny x to the nature of burning water. This [...]aith he.

The lyke may be done of any drinck that ma­keth drunken, as Ale, Bier, Curmus and Meed, specially when it is old, and that whiche is sodde with Mill.

Hony whyle it is a destilling is wont to ryse vp and run ouer, when it is made hoot. But this is auoyded, when a man destilleth in a cōmun Rose­still, by putting vpon it within the pan a wooden siue (made with hors hear) so that it touch the ho­ny. xx If ye wil destil in a Cucurbita or body of glas, mixt with it pure and well wasshed sand, & make a slow fyre. The first water is cast away, but the second is kept whiche hath a goulden colour, and a litle before the end reed. The vse of this water is for wemen to their hear, that they may growe, be soft and yelow being moystened therwith spe­cially in the sun. It amendeth the shedding of the hear. It heeleth swelled and blered eyes, and put­teth away their watery cootes and their duskish­nes: xxx it heeleth the corners of the eyes that be hurt [Page 222] and ful of wheales. It heeleth notably the places that be burned, specially them that be soft and ten der, so that no skar or blemysh shall remain. The latter water that is redish, purgeth corrupt mat­tier in roten byles, if thei be washed therwith, and lynnen clothes moystened therein be layde vpon them, and whē it hath purged them, it rayseth the fleshe also. Ryffius. Reed Vlstadins..

Of oyles destilled, and first x generally then particularly.

Of oyles of Plantes, Flowers, Herbes, Gums, Ro­lines, Siedes, Barkes, Woodes.
Of those oyles composed whiche they call Balsama.
Of oyles of Beastes.
Of oyles of Metalles.

OYles whiche are made in Chymisticall vessels ether by descencion or by ascen­cion, sum be simple, sum compound: of thies sum are composed of many, as certain xx balmes, whiche they call artificiall: sum of few. There be sum that may seme to be in a meen betwene simple and compound, as they where to sum medicine beeten, sum liquor is added, where­with it is sooked and destilled togetherr, that it may ascend being caryed by it, afterward it is se­parated.

Also certain are made of plātes or their parts, Flowers, Routes, Siedes, Barkes, Rosines, Gums, Drops. Sum of beestes, or of sum partes xxx of them or of their excrementes. Other of metally [Page 223] thinges or suche lyke as Antimonium, Leed, Am ber. We will speeke of euery of them by thies thre latter places. Of other kyndes of oyles which are made by any other maner, as by expression, infu­sion. &c. we shall entreat after.

Lyke as oyl Benedict is destilled by sublimaciō of hoot burning tyl stones quenshed in oyll, euen so of Ladanū, wax, liquors, gums, rosins, boones, marowes, and other aboūding with fat humors may oyl be goten by sublimating. Syluius. x

An oyly nature semeth to be in al mixt thinges or cōpounded by nature whatsoeuer they be, whā as it is in salt also the most dry body that may be, as Cardanus wryteth. (Ther is also in salt a fat­nes, which we may maruaill at, Plin.) but in sum more, in sum les. For it is an oyly and fat humor that is in mixt thinges, not that watery and ea [...]y to be dryed, but an aery which also is hoot. Boeth kynde of elementes haue the moysture in thē that belongeth to their kynd. This liquor in certaine xx thinges nature it selfe separateth, not in plantes only by iuices or liquors, the Griekes call them opús: teeres, gumes, rosins, Elaeomel: but also in deed bodies, as in fat metally thinges, brimston, quick siluer, also in diuers kyndes of pitch, Naph­tha, aumber, ambra, & P [...]r [...]l [...]on, whiche hath his name because it floweth & runnethout of stones. But most manifestly in beests, both by other par­tes of thē, & also chiely ye fat marow, blud & in thē yt haue no blud, sum fat humor of ye natur of blud. xxx The same is not laking vnto the excrementes, of the bely, the bladdar, sweet, hony, egges, &c. [Page 224] in the massy partes bothe of beestes and plantes, in all suche chiefly siemeth it to bee whiche haue thriedes or vaines manifestly, by the whiche they drawe nourishemēt. For vnto nourishment swiet thinges are moste of all ordeined, which by a mo­derat heet are tourned easely into a fatnes, yee y very fat thinges them selfe are sumwhat swiet. And the aboundaunce of fat iuice is tried & found moste in those thinges which are nourished with many swiet thinges. Notwithstāding fat things x of them selues nourishe not, because they swyme aboue, nether can they be brought into an vnitie of a lump or humor in the stomack. Nowe that iuice whiche is sumwhat fat, conteineth so muche the more oyle, as it is in the more massy or dry na­ture, as that which is more pure and les watery. Gnaiacum bycause it sinketh in water, aboundeth therewith. Thinner and lyghter woodes con­uert and turne the fat iuice in to Gum or Rosyn, wherfor they haue les plenty thereof: suche as be xx more massy and thicker & heuier reteine the same, as Gnaiacum, the walnut trie, the Ash.

Moreouer the very ashes shew that Oyll is in all woodes: for the ashes of euery one haue their fatnes, whiche it leeueth in lie. So durable is the aery fatnes and yet more the fyery, as when erth is burned, the water goeth out in vapours, the o­ther remain, part in the ashes, parte in the Sout: although in both those also sum substaūce of erth remaineth. But thies thinges perteine to Philo­sophers. xxx

Hovv oile must be dravvn oute of spices, as Cloues, Nutmegs, Saffron, Mace, and other.

MOysting mesurably in Aqua vitae rectified & circulated, any kind of spice what ye will bea­ten and broken somewhat grose, and when they are stiept together, at the last destil them wyth a very slowe fyre. And when as the Aqua vitae once drawne out cleane, the oyle beginneth to still, thē x take the matter of ye spicesout of the cucutbita and put it in a little bag wel knit and tied wt a thred: & in a pres for ye purpose pres it out, both ye iron pla­tes of the pres wel made hot first. The oyle pres­sed out so must ye destil, rectify and circulate: that the pure oyle maye be separated from the grosser matter. The dregs afterward may be digested or putrified again with the Aqua vitae firste sepera­ted from them (and be destilled again.) And thys waisemeth to be the most commodious and most xx profitable among other, Ryffius: but we haue trā ­slated it as well as we mighte, somewhat darker then it shoulde be.

Hovve oile is dravvne out of vvodes and other like, as Cloues by destillacion oute of Cardan.

THe thinges beaten are put in a vessel of glasse A. & are destilled wyth as easy a fire as maye xxx be: and if it maye be, to get oute the oyle, with hot [Page 226] water put rounde aboute the Vessell, it shall be muche the better. A


heade of glasse. B, is set vpon the top of the vessell, and is cloosed with claye least it bre­the oute, whereunto a pipe. C. is adioyned as the fashion is: to yt an other pipe of glas x D. is ioyned, so com­passed with claye that nothinge can breethe oute. This pipe pas­seth throughe a trene Vessell. E. whyche ye must haue alwais ful of very cold water, drawinge oute by the spigotte so much water as hath gotten any heat and put­ting in other water again late and newe drawne xx oute of the well: for so. D. is made coule, and the fumes are not brente, but passe into water or in­to oyle, and beinge tourned by that crooked parte of the pipe whiche stretcheth beyonde the vessell with water, fall droppinge into the vessell.

Therefore as I did once see it, at the first a trou­bled matter runneth oute, caryinge foorthe the more subtill substaunce of the thinge: after that a more cleare water commeth oute, at the last oyle, whiche declareth the sauoure rather of a thynge xxx [Page 227] burnt, then of that thinge wheroute it ranne. In this manner the destillacion of waters also (of herbes and floures) maye be done: but that waye is far better which is by descencion downwarde &c. Some put Muske aboute. F. and other pre­cious smellinge thinges, and the water that re­ttineth the smelles not onlye of the owne proper matter, but also of the Musk and of other things that be put to it.

Of destillation by descencion or going downe­warde. x Vlstadius in his .xix. Chapter teacheth of this waye of destillinge vniuersallye: and speci­allye or seuerallye of oyles of Iuniper stickes, of the yelkes of Egges, Nutmegges, and Bene­dicto: where throughe I wyll go aboute to de­clare the matter moore clearelye and more short­lye. He teacheth to make a fornace meete for this destillacion, lyke to suche a Chunney as is v­sed to be made amongste the Germaines, of bric­kes vnbrente of a Cubit and a halfhie, on euerye xx syde, saue the former side (whiche maye be some­what lower, and couered with thinne tiles, to lay any thing vpon, as the iron instrumentes where­with the fire is gouerned) in bredthe .iii. cubites euerye waye. In the middle of thys fornaice let there be a hoole so great that a mans fote may be put in at it.

This fornace shall be meete also for an other vse, that is to seale wyth the seale of Hermes, as they call it: when the mouthe of a Glasen Cucur­bita xxx [Page 228] beynge put into the hoole of the fornace, the length a hande bredth, that is .iiii. fingers, and if any more about it be open, that being stopt wyth claye, assone as it is red hotte, it is nipte together with a paire of tonges likewise red hotte. When thou wylte destyll therefore in this fornace, take a Cucurbita of the best earthe: or if not, of Coper or Latin: syll it vnto the thyrde parte wyth the matter that is to be destilled, and shitte it wyth a verye thinne iron lidde of iron plate full of lyttle x hooles. Then tourne it vpside downe and putte the mouthe of the Vessell into the hoole of the for­nace three fingers deepe, and what so euer is o­pen on anye side, fyll it with claye diligentlye rounde aboute, so that nothynge maye fall into thys hoole. Beneathe in the neather parte of the hoole thou shalt sette vnder a Cucurbita of glasse (for the puttinge in and takinge oute whereof, and that thou mayste see when the hoole matter is destilled, the foore parte of the fornace muste xx be open:) whereunto the mouth of the vpper Cu­curbita must be ioyned, (but not with clay.) Then let a fyre be made aboue aboute the vessel that cō ­teineth the matter on euerye syde. But the fyre at the fyrste muste be little, and as farre of from the vessell as is possible: afterwarde by little and little to make it bigger and nearer the vessell.

Ye muste vnderstande that of euerye matter, at the fyrste water destilleth, moore or lesse accor­dynge to the difference of the matter. xxx

[Page 229] When it hath left running, and now the oyll hath begun to destill, thou shalt empty the Cucurbita of glas that standeth vnderneth, and set it vnder a­again: and continue in encreesing the fyer, and to make it euer nerer and nerer the vessell, vntill no more oyl destille. For then by and by the fyer must bee remoued far of that the vpper Cucurbita may be couled. Then take away the nether that is the receiuer, and kepe the oyll. But as I said, a lytle fyer is required at the first, and is to be encreesed x by litle and litle vntill the fourthe degree, for two causes. First lest by the sodein exces of to muche heet all the moysture, yea the oyly moysture also be consumed, which chiefly must be taken hied of, when we couet to haue oyll of the yolkes of egges and nutmegs: for in certain other, as of Iuniper stickes, a man shal offende nothing to make a so­dein and great fyer. Then bycause the woode set on fier, perauenture would hurte the Cucurbita, burn it, breeke it, or infect the oyll with sum vn­plesaunt xx sauour. Moreouer in simple oyll Bene­dict, thou shalt encrease the fyer only at the end of the destillacion: and thou maist prepare suche a place for the destillacion: Dig a pit in the earth, long, brood and diep, accordining to the measure of the pot that is to be put into it. Let the pot bee glased, washt with water, and vpon the mouth of it let a thin iron plate be put, bored through with many holes, so that the plate be a fingar thicknes within the brim of the pot: vpon this set an other xxx pot that conteineth the matter to be destilled, so yt [Page 230] the mouthes of them be ioyned together, and all well clayed, then let a fyer be made about the vp­per pot, whiche shalbe hool without the pit saue ye mouth. But this second way is not so cōmodious as the first: because the water can not bee separa­ted from the oyl: nor easely knowē whan the hooll matter is destilled, except it be knowen by vse and custome. The fornace may also be made in a stiep hill: as the same Vlstadius sheweth: I let that pas that I be not to long. x

Oyl of the leeues of Citrum, or Orenge, Aran­tia, or Limons when it is destilled, first the water is gotten out (then the oyll) and both ought to bee kept seuerally: the oyll is very swiet and good. It is made on this wyse. Take the leeues of any of the forsayd tries which so euer ye will, when they are cut beet them in a morter, and as ye destill them receiue the water: and when ye see any drop of diuers colour swym vpon the water, the recey­uer being chaunged, encrees the fyer and gather xx the oyll. It shall smell a litle of the fyer, whiche fault shalbe amended, if ye let it stande long set in the sun. Sum drye the forsayde leeues between twoo lynnen clothes and beete them: they put to also many odoriferous & swiet smellyng thinges, as ziuet, Muske, Ambra, hoot Styrax, Ladanum, Cinamon, Benzoum: not the substaunce of them, but the fume or smoke only: for they put thies into Rose water vpon the fyer, and with the vapour of them they season the leues. When thies are so di­ligently xxx seasoned, they take Roosewater wherein [Page 231] certain spices ar stiept, as Cloues, Galangal, Put megges. &c. for the space of one day, and the pou­der of the leues moistened therwith, they destill it it ashes with a slow fyer, till the watery liquor be separated: then they encrees the fyer and receiue the oyll, whiche is of a wonderfull pleasaunt and swiet sauour. Furner.

A certain practicioner shewed me, that the oyll is separated cōmodiously from herbes & routes in this maner. Put the herbes or routes in Tur­pentyn x or Larigna, rosin washt (eigth or nyne ty­mes) till it wax whyte, and let it stande in hoote sand q. s. Then destill them with a slow fyre, & the Turpintyn shal run out first▪ by and by at the be­ginning: or if it moue but a litle, being shaken to­gether it shal then run out hoolly, first in a colour whyte as milke, afterward yelowe. Thou shalt perceiue by the tast whan the liquor that thou de­sirest beginneth to runne out: when the colour is chaunged, thou shal chaūge also the receiuer, that xx thou maist receiue it seuerally, for the last liquor is not so good, and is to be vsed without the body, but the first within the body. Thies saith he, I my selfe as I thinke, sawe once oyll of the beries of Iuniper prepared in this wyse.

Suche destilled oyles as be to be ministred wt in the body, al must be mixt with sum liquor, wyn Meed, or Syrup with sum destilled water, or other medicine: As wee shall declare also he­reafter emong the balsameles. And this is it xxx that Practicioners dooe saye. That vnto Oyles [Page 232] oyles as vnto spirites or soules, sum body ought to be added.

Of oils of flovvers.

OYll of Saffron is prepared thus: Thy matter is digested by sprinckling Aqua vitae vpon it, and when the Aqua vitae is drawen out by destillacion, the other liquor is wrong out with a pres, as it is wryten x afore of the generall destillacion of spyces, out of Ryffius.

Oyl of Spick, out of the Frenche booke of Fur­nerius. Set the herb (the flowers rather) of Spik or Lauendar a whyle in the sun, then drawe out the water in a lēbeck. This set in the sun in sum­mer in a very hoote place bringeth forth an oyl in the superficiall or vpper part of it, whiche beyng separated now and then frō the water, thou shalt reserue. For it both smelleth moste swietly, and is xx holsum against diuers diseases, specially such as be could: and taketh away painfull grieues.

An other way of the same mans. Thou shalt stiep in a glas the flowers of Spick well rypened in as much as thou thinkest good of Oyll of swiet Almondes, in hors dong .xl. daies. Then destill them with a slowe fyer: at last rectify them in the sun, the vessel diligently stopt. But if there be any smell of adustion or brentnes, make .ii. or .iii. litle hooles in the couer. So shall it remayne purged xxx in the sun, good and odoriferous.

[Page 233] The thirde waye of the same mannes. Fyll a glasse with the floures of Spike well ripened, shit it, and euery day put as much to it as ye can. Do this continually for the space of .viii. dayes: then stop the vessell and putrifye it in hors donge iii. monthes. At the length destill it a lembek with great diligence, and when the oyl is drawne oute set it in the sunne, so that thou seperat alway that is clearer and reserue it Some as soone as the matter is drawne forth from the fire (so is it in x the frenshe boke, but I thincke it shoulde be from the dong, that is the hors dong wherin it is stiept iii. monethes) set it in the Sunne, and the oyle that swimmeth aboue they remoue it awaye eue­rye foote. But when the flowers haue lefte nowe yelding of oyl, wring it as hard as ye can, and the iuyce that is prest out, let it stand in the sunne in a vessel set on the one side lening that the oyl swim­ming aboue maye the more easilye be separated. So shall ye haue a wonderfull well smelling oyl xx withoute all discommoditie of adustion or brent­nes: Thus far Furnerius.

The same oyle Ryffius saithe is made, as oyle of Roosemary, the floures being cut and stiept in olde wine, then destilled, so that the spirites of the lembecke be couled. &c. Reade before in the oyl of Roosemary. Some sell this oyle of Spike com­monlye and name it Balme, with tables wherin the vertues of it are described. It is very hot and dry. I knewe a woman whiche receiued into her xxx body not past a drop or. ii, & yet it put her in great [Page 234] ieopardy: but therewith she auoyded manye wor­mes. It is mixte with many thinges, chieflye for the smelles sake. One droppe of it chafed wyth a greate quantitye of water, maketh it all swiete smellinge. Phisicians also mixte it with Oyles and hotte oyntmentes, bothe because of the sa­uoure, that it maye encrease the pleasauntnesse of thinges that be somwhat swiet of them selues, and to conserue them, or els to hide and cloke an euill smell: for it ouercometh all smels, and pera­uenture x a man shall not find anye liquor bothe so strong and so swiet smellinge. It semeth that far swieter is made of Spike then of Lauender.

Oyle of Roosemarye that is in stied of Balme. Take a Phiall full of the floures of Roosemary: burye it in sande (shitte with a double cerecloth, or with waxe and a couer so that it maye brethe, Atnold: wyth a double linnen, and then also wyth waxe to be closed, Hollerius:) til the middle of the vessell: and let it stande so a month or more, vntil xx the floures be turned into water. This water se­parated and set in the Sunne .x. or .xx. daies (o­therwise .xl.) it will become thicke like Oyle. It strengtheneth the harte, the braine, the sinnewes and the hoole bodye. It putteth away the ragges of the eies and spottes of the face: it conserueth youthe. A drop of it put into balme water, goeth to the bottome like Balme. It is good for webs and teares, (otherwise spots and other diseases) of the eien if one drop be put into the eyen, twyse xxx or thrise at the moost. Members sick of the palsy [Page 235] it heateth them for the mooste parte, and healeth them sometimes. It resisteth salsfleem. Fistulaes and Cancars that geue not place to other medi­cines, it healeth them throughlye. Aqua vitae de­stilled of wine, wherin Rosemary is decocted and sod, dothe the same thinges. Lullius. I would not sethe the Roosemary: for the strength of the wine and quintessence dothe fume oute in vapours: but I wolde stepe them in a vessell closed, or putrifie them: then firste in Balneo Mariae, afterwarde in x ashes pouring the water again vnto the dregges woulde I destill them. And of my minde is Arnold de villa noua, whiche in his booke of wine, (where he wryteth of the oyle also of Rosemarye the verye same thinges, whiche we rehersed now out of Lullius, if so be they be Lullius words.) Of tentimes (saith he) haue I tried that Aqua vitae, made of wine wherin Rosmary hath bene molli­fied, cureth salsfleum, scabs, cankar, and the fistu­la, whiche cannot be healed otherwise. But thys xx oyl of Rosmary is made none otherwise then the oyl of the floures of Verbascum not by destillatiō.

Oyl of Rosemarye shoulde be made of floures cropt of with the toppes of the tender buddes or bowes wherin they are sprung, pund and stiepte or putrified in veri good old wine. They ought to be destilled with a slow fire, so y the spirits of the lembek be now and thē couled, afterwarde to be circulated, till yt all the gros matter be separated from the subtill as muche as is possible: Gualte­rus xxx Ryffius. It may be destilled, as I coniecture, [Page 236] ether in a Cucurbita, speciallye somewhat shorte, with a limbeck: or in a croked still with a receiuer of a diuers figure and fashion, or rather in two croked stils, wherof the one maye be the receiuer, or els in brasen vessels whiche the Apothecaries call bladdars as water of Cinnamon, or bur­ninge water.

In like manner be oyles destilled, as the same man teacheth of Vernix or Gum of Iuniper: of the floures of Spike or Lauender, of Anes sedes and many other sedes. x

The .iiii. essence or fyre, of Selandin, whyche is like a liquor of oyle. &c. how it is prepared and to what vse, read before, wher we haue entreated of quint essence. It is possible also to draw out .ii. maner of oyles, an aiery and afyerye oute of the moste herbes and other medicines, after the same maner it is prescribed there in Selandine.

Oyl of Rue. Cardanus in his second booke of subtiltie, wryteth that there be certaine poysones which slee with the only touching. Againste these xx (saith he) the remeady is, not to tary in anye place vntil the hand wax hot: often washing of thepar­tes with warme water: also the annoynting with oyle of Rue, not with the commun oyl, but that is made after the same maner that oyl of Spik and oyl of Cloues is wont to be made of them yt make painting colours. These writeth he. Of oyl of the [...]eedes of Rue, shortlye hereafter we shall wryte out of Lullius: but that wherof Cardanus maketh xxx mencion heare, I suppose it is to bee made of [Page 237] Rew it self, that is of the extreme toppes of the bowes therof whiche florishe.

Of oils of siedes and fruites,

OYll of Cloues did I tast once in Italy wonderfull swiet and stronge: howe it should be drawen oute, we declared a­fore with Catdanus wordes, where we write generally of drawing out of oyles: also another x way out of Ryffius (that is) the same waye yt ye may out of what spyce a man will, which stiept in burning water, they destill thē till the burning water be separated, and as sone as the oyl begin­neth to run, the matter taken out of the Cucurbita is prest. &c. as before it is written out of Ryffius, who describeth also particularly the vertues of this Oyll.

Oyl of Nutmegges how it may be gotten out, fee before where as we entreated generall of the xx destillacion of Oyles by descention or dounward. Oyl of Nutmegges and of his huske mace, is drawen out after the same maner as out of Cloues: Ryffius, who describeth the vertues of ether of them seuerally.

Oyll of Anis sied is drawē out (as out of other dry thinges whiche be in the kynd of plantes) the siedes well beeten stieped in the best wyne, then destilled by litle and litle by ascencion, so that the spirites in the Lembeck bee continually refrige­rated xxx and couled, &c. and the liquor afterward circulated. [Page 238] The vertues of it Ryffius rekoneth, we leue them out as also of other for the most parte, where no peculiar effect or working is attribu­ted to the waters and oyles, yea the same ar agreable to this medicines also wherout they be dra­wen, or euer they be destilled, sauing that by de­stilling they are made more subtill and more ef­fectuall or stronger operacion.

Oyles of the beries of Iuniper and of the be­ries of Bayes, are made one waye: that is pund, x stiep in wyne or rain water, they are destilled the same way that burning water is, ether in a bra­sen bladder as the Apothecaries name it, or in suche wyse as we described oyll out of Cardan, to be goten out of woodes and cloues: or els as out of spyces, by Ryffius description. I thinke it ma­kes no great matter, so be that the spirites which be caried about the lembeck, may be couled com­modiously in it and in the noos.

The vertues of thies oyles Ryffius rekoneth xx vp. Agyrtae or iugleres also ar wont with vs to sel oyl of Iunipers, with tables imprinted cōteining the rehersal of the vertues therof. This emongst other heeleth them that be sick of a tercian as I am infourmed.

Sum make oyll of wheet pressing it oute be­twene two iron plates reed hoot: other thinke it to be nothing worth thatis made thus, and that it should be made as oyll of Iuniper, that is of the stickes of Iuniper by descencion or dounwarde. xxx Mesue saith that wheet after it be husked is destil­led [Page 239] in a vessell of sublimaciō, as the Philosophers oyll. It cureth ring wormes, and ruggednes of the skin whiche springeth of drynes, it mollifieth and moysteneth, and other infections, also of the skin it remedieth them. It is described also by Ra­sus in his Antidotarium. Loke within emōgst the oyles not destilled. There might be made also of Barly and suche both by sublimacion, and also by descencion. Monachi vpon Mesue.

Oyles of Muske ben, (that is Balanus my rep­sica,) x whiche Fnrnerius calleth Retraban or retraha, of moste precious smel. Lyke as of Almondes, so shalt thou presse out an oyll of the fruites of Ben (which ar found about Genua plēteously inough, of the same pryce almost that Almondes be) thou shalt let it stand, and put a good quātitie of musk into it, and so in a glas well stopt, thou shalt set it in a ketle that it may seeth a whyle, then receiue the oyll by destillacion, whiche shalbe moste swiet and moste odoriferous. xx

Certain oyls of siedes vvhiche I founde in a booke of Waters of Raimund Lullius.

THis oyles I thought good to wryte seuerally, because I doubt whether the author woulde haue them made by destillaciō or simpely by pres­sing out: in euery one he addeth thies wordes and let an oyll be drawen out after the maner of the xxx lay people. With whiche woordes he seemeth [Page 240] to signify, simpely by the pressing out of the siedes in a pres, as the commun people is wont to doo, so is oyll to be gathered, specially when as he would haue it drawen out of the same dryed in the sun. Notwithstanding it is out of all doubt, that the same thinges destilled accordingly, should bee far moore effectuall: But for destilling, the liquor wherin the siedes pund or stiept ougth to be left with them and putrification to go before. &c.

Stiep the siedes of Sponsa solis in womans x milke forty daies and then make an oyll after the vse (maner) of the lay people. Loke before amōgst the cosmeticall and garnishing liquors.

Oyll of the siedes of Rew. Mixt the siedes of Rew pund with leued gould, and put it in vyne­gar a day. Then dry it lyghtly by the sun & drawe out an oyll after the maner of the lay men. It is precious and resisteth poysons, so that they shall auoyde by vomit, if so be it a man drinke of it the second tyme, the other humors also that be infec­ted xx therwith shalbe a [...]yded out: if the third tyme he shalbe cured per [...]c [...]y, within .iii. or .iiii. daies. All grieues of the ey [...]s it heeleth thē what cause so euer it cum of, so be that the apple of the eye be vnhurt: if the eyes twyse a day be washt with this oyll and one drop be poured into the eye: for the eye shalbe made hool within .iii. or .iiii. daies. If it be drunck fasting, it suffereth no venim to ap­proche vnto a man that day. If so be also a man wounded very sore and deadly, drinke therof fa­sting xxx he shall escape, so be that the other care of y [Page 241] wound and cure be had accordingly. Also beinge druncke fastinge and putteth awaye the Gutta or drop and all scabbednes: and the dropsy sprunge of a colde cause, if it be taken but two dayes. To conclude it stirreth vp and restoreth all sliepy and benummed members, (taken with the Palsy, be­ing annoynted vpon.)

Ruberta (if it be right written, perauenture of the coloure he so calleth it: I woulde rather reade Sperma,) that is oyle of Nasturtium (I would ra­ther x the seedes of Nasturtium, as in other in the same place, before and after the oyl) moystened in sharp vineger, dry it in the sunne, and drawe out the oyl after the manner of the lay people.

This mixt with Aloes & oyle of bayes, cureth all scabbednes and the drop, the places beinge a­noynted. Druncken with Aloes and cooles of an elme, it healeth the Tercian and quartaine, and all breches in the body. Soden with a ptisan and drunken, it stauncheth the bloudye flux and bin­deth xx the belly. Sod with bran and drunken it dri­ueth away all droppes.

Oyle of the seedes of Pimpernell. Put seedes in read wine a fewe dayes, dry them, punne them and make an Oyle after the laye manner. Thys oyle drunke fastinge, dissolueth, breaketh and ex­pelleth the sand (and anye stone of the bladder, yea if it be finished (gathered to y form of a stone) what matter so euer it bee of. It lighteneth the wearied members of a mannes bodye. These xxx wryteth he.

Of oyle of the beries of Iuniper, destilling first by ascencion, then by descencion as I learned of my frendes.

TAke a pinte or a quarte full of the Bearies of Iuniper, when they are beaten stiepe them two daies in well springe water: then putte those beries together with the water wherin they wer sooked into a Cucurbita or bladder, as they call it, x of Cooper, whiche thou shalt fill till there be but ii. or .iii. fingers thicke emptye: then puttynge a measurable fyre vnder, thou shalt destyll it in all poyntes like burninge water, that is by a Pipe whiche maye passe throughe a vessell full of cold water. It will yeilde plentye of water, so that one receiuer shall not be inoughe. At lenghte the oyle followeth, whyche muste be [...]uffered to runne in­to the water, where vppon it will swimme: thou shalt separate it, toureninge the vessell wherein xx it is wyth a narrowe necke vpside downe, so that the water be lette runne oute, vntill a little be left whyche shall bee separated afterwarde by pou­ringe the oyle into an other vessell. A sextarye or pinte of bearies, as they call it in Alsatia, aboute iiii. ounces of oyle. Other to separate the Oyle from the water, put it into a drincking glas that hathe the foote taken awaye ether by commynge with a wyer of iron redde hotte, or els by chaunce so that a little hoole in the bottome be lefte for the xxx water passeth throughe, and when it comes to the [Page 243] oyle the hoole is stopte, and then the oyle maye be poured out into ye vessel wher it shalbe kept. Sōe destill it in like manner, but they moue the matter oftentimes in the stil, least it be burned. And they say spices beaten, as Cloues and cinamon mai be rightlye destilled likewise. Some, as I heare saye, destill in a crooked vessell not of glas, but of Copper, tinned in the inside: whiche is put into a long pipe of coper, as they do for burning water.

An other waye of preparing the same by des­cencion x downewarde, communicated and shew­ed vnto me as a secreate thing, by a certain frend who prepared and made it so his selfe. Gather Iuniper bearies well rypened and drye in har­nest or a little befoore Haruest, betwene the two Marye daies as they be appoynted in the Ka­lendar, in the morninge at eighte or nyne of the clocke, in greate plentye, as manye as will fill a couple of bagges, whiles it is fayre weather.

Then beinge well beaten, thou shalt putte them xx vppon a heare clothe suche as bakers do vse, and presse them vnder a presse, and leaue them so a daye and a nighte in the presse, that the waterye iuice in the meane season maye droppe oute: whi­che thou shalt keepe by it selfe in some vessell, that thou maiste vse it bothe to certain medicins with in the bodye, and also withoute for the pryckinge of partes (with some oyntmente and Aqua vitae,) speciallye the arthritical partes and ioyntes, this iuice is easelye conserued, neither is it corrupted xxx [Page 244] lightlye, it is also swiete and effectuall or stronge. Some get out the waterye humor not by a pres, but separate it in a commun fornace, (Balneo Ma­riae.) The reast of the matter well dried and bea­ten, put it in a Cucurbita that is hable to receiue a galon, but thou shalt not fill it vp. In it (shit with the clay of wisdome least anye thinge brethe oute) shalt thou putrify the matter, about .xxviii. daies in hors donge: or if it be winter (in Germany) nye vnto the fornace, for to putrifye it in hors donge a x pit must be made .ii. fote depe, and dong and lime to be laide in it by course: and thou shalt sprinckle it with hot water euerye daye or euery other day. At lengthe when the matter is putrified inough, and appeareth to bee indifferentlye liquide, thou shalt destill it. The vessell that receiueth it let it be of the same bignesse almooste that the other is, and lette it stande vppon a rounde wreethe of strawe. Boothe of them oughte to be of glasse and cutte with an iron wyer redde hotte. Thou shalt xx ioyne them together wyth a plate betwixte of me­tal (the best of Siluer) boored throughe with ma­nye little hooles, whiche shall be no bigger then if they were made with a commun niedle. The circumference o [...] vtter compasse of the plate must haue as thoughe it were a skirte or a houp, to com ouer, bothe vpwarde and downewarde, that the vesselles maye be letten into those skyrtes, there­fore the fyrste Vessell, that is the vpper wherein the matter is, shalt thou ioyne wyth the Plate, xxx [Page 245] and make it sure with clay (and the hooll also of the bottom shalt thou fill euery where with clay) then let down that part of the vessell by the hooll in the middle of the fornace so far, that the nether vessel also (that is) the receiuer may be put with in the nether skirt of the plate, & fensed with clay. The clay ought to be tempered with salt water & flox: this) sum cal clay of wisdome. The maner of the fornace is this: In the midst must a floor or chamber be made with a hooll, as I said: aboue x this floor about the Cucurbita is sand layd almost til the third part of the Cucurbita: aboue the sand, cooles burning, more then the third parte of the Cucurbita, nether nedeth it to put away the ashes: the rest of the Cucurbita, the fourth part perauen­ture, or litle les then the third part must be aboue empty and at libertie. It so be thou feer that the vpper Cucurbita perauenture shall not be able to abide the force of the fyer, thou shalt pariet it with clay, at the least wyfe in that part that the cooles xx are layd about: but if the fier bee encresed by litle and litle and not on a sodain, this crufting or pa­rieting shall not niede. The bottom or floor in the midst of ye fornace shalbe builded of slating tyles, whiche shall rest and be susteined of long barres of iron, there as the round hooll ought to be left, y tyles must be [...]ut and hewed compas: when the fornace is so builded, destill the matter, and first shall run out a watery liquor, wherin as soone as a drop of oyl appereth, thou shal [...] chaunge the re­ceiuer: xxx and kepe that first liquor by it selfe. This [Page 246] oyll certainly drawen out by descretion in a glas, siemeth to me to be les infected with ye faut of ad­ustion or brentnes. Hitherto although me thinks I haue described the matter plain inough as my friend rehersed vnto me, yet wil I ad sum figure, that I may lay the thinge before the eyes mooste clerely: A. is the Cu­curbita


conteining the beries: B. the cooles: C. the sand: D. ye plate x full of hooles: E. the floor whereupon the sand lyeth. F. the Cu­curbita, that receiueth: G. the round wreeth of straw wherupon ye receiuer is set.

Oyll of the nuttes kernels of the pyn tree for the polishing & putting xx away of wrinkles in womens skinnes, is made by destillaciō dounward, as oyll of ye wood of Iumper, Syluius.

Of oyls of gums, teeres or liquors, thickened or congeled, and rosines.

OYll of Mirh. Looke before emongst the swiet waters of Furnerius, where wee haue described one which is made with one part of Mirh, and the half part of ye [Page 247] iuice of Roses, moste odoriferous.

Liquors thikned by nature, and gums as they call them, of a hoot and dry temperatur, that they may be prepared vnto destillacion, when they are pund, put them in a vessell wel stopt (wyn also, ex­cept I be deceiued, may be a litle sprinkled vpon it) and dig it in a could and moyst place so diep as a man is hy, without putting to it any hoot mat­ter, and it must be left a good long space: notwith­standing it should soner be resolued if thou put to x it sum yolkes of hard rosted egs. The gums so resolued, yelded an oyll troubled and pudly, whiche being destilled in a crouked still (as they call it) shalbe made moore cleere and pure. For al gums, and Caphura also, seing they contein a fat liquor and whyt, that whiche by destillacion is drawen from them, doo easely sauour of the iniury of the fyer & faut of brentnes, that although they be de­stilled in vessels very meen, yet issueth forth a li­cour full of dregs, gros, brent, & of an vnplesaunt xx smell, the vse wherof doth not plees me, noo not without the body, muche les within the body: the strengthes & vertues of them is not alyke. When the matter is so resolued yu shalt straine it through a wollē cloth or a hear cloth, yt what so euer erthy­nes is in it, may be separated from the sande and dros. After, yt whiche is streyned, thou shalt leue it again in an indifferent warm place as many daies as thou wilt: last of all destill it. Thies maner of Oyles are verye subtill and of greate xxx strength (whan as nature it selfe firste hathe as it were gathered the chief vertues of trees, suche [Page 248] as power forth any gums or teeres.) Thies for the moste part wryteth Ryffius in his first boke of destillacion.

The same Ryffius in the treatise of the same worke of oyles prescribeth no peculiar waye to drawe out oyl of gums: but sendeth men vnto his first koke. He describeth seuerally the vertues of oyles of Ammoniacum, Belzoum, Camphora, Cloues, Euphorbium, Galbanum, Ladanum, Myrh, Opopanax, Sarcocolla, Sagapenum, Stirax liquid & x Calamita. In the only oyll of Mastick he willeth the Mastick when it is pund, to be resolued with old wyne (and to be degested) then destilled. And the gum of Iuniper lykewyse to be resolued and stiept in wyne, because of the drynes of the sub­staunce therof, and afterward to be destilled.

Oyl of Belzoum. Thou shalt water a pound of Belzoum or more groos beeten, with burning water: and in a crouked stil with a receiuer set vnder thou shalt destill it in ashes, with a slow fyer xx first, and afterwarde with a great fyer. This oyll hath an excellent and moste swiet smell. The wa­tery liquor that runneth out ought to be kept seuerally. Furnerius.

Oyll of Styrax out of ye same. Thou shalt beete somwhat groos Styrax Calamita that whiche is full of iuice and fat, & water it with the best Aqua vitae: then destill it in a crouked still as the oyll be­fore, and kiep the water by it selfe. This oyll ex­celleth with a marueilous fragrāt & swiet sauour xxx

Oyll of Camphora. Looke before in the wa­water [Page 249] of camphora, amongste the simple waters destilled.

Of oyle of Turpentine or larigna resina.

PVt .iiii. pounde of Turpentin Rosin or of larix in a larg croked stil or cucurbita of glas, and destilling it, get out an oyl, so that the cucurbita or croked stil be put in sand, first of al with the water shall an oyl issue x a thin and clere oyl, secondly of the colour of gold, last a duskish and thick: take euery one of these by them selues and reserue them. Valerius Cordus. More of oyl of Turpentin, and of the preparinge of it and of the hertues thereof wryteth Ryffius, which I for shortnes sake let pas. This is chief­ly tobe taken hede of, that in the destilling, it sieth not, as in hony also: for they rise and swel quickly these liquors when they are made hot: wherfor at the first the fire must be made very light & sclēder xx and encresed by litle and litle, and the lembek, ac­cording as the act requireth, must be refrigerated and couled. Some put vnto it slate tiles groselye beaten or white flints, or sand washt and dried a­gain, or the leues of Iuye, and a litle glas groose beaten, (such certain things are added also in the destilling of hony, that they may let this risinge & kepe i [...] frō s [...]thing ouer. I woldad little peces of slates or flints wet with old oyl or som medicina­ble thing, as in oyl Benedict yt by the same means xxx both the [...]iething might be letted, and the vertue [Page 250] of the oyle incresed. The descriptiō folowing ma­keth with me, which I found in a certain wryten boke. Take pure sande, or little white and cleare flintes and put them ouer the fire in a vessell till they wax red hot, then quench them in turpentin, that they may drink wel, and that sand quenched destil it in a lembeck. Some commend oyl of tur­pentin for the grief of the stone. Also those, oyl of Turpentyn, of a pound of Turpentyn, an ounce of old tile slates, (or as Albucasis saithe, newe tile slates because they may drink the more oyle) and x Mastik and Styrax, of ether an ounce. The tyles made red hot are slekt in oyl: when they are quē ­ched and pund they are mixte with the other in a lembeck of glas. Thre liquors run out, wherof y third is the best. Iac. Hollerius amongst oils without smel for could greues.

Otherwise out of a writen boke. In a cucurbi­ta half ful of Turpintyn, put a handfull of glasse pund, and .ii. sponges of the quātity of .ii. fingers xx (the number is left out) and put according to the art of Alchymistes, fire about the cucurbita, & let the fire be continued .xxiiii. hours: when the first destillacion is finished, destill it again, renuing y glas, the cucurbita and the sponges. To put awai skars, or rather to asswage and mollifie them, oyl of Turpentin doth chiefli profit, except those that remain after warts. For they that commend this oyl for the putting awaye the markes of wartes, they are deceiued. Brasalonus. xxx

Oyl of Tartarum sublimated. Put Tartarum be­ten [Page 251] in a vessell (a cucurbita of glas parieted wyth claye, or an earthen cucurbita) and when it is put inalembek of glas destil it. First of all water wil run forth, then oyl, whiche thou shalt receiue by it self encreasing the fire by little and little til it leue running. The dutch writen boke: Certain prac­ticioners cōmend the spirit or quintessence of Tar­tarum against inward impostumes & kings euil.

Oiles of barkes. x

OYl of Cinnamon is made, as we declared be­fore out of Cardanus, how oyles be drawn out of woodes and like thinges, as Cloues: where is also described the instruments. Or els as we des­cribed out of Ryffius of the drawing out of oyls of all kinds of spices. Cinnamō may be stiept about viii. daies in burninge water .vi. times destilled, and thē be destilled, as I was informed of a frēd. Here wil I rehearse also the waye to make water (as they call it) of Cinnamon: for in the destilla­tion xx also hereof oyl foloweth at length, although but litle and because of the discommodity of adu­stion and brētnes, vnprofitable to be vsed within the body: but ye water is most noble & most profitable, y description wherof a certain frēd of late sēd vnto me, on this wise. The fornace & instrumēts must be in all poyntes suche as are vsed for bur­ninge water: with a pipe passing through a vessel full of colde water, whyche excepte I be deceyued shall be better, if it bee somewhat longe, that is of xxx the lengthe of .v. Romain fote, what maner a one [Page 252] or rather longer, an other shewed vs he had seene in the destillacion of this water: but perauēture it shalbe les nied of such a long one, whē no great plenty of water is destilled.) It maye also be de­stilled in a Cucurbita of glas parieted with clay, after the manner of Aqua fortis, and perauenture it wold be best that way. Put a pound of the best Cinamon pund not sifted, in the bottome of a stil warely, least the pouder s [...]ir abrode or cleue to the sides, & by and by pour to it a .iii. pintes of freash x water, & the couer laid vpon it & a receiuer set vn­derneth, make a litle fire of cooles. The water yt runneth out first is sōwhat thick like oyl: but ther must be diligent hede taken that assone as it shal chaung the colour, yt the receiuer also be chaūged. The secōd water runs sōwhat whiter: thē chaūg it again & take an other receiuer, & so forth til the dregs issue out. The water of the fourthe chaun­ging is most clere, which when it begins to wax yelow, streightway the couer & the pipe muste be xx takē away because ye busines is now ended & al ye vertue of the Cinnamon is drawn out. This hole matter may be don in .iii. or .iiii. houres, but there must be a cople of mē about this destillacion: the one to mark the alteration of the liquors, and see that the fire be no bigger then it oughte, and that the liquor run not to faste oute: The other shall see that the Vessell wyth coulde water, where through one part of the pipe passeth, be according as it shoulde be, and that the pipe be not to hotte: xxx wherefore nowe and then chaunging the water, he shall poure in coulder oute of some Vessell by, [Page 253] and put linnē clouthes dipt in could water about the pype, and about the couer lykewyse if it be too hoot. For it skilleth much that thies partes be couled that both more plenty of water and also bet­ter may run out. This water of Cinamon I haue sene my self and tasted, very plesaunt and swiet in sauour and in taste. The liquor whiche I sawe was sharp, almost of the colour of milck and trou­bled: wherupon certain sumwhat red drops of oyll did swim, whiche were les swiet then the water, x and smelled of adustion. The same almost Carda­nus wryteth generally, of liquors of swiet woodē thinges as Cloues. &c. This liquor restoreth the strength excellently: the other vertues thereof Ryffius describeth: but euery man may know thē manifestly by the nature of cinamon it selfe.

In lyke maner is the oyll of the huske of Nut­megges whiche they call Mace, prepared, which also is described by Ryffius.

An oyll maruelous swiet smelling, wherwith xx gloues and other certain thinges are anoynted out of Furnerius. Thou shalt take in the moneth of May the .iii. partes of the second barkes of the tree of Almon (so is it red saieth Furnerius in the booke out of whiche he writ it, but doubted whe­ther it ought to be vnderstanded an Elm or a Li­mon a kynd of Orenges) and the fatter partes of the flowers of the same tree (Les espis de la fleur qui sont grasses,) in lyke weight, dry them in the sunne. That kind of this tree is thought best that xxx groweth not in watery places. To thies y shalt ad [Page 254] the third part of the beries of Juniper newe, and destill them dounwarde, with a little fyer at the first, then greater and greater encreasing it till al the Oyll be cumd down into the receiuer, whiche should be of glas and closed with clay. Afterward thou shalt set it in the Sun, with the mouth of the vessell open a whyle, or shit with a parchement prickt through with a fewe hooles, till the smel of adustion and brentnes brethe out. Sum to en­crees the smell, put to it Belzoum, Spick narde, x Agallochum, the shauings of Cypres, Styrax, Ambra,, Mosch and destill all together, repeting also the destillacion the second tyme.

Of oils that are dravven out of Woodes.

Oyls of wood are all destilled by descen­cion (as they call it) dounward. Of the preparing of oyll of the wood of Iuni­per, xx we shewed before out of Vlstadius, where we entreted of destillacion dounward ge­nerally. He that desireth more, specially pertey­ning to the vertues, let hym serche in the duche bouke of Ryffius, who wryteth that oyll is goten out of Guaiacum also after the same maner vtter­ly: and also out of the wood of Rosemary. I will ad heer that I found in a certain dutche booke.

The wood of Iuniper to make oyll therof ought to be cut in ye beginning of May, or haruest, whi­che xxx [Page 255] is grien or fresh, the barck being red. When y barck is taken of, thou shalt dry it diligently in an ouen streight after the bred is taken out, then cut in pieces with an ax, put it in a pot that hath the botom full of hooles, & set hansumly in a pot vn­neth it. The vpper pot thou shalt fill with ye chips of Iuniper and also of that whyt Popler whiche they cal trembling, with a part of the whyt stones wherof lyme is made: after when thou hast fensed the couer wel with clay, put it into the nether and x make a fyer round about it. This oyll also made of only Iuniper, for the moste parte, is ministred without the body: for it is very vehement, and sa­noureth very much of brentnes. It defileth the skin that it can not be esely washed away. I haue tryed the vertue of it against Scabbednes and it­ches to be excellent. Brasauolus commendeth the same against the pestilence. It putteth away cold causes, and represeth the typum of the quartain. Being anointed from the nauell of wemen to pri­uy xx places and reines, i [...] strengtheneth the matrix or mother and dryeth vp the moystnes therof, and prepareth it to conception, Rogerius.

Oyll destilled of the stickes of Iuniper moste dry, in twoo earthen vesselles with the mouthes ioyned together, or also in a lembeck of glas, if it be holden in y mouth, it taketh away maruelously the touth ach sprung of a could reum, & lykewyse it is good against all oher grieues comming of could humors, as the griefes of the synewes, the xxx [Page 256] conuulsion or cramp of the ioyntes, the palsy, and lyke, Matthaeolus. Oyl of Iuniper (saith Mesues) helpeth the infections of the skyn, crieping disea­ses, the cancar, angry byles, such as in sommens legges the late wryters call the deed euill. Fill a glased vessell with a narrowe mouthe, with the small chippes of Iuniper: ioyn a thin plate of irō boored full of hooles after the maner of a meell siue, to the hooll mouth: daub the same with the mouthe bothe of the saide vessell and of the lesser, x whiche must be glased or oyled also to receiue the oyl whiche when thou hast digged in the ground, compas the other biggar whiche hathe the pieces of Iuniper, with a cleer fyer two howres: so the oyl shall destill into the les vessel: Thies wryteth Mesues as Siluius interpreteth him. In the same place Siluius in the commentaries. By this arte (saith he) oyl is made of the kurnelles of Pyna­ples to put away the wrinkles of wemens skins, of the wood Gnaiacum, and stronger of Lignum xx sanctum for the grieues of the Spanishe disease as byles (vnto whiche oyll of Iuniper also and of Broum, and of ashe and of lyke, is holsum) and of other woodes, specially that be fat and ful of iuice as fruites beries and seedes. The biggar vessell also may be of metall, or if it be of glas or ston, let it be well fensed all ouer with clay of wisdome, an erthen vessell because it is spongi & not so cloos, when the oyll seketh to breeth out it would gyue it way: therfore let it be glased within, the nether xxx vessell and receiuer may bee of glas, not clayedd [Page 257] only in the circuit but somwhat more thik, it may be also of metal: it may be at length of earth, so be that it be glased and oyled as they call it: els that most thin oyl wold run out here and there by the pores of the vessel: much les may that oyl be recei­ued safe in the pit within the grounde hauing the sides walled with potters earth, (which notwith­standing Mesues commaunded.) Take this with­all, that it shal not be nedeful to dig the lesser ves­sel within the ground, if thou canste finde a mea­nes x to beare vp the cooles and woode, with some floore as it were, to compas the bigger vessell a­boute with. These wryteth Syluius.

Oyl of ashe tre helpeth them that be sick of the splene, besides that it can do all that oyl of Iuni­per can, and is made after the same maner Mesu­es. Wher again Syluius saith. That oyl anoynted vpon the left side vnder the short ribs, and drun­ken, deliuereth mightely the obstructions & stop­pings of the splene: it mollifieth also & digesteth. xx

This oyl (saithe Rogerius) represseth the colde greues of the ioynts: it healeth a wound & bryn­geth skin where it lacketh: it deliuereth from the white morphew, and blackeneth it.

Io. Manardus in his epistles. 16. 4. geuing coū ­sel for ye helth of the cardinal Campegius sick of ye gout: I praise (saith he) both the maner & the vse of the fome of the decoction of lignum sanctum or of Iudicum to the place where the grief is. But I think the oyl of the same wod, destilled after y maner xxx that the chymistes call by descencion, to be far [Page 258] more effectual, anoynting the places therewith yt swel and wher the grefe is. They be wont also of the shauings of raw wode, sodden in some noble wine, putting vnto it old oyl, to prepare an oynt­ment which is very good to be annoynted vppon the places where the grefe is.

Take ye wode cut like bordes, therwt fill a new erthē vessell, with a couer of the same mater bord through wt litle holes: yt diligētly claid let an other empty erthē pot digd in the erth vp to the mouth, x receiue it, ioyned wt clay vnto the vpper standing aboue vpon it by the couer, the force of the flames blasing roūd about it: the oyl shall run down into the empty within the space of. 4. hours or. 5. Whē it hath left boiling opē it & thou shalt find oil swī ­ming vpon the water: wherwith if thou anoynte whelks, pushes, exulceratiōs, ye swellings ofioyn­tes & greues of finews, yu shalt procure ease & that not a litle. That water also is drunkē morning & euening, by it self or with the sirup following. &c. xx Andreas Mat in his boke of the frensh disease.

A mā may also, as I hard of a frend, destil gua­iacū after the same way that Aqua fortis is destil­led, best in an erthen vessel glased yt wil abide the fire, suche as they make at Haganoa. This oyle is good for the fauts of ye ioynts through the frensh pocks, if it be anoynted vpō the places wt the best burning water. Oyle of the wode guaiacū, & more mightilye of lygnum sanctum, is holsome for the spanish diseases & biles. Sylu. A certain practicioner xxx told me once, yt this wod is not to be cast awai although it be decocted & soden twise or thrise: for [Page 259] euen so also yet is the best oyl destilled of.

Take the wod of iuy dried, & the beries & gum also if yu maist haue it. When they are cut in peces let thē be put in an erthen vessel bored through in the bottom in .ii. or .iii. places: & then let an other pot be set vnder it. Set thē in the erth, & ioyne the bottō of the vpper vnto the mouth of the nether wt clay or paste: & the vpper pot must stand hollye a­boue the ground. At length make a fire on euery side, and the oyl shal destill blacke into the nether x Vessell. This oyle before all Oyles healeth the grefes in the ioynts of a cold cause. Rogerius.

The preparing of oyl of capuistū that is smoked because it is made by descencion, like as the oil of woods, I haue rehersed it in this place out of the first boke of Aetius, where he entreateth of oyles: from whence Nicholas Alexandrinꝰ also borowed it in his treatise of oyls. Vngues aromatici that be black (melànchó, Fuchsius the expositor of Nicolas readeth Megálcō, that is great) thus Masculū, sty­rax xx the best, bdellium pure Costus, of euery one. v drās (of euery one .ii. vnces & a half, saith Nicolas which I like better) .v. sextaris that is about. iiii pints of the best swiet oyl, (ii. & a half saith Nich.) Hypni as much as nede requireth. The costꝰ cut in peces sōwhat gros, & likwise ye styrax & bdelliū mixt together, put thē into an erthē vessell (a new one: Nycolas) wtout eres, ye mouth wherof yu shalt stop wt the hypnē, & without yu shalt defēce it wt the slips of aspalathꝰ or som odoriferus thing hāsomli xxx lest any thing fal out of y pot. Then [...]eke an other erthē vessel wtout ears wt a lōg neck, which may re [Page 260] of the other vessel that conteineth the spices agre­ing aptly with the mouth, into whiche thou shalt put .v. sextaries of swete oyl. Afterwarde dig the ground and bury the earthen pot that holdeth the oyl vnto the neck, lest it wax red hot after with the fire that shalbe made about it: then turne ye other vessel with spices & the mouth downward vpon ye hed of it, & soioyn y mouths of thē both, yt thei mai be closed together most exactly. Then close ye hole vessel roūd about wt clay, on euery side where the mouthes are ioyned together, by & by thou shalt kindle a fire putting vnder coles about ye earthen vessel, & blowing. When the fire is kindled let the spices being consumed, yt being set on fire theimai sēd out their vapor by the mouth of ye erthē vessell into ye oyl set vnder: For ye which cause it is called capnistō y is smoked. The secōd day after remoue away the oil, and put it in a glas to kepe. Wemen vse this whose flours are stopt, anoynting the ne­ther part of their bely & loines therwith. It is cō ­uenient xx for them y after they be deliuered are euil (to litle) purged, being likewise anoynted vpon ye said parts. Moreouer it is holsom for a cold chest & healeth the disease called tenesimus, if it be recei­ued in wol (hotte as Nicolas addeth) folded toge­ther and laid to the lower part of the bely & loyns. The same semeth to be called capnelaeū or smoked oyle: but the author of Kiranidum expoundeth it naphtha, in his .iiii. boke where he maketh menci­on of the fish Ecleneis or Remora. xxx

I haue sene also of paper roled together in ma­ner of a hod, & set on fire ouer a dish of tin, holden [Page 261] at the very extreme top with a paire of sheeres (or tonges) certain drops of black oyl run out, which are praysed for the spots or whytneses of ye eyes.

Of trevve Balm, and antibalm, that is Oyls composed by arte, whiche are vsed in steed of the true Balm both within and without the body.

BAlsamum is a word vsed almost in x all tonges, a Syrian worde without dout: for in only Syria & in one only garden did it ones growe. Panag ye hebrew worde in the .xxvii. of Eze­chiel, Dauid Kimhi after certaine doth erpound it a proper place of Iudaea: other A­pharsamon, that is Balsamum. The later wryters of the Iewes wryt Palsamon: Mycander Balsamō bycans of the vers. Opobalsamon is a liquor: Carpobalsamon a sied, whiche sum call also Casamum: xx and they say it is swieter smelling then the liquor it selfe: Xylobalsamum, bowes or the wood. I imagined once that it was called Balsamum of the ex­cellencie, bycause it was moste precious & moste noble of all spyces: for Boal signifyeth lorde and maister with the Hebrewes and Sam spyce. Balsa­mon, is an aromaticall flower, Varinus. And in died it is reason, that as the thing it self is proper to Syria, so the etimology and interpretaciō of the worde should be taken of the same tong. Perauē ­ture xxx Belsuin also (other wrytte it Beniuin, other [Page 262] Belzoum) a liquor of moste swiet sauour hath the same Origen of his name. Not same only with the Hebrewes but also Bosem signifieth a swiet smel ling spyce, whereupon the Germaines may seme to haue called Mosch Bisem.

Balsamum or Balm sum in our age thinke it is lost, the iuice of it was of the colour of gould, it he led woundes, and toke away wrinkles, and kept the faces of deed men from corruptiō: it brake also the stone in the reines, it did put away the spottes x of the eyes, resisting poyson, specially Aconitum, Hemloke, and the shaking of very feuers, and in all thies thinges the vertues of Balm excelled. But now ther is another kynd of Balm brought out of Spain, of a red colour tēding toward blak, weighty, sauouring sumwhat of adustiō or brentnes, and by and by it stryketh & perceth the heed, and the tounge also sharpely, but sumwhat longe first as peper. And it also heeleth newe woundes more quikly then any other thinge: and taketh a­way xx wrinkles. I could wel beleue that this kynd of oyll is effectuall and good, thof not for all that the trewe Balm is, yet surely to the moste parte. The tree that bringeth this oyll is called Goaco­max, of the form of a Pomgranat tree and in big­nes almoste lyke: but it hathe a lief a litle biggar and a thinner barck as though it were drye, the wood of it burneth lyke a torche, the fruite is as the clusters of grapes, but the kurnelles are sum­what biggar, of a wyny colour, whiche together xxx with the slippes or braunches sodden long in wa­ter, [Page 263] doo yield that kynd of oyll, Cardanus.

Certaine marchauntes affirme that the gar­deines of Balme were destroyed, what tyme as Zelimus the Turck, the predecessor of Solyman, wan Chayrum, whan the Turkes killing the gardeners, did not forthwith put other in their places the yere of our Lorde. 1516. Moreouer they say there is a Balm tree of an indifferent bignes laid to kepe to be compared vnto many thousandes of Ducates, with the moste famous mā of our time, x an other Lucullus, Maist. Antony Fuggerus: Ioan. Agricola in his commentaries vpon Galen, of the diseased places .iiii. ix.

Antibalsama. Dioscorides prescribeth certaine notes and tokens of the trewe Balm. In the col­lection and table of those medicines that may bee vsed one in steed of another, which is ioyned with Galenus workes, and in the ende also of Aeginetas bookes, we reed: In the steed of ye liquor of Balm, Mirh that destilleth, that is liquid and runninge xx Mirh which is called Stacte. In the same place is red also: In the steed of Opobalsamū the liquor of Myrti: but it semeth it should be more rightly ye li­quor of Mirh. Auicenna in his second booke in the chapt. of oyl: In steed of Balm (saith he) is liquid Mirh vsed, or els lyke weight of the oyl Adhii, or Aldadi, or Dadi as Bellunensis trāslated it. Rasis in the latter ende of his Antidotarie separated, in oyl Benedict or of tylstons: It is of like force (saith he) yt oyl of Balm: but it is more subtil & hoter & more xxx proffitable in cold diseases, Monaci vpon Mesuen. [Page 264] And a litle after, in the tretis quid pro quo, what for what, whiche is imprinted with the bookes of the sun of Mesue, it is red. In the stede of Balm, Turpintyn destilled, or oyll of Bayes, or the gum of Iuy is put. But what Dadi is, I can not easily say: it is described of Auicen the. 213. chapt. Bellu­nensis nether there nor in the gloses expoundeth what it is. It is a grain (saith Auicenna) lyke vn­to barly longar, more strait and cloos together, more massy, bitter, could, declyning to heet, & dry x in the second degre: it byndeth the bely, withstan­deth poyson, it is good for the grieues of the fun­dament and hemrodes. It resolueth hardnes. &c. I coniectur it to be CiTum or Ladanum, for it is could also, so measurably yt it hath a warm heet, according to Galenus mynd: it byndeth, stoppeth ye bely, and dryeth in the second degree: that is hoo­ter that groweth in hooter places, & the same mol­lifieth meanly and dissolued, and concokteth or digesteth. Furthermore in Antiballomenis Graecis, xx we reed Propolis to be vsed in the steed of Trago­pogona, that is Ladanum: and Auicenna, in the re­soluing (saith he) of hardnesses, ii. third partes in weight of kur, that is Propolis, and the half of the weight of abhel. Dioscorides saieth that Ladanum is mixt with medicines without smell: Auicenna, that it is good for the griefes of the fundament & hemrodes. Now that Auicenna hath, that Dadi is lyke vnto barly, but longar, straiter. &c. I plainly suppose it to be corrupt out of Dioscorides, who maketh xxx Ladon that is the bushe of Ladanū, lyke vnto [Page 265] Cisthum, with longer leues only and more black. Last of all the names Ladon and Dadi do not mu­che disagree nor be far vnlike.

Oyl made of the flours of Rosemary (after the same maner as it is made of the flours of Verbas­cus) may be vsed in stede of balm, and a drop of it put into water, doth likewise go to the bottōe: Ar­nold de Villa noua. They put this also emongst o­ther to be a tokē of true balm, y it wil gather milk into courds: I going about to try on a time, whe­ther x the same could be don with the made balme cōposed of turpentin & hot gums, I found that it did not courd it, no the milk was not once broken wt it. The cōmun people with vs, cal oyl destilled of spik, simplely by the name of balm, yt is becaus of the excellente swietnes of the sauor. There be som yu cal certain other odoriferous things by the name of balm, ye they think thē to com veri nie to vertues therof, as Ryffiꝰ oil of cloues. In ye greke Antiballominis it is red yt the rotes of white vio­lets xx may be substituted in ye place of Xylobalsanū. The Antiballomena or rehersal of thinges y may be vsed one for another, which was once imprin­ted wt Mesues works declare in this wise. In sted of Xylobalsam, the wod of iuy or Leucoradix. For carpobalsā, the frute of iuy or Xylobalsamū in like weight. The same: & for balme it self, the gum of iuy. But perauēture in al these ye expositer or trā slater was deceiued, whan as no wryter euer cō ­pared iuy in any wise wt balin: therfor I thought xxx ether that the translator that translated it out of ye [Page 266] Arabik tong to haue erred, or rather the Arabians them selues, confounding Cisson, that is iuy and Cisthum together: for Ladanum is the iuice of Ci­sthum, which Auicenna did put in stede of Balm.

In the Antiballomenis asscribed vnto Galen I find these also: for the liquor of balme, ye liquor of Carpasus: and for the liquor of Carpasꝰ, the liquor of Myrtus: and for the liquor of willow, the liquor of black iuye, which the Arabians leuing certaine thinges or chaunging them, translated them into x their works as I cōiecture. ¶ Ther is also a cer­tain Cassia called Balsamodes because of the smel. Sisymbrium a kind of wild mint, growing ni wa­ters & for the most part sōwhat red, ye late writers many of thē cal it Balsamita. Ther is an other Bal­samina as the Ligures about ye riuer of Poo cal it: The Thuscans or Florentins cal it the apple of Ieru salem, with the leues of the white vine, ye floure of the Cucumer, the frute atboth ends round & sharp like to a litle cucumer. &c. the apple with ripenes xx a sunder, & when it is broken it appereth empty, conteining within it a few seedes in the figure of chit or Lentil, moste red, wheroute oyle is pressed chief for wounds. Som season the apple fyrste in oyl & set it in the sun a few daies, then they bery it in hors dong or in the earth so long til it be cleane putrified: so they affirme it will get the vertue of balm in closing of wounds, and thervpon hath it gotten the name of Balsamina: Ruellius out of Her molaus. Brasauolus calleth this oyl of Cochirs: and xxx the herbe, that beareth those fruites in a rugged [Page 267] and sharp husk, Cochia or Momordica. The oyle (saith he) is prepared diuers waies, both by infu­sion and being digd vnder the earth many yeres, and by seathing: and it is made of Echinus, of the leaues seuerally and of the sedes. That whych is hid in the earth, helpeth the greues of Hemrods. Generally, that oyl asswageth all greues, who so desyreth to know mo & verye meruelous effectes of this oyl and herbe, let him read Matthaeolus Se­nensis commentaries on Dioscorides the .iiii. boke x C .lxxxiiii. chap. so many and so great, that if they be true the true balme may be set light by in com­parison of them.

Balsamaeleon, that is the oyl of balm, of a plant a cubit high or .ii. cubits, like vnto wilde Rue, by the bark wherof toward the East, being scarified rased and wounded fat teares destill, that is the fatnes of the balm. Other do beat in a morter the slips of this plant in the beginning of Vere, sethe it in water, presse them in a presse, and call it oyle xx of Balm. Ther be some that when they haue pūd the slips, they put them in old oyle and set them in the sunne .xl. daies, sieth it in a double vessel, pres it, put new slips beaten into it, straine it twise or thrise and so keepe it. Mesues, Syluius translating him. Wher Syluius also in his scoles saith: let Xy­lobalsamum & Carpobalsamum most new be stiept one day in old oyl: after let ye oyl be drawn out by the art of chymists, it shalbe of no smal estimaciō: or set Xylobalsamum new be putin old oyl and set xxx in the sunne .xl. daies, and sod in a double vessell. [Page 268] The vertues of this oyl so much praised of al mē & nothing spokē of Mesue, it is meruel, for it heteth moysteneth, extenuateth and maketh slender, di­gesteth, scoureth, closeth. This vertue of closinge she wed vnto the olde writers, maketh it at this day precious. Opobalsamum is most rare and ge­sen: and therfore most precious. Wherfore Petrus of Abanus, Guilielmus Placectinus, Bartolemaeus Montaguanus, composed an oyl of balme, nothing inferior in vertues to balm. Other put the leues and sede, and wode of this plant in oyle and set it x in the sunne .xl. daies, then pres it out and kepe it but in bertues it is far inferiorto Opobalsamum: This saithe Syluius.

The Egiptians make a counter [...]aite kinde of Opobalsamum, of ye bark new most swiet smelling heating it in oyl of Almondes, of a singuler smell when it is fresh mixt: Alexan. Benedictus.

The oyl that they cal communlye Balsaminum raiseth vp sodenly them that be fallē of the falling ficknesse, beinge heide to their nose that they may xx smell it: The same. He semeth to mene oyl of spik destild: for yt many do cal now a daies Balsamum.

Of balmes made by Arte.

THe commun intentand purpose of all Balsams or balmes, to speake of theyr vertue, seemeth to be, to close and heale wounds & biles, & that in a short space, & to auoyd and turne away the euill Symptomata or diseases which the sores wold o­therwise xxx cause: yt they mai heat, dry, & be of sclēder [Page 269] partes: hereupon it is that all of them haue Tur­pintyn Rosin, sum also other rosins, as the rosin of Pyn tree, Mastik: here upō also gums ar added Frankensence, Elemi, gum of Iuy, Bdellium, Sar­cocolla, Mumy, &c. Vnto sum diuers spyces are put to smell the swieter: wherupon they are made apt for the moo vses, and miet for diuers diseases euen within the body also, as to those also, vnto whiche moreouer diuers plantes or their partes are added. They are destilled the most part of thē x few except, whiche are ministred only without the body, as vnto woundes. They are destilled in as­shes chiefly: all first with a slow fyer, that the clee­test matter and more thin or watery may be got­ten out, then encreasing the fier by litle and litle, that the oyll whiche is of a sumwhat reed colour may be receyued, afterward the fier is made big­gar that the oyle may be very reed, and at length inclyne to black. The liquor that issueth in the midst is more allowed to the vses within the bo­dy: xx the last is sumwhat to hoot, to vehement and vnplesaunt, moore miet to be ministred withoute where there is nede of more force: as ye first where there is nede of litle. The first liquor semeth to be yielded chiefly of the Turpintyn, for the whiche lest it sieth, little pieces of slates or flintes may be mixt with it. &c. as we said of the destilling of tur pintyn. All of them takē within the body, because of the Turpintyn and gums, they make men be­leche, and many times not without grief, and yet xxx more the middle and last liquor being receiued: [Page 270] They do al season the vrin with their smel. They must all bee receiued within the bodye mixt with sum liquor, chiefly wyne, so that to a sponful of li­quor, one drop of the oyl or .ii. at the moste be put. The dregges remaining in the bottom are good for nothing, sauing that they may be vsed in steed of Colophonia or Scammonium. I same of late a practicioner destilling I can not tel what kynd of Balsam in a pan, with ashes laid vpon slates, as I described before in the mention of destillation x by ashes: a Cucurbita of glas so diep set in the as­shes, that they were not aboue the matter contei­ned in the vessell. The vessell was ful to the mid­dle, able to receiue, if it had been fild vp perauen­ture, iiii. poundes: he continued this labour .iiii. or .v. daies & nightes also, neuer abating the fier. He separated only .ii. liquors, ye first whyt, whiche was more plentifull and in gretter abundaunce: then a redish, whiche was yielded lesser by the .iii. part. The clay wherwith the Cucurbita, the lem­beck xx and the receiuer are closed, when it chauneth or chinketh, must be by and by cloosed again with clay, lest the matter issue out on any side: therfore must it be watched also on the night, and lest the fier should go out. All the liquors also may be re­ceiued in one vessel without chaunging the the re­ceiuer, and after be separated for the For the latter swim­meth aboue the first as the lighter. This oyll he vsed vnto diuers diseases, geuing them euery day one drop to drynke, and conteining it a certayne xxx dayes (as fourtien sumtimes) together: so he sayd [Page 271] it was good to chronicall agues, for the mooste part he mixed with it sum spyces, as Ginger and Sugar with wyne & the drop of the oyll, that the sick should les perceiue that he dronk only a drop of the oyll: sumtymes he would mixt nothing els with the wyne but one drop of this oyll, specially to amende the defaut of a stinking breeth. Sum­tymes he gaue it in water, other tymes he dropt it into a shyue of breed: sumtymes to flegmatick and gros men, with a sawce made of musterd and x peper, bidding them sweet after it: he said it chaū ­ced many tymes that they shoulde auoyde muche fleume therupon. He commended it to be good for all suche thinges, as triacle is vsed for: and better also against poysons: also to al woundes, & swel­linges whatsoeuer they were saue only the drop­sy: to the Cramp, to purge the tieth: to strengthen the iawes, against the Fallyng sicknes, and poy­sons. He affirmed if a Serpent were folded in a cloth wet therin it would kyll it. The other liquor xx that was redysh, to be a remedy for the Leprosy, if the disease had not yet gotten the vpper hande, and the men haue not yet their breeth corrupted. Both the liquors in taste haue a sharpnes, a Ro­siny sauour, and smoky in a maner, but the latter moore. He solde halfe an vnce to ryche men for seuen or eight grotes.

An oyll deuysed by VVilliam de Saliceto, a Pla­centin, whiche is in the fift booke of his Practice, in the chapter of Oyles, and supplyeth the place xxx [Page 272] of balm as he saith. Carpobalsamum, Mirh, the nut of Inde, of euery one half an vnce, ii. drams of Hypericon or saint Iohns wurt. When they are all beeten sumwhat groos, let them stand in .iiii. vnces of old oyll six monethes: and be destille d.

An other moore noble of the same mans which is put in steed of Balm. A pound and a halfe of oyll, Myrh, Xylobalsamum, Opoponax, Bdellium Aloes, Carpobalsamum, Ammoniack, Serapinum, the nut of Inde, Hypericon, Mace, gum Arabick, x Frankencence, Tragacantha, of euery one an vnce: broken tyll sherdes that neuer touched water▪ red hoot and quenshed in thre vnces of cōmune oyll, vii. vnces of cleen and cleer Turpintyn. All pund and knoden together in a morter, destil them lyke Rose water. This water is proffitable against ye stoon, being mixt with medicines against ye same. Hardnesses a [...]d skares it maketh them euen and is vsed in euery thing in steed of Balm.

An other of the same mans more noble. Myrh xx Carpobalsamum, the nut of Inde, of euery one half an vnce. Hypericon or saint Iohns wurt a drame (otherwyse twoo drames.) When they are pund sumwhat groos, let them be mixt with fyue vnces of oyll, and an vnce and an halfe of Turpintyn. In the end put to fyue graines of Muske, and. iii of Ambra, and an vnce of oyll of tyll stones, and let them be destilled as before. It hath the same ver­tues that Balm hath & may be vsed in all thinges in steed of it. This Nic. Stokker also an excellent xxx Physicion in Germany vsed, but without Tur­pentin, [Page 273] if mifrend sent me the descriptiō of it right when it was ready prest, he addeth at lengthe the Musk and Ambra, with oyl of tile stones, and de­stilled them not as I think. He hathe the former description in Luminari Maiore, as also the nexte folowing of Montaguana.

A balm composed of Bartolomeus Montaguana out of his Antidotarie the first chapter whiche is of oyntmentes. Turpentin a pounde: white fran­kensence. iiii, ounces: as much of bay beries: gum x Elemi. vi. ounces: Mastik: Galangal, Cloues, Ci­namon, Zedoaria, Nutmeg, Cubebae, Lignum A­loes wel beaten, of euery one an ounce. Let all be destilled together, first with a slow fyre: and first shall runne oute a water called of Balme. Then when the fire is encreased thou shalt gather an o­ther water by it self. And do so the third time. Thē shal destil forth balm in all trials. It shall be the stronger the oftener it is destilled.

Balme of Peter Aponensis in hys addicion vn­to xx the booke of Mesues in the treatise of oyntinges (for the diseases of the harte.) Mirrh elect, Aloes Hepaticae, Spieaenardi, Sanguis Draconis, Franken­sēce, Mumiae, Opopanax, Serapinum, Crocus, Ma­stik, Gumme Arabik, liquid Styrax, of euerye one two ounces, two ounces and a halfe of Ladanum elect, or Castoreum: halfe a dramme of Muscke. Turpentyn as muche as the weighte of all the reaste breake them that be to be broken and when they are all mixte with the Turpentyne, destyll xxx them wittelye by a lembeck: the arte is lyke as of [Page 274] water of Rooses. These saith Peter, as the mun­kes that write vppon Mesuen, saide they write it oute of written bookes, farre truer then in the Printed bookes, and it is had in Luminare maio­re. Aponensis saith, we finde no mention made by the olde wryters of the annoyntinge of the backe bone, perauenture not bycause they were ignorāt in so profitable and commendable a thing, but be cause they woulde keepe it secreate. For this is an excellente helpe, preseruinge the subiect of life x or that which cōteineth the same. For the original and beginning of bones and sinewes is Nucha, & it springeth of the brain. &c. Therfore things an­noynted with this shalt thou comfort the cloking substāce (that is the cauls and cotes of the brain) and the spiritual substance and sinues, and al the bones helping also the Palsy & all the diseases of the sinnewes, also the panting & trembling of the hart, & manifest werines, and it is the chiefest medicin of all other in the swifte comforting of the xx harte. (After this, describinge the thinge he ad­deth:) This oyle is verye nye vnto Balme: and accordinge to this waye, the moste subtill of So­phisters do counterfeit Balme: for amongst all o­ther wayes this is moste noble. If deade coorses be annoynted with this oyle they putrifye not.

When thou wilte comforte bodies that be extenu­ated and broughte lowe, thou shalt mixte Roose water with it, and annoynte it vppon the lower mansions, and from the Nucha vnto the raines. xxx If the backe bone be annoynted therewith being [Page 275] somewhat warme, an hour before the fit, leauing vppon it the token of it with Pecia, thou shalt put awaye the shakinge of wandering Agues, and of any simple agues. But quartaines and wande­ringe Agues it helpeth at the beginnninge of the course (this place and they which folow seme vn­to some to bee corrupted in the printed bookes) in the swoundinge or debilitie, annoyntinge the ex­treame partes of the backe boone: that the instru­mente for the purpoose maye speake with voyce, x put vnder the tonge of the sicke a little of it, and after in his eares and nosthrilles if nede require. Thou shalt geue of the same when neede requi­reth, in the Stranguling and Suffocation of the Matrix or mother, and in the fallinge sickenesse & manye other diseases. It is ministred in weght tree (I thincke he meaneth one grain) with wine that hathe a good smell. So it comforteth ye mind and nature, and healeth manye diseases. But chieflye, and is good for them that be Melancho­lye, xx sadde, and whose strengthes and members be feeble, as though they were beaten and weke­ned by force. For consuminge Feuers, thou shalt mixte with Oyle of Rooses, or of Mastike, and annoynte the backe boone of them in a baithe or withoute a baithe. Hitherto wryteth Aponensis.

The same manne willeth to mixte thys composi­cion in the steede of true Opobalsamum, wyth Triacle, Mithridatium, Diacurcuma, Aurea Alex­andrina. This Oyle (saithe he) Epiphanius Em­piricus xxx vseth as the Mother of all remeadies, [Page 276] to all diseases of the sinewes, annoynting twise a day therewith the Nucha, the back and inynts, for it is plain by manifest proues, specially in a colde matter. The same man commaundeth to stil this oyl in Balneo Mariae, which I like not.

There is an other composicion of VViliam Pla centinus, whiche I finde in the bigger Luminarie in Diacurcuma or Diacrocu, in this wise. Take Turpentin .ii. pounds: commun oyl .iii. pound: oyl of bayes .xvi. onnces, Cinnamon .iii. ounces: Eu­phorbium, x Cloues, Bay beries, Gum of Iuy, Se­rapinum, Galbanum Aromatik, Opopanax, ofeue­ry one an ounce, Franken sence, Mastike of ether ii. vnces. Let such be betē as shuld: & thē destilled.

These and certain other diuers balmes dothe Ryffius also in his boke of destillation describe.

A quickeninge water and one that procureth youth vnto an old man, out of the boke of Lullius of waters. Turpentyne a pounde: honye halfe a pounde: Aqua vitae thryse or foure times destilled xx iii. ounces. Lignum Aloes welbeaten, Sādali mu­statelli, of ether .iii. drams, gumme Arabeck (per­auenture a dram): Nutmegs, Ambra, ofether .ii. drams. When they are all pund destill them wyth a slowe fyre, till ye haue the firste water cleare. And when the second beginneth to run oute, whi­the shalbe like to a burning cole, encrease the fire by and by and kepe that by it self. Thē encrese the fire again, & gather the third, which shalbe black and thick like hony, til al the liquor be run out. Of xxx these waters ye last is hoter then ye first & seconde. [Page 277] The first is called mother of Balm, the secōd oyll of Balm, the third Balm artificiall. The first is ministred in drink, with warm wyne. The second a [...]d the third ar good to remoue maladies which newly gnawe the fleshe of mans body. The fyrst drunke with warme whyt wyne, purgeth the sto­mack from al il humors: and withholdeth the wa­ter that it cum not at the hart or principal partes, as it is plain by often experiment. A fyne lynnen clooth moystened in this water and thrust into the x noosthriles with the litle fingar, whan ye sick go­eth to bed, and left there within, cureth the reum. Being drunck morning and euening, it cureth a stinking breth what cause so euer it cum of. The tieth washt therwith, are strengthened and made whyt, and ar deliuered from ache whether it cum of a humor, or of putrified bloud. Whatsoeuer shal be put into it, it will kepe it sound and vncorrupt. A linnen cloth moysted in it, and laid vpon woun­des (first washed therwith) or vpon a fistula and xx other (angry and ill byles cureth them.) It resi­steth the quartain ague, if the back boone be rub­bed therwith a fewe daies. Scabbednes washt therwith is made hoole. A linnen clooth moyste­ned therin is very good to be layd to ye hemrodes. Wol that groweth on tries or Bombase, dipt light­ly is this water, is very good to put in the eares against any kynd of deafnes. Being anoynted it cureth the rednes of the face: the palsy of the tong, and all cold diseases. The second and third water xxx are of strength against the disease called Noli me [Page 278] tangere: against the kynges il and also the dissea­ses of the neck and throot. Also against the fistula and the ill disease called Malus morbus, specially if it be yet but new: for by washing it and wetting and oft laing a linnē cloth moystened therin vpō it, it is made hool. They help also if a mābe beten with stones, or clubes or a staf. No poyson can approche ny vnto them, and a spyder touched there­with dyeth. They be anoynted vpon moste proffi­tably against all palsyes. They strengthen all the x partes of the body being washt therwith. It is to be noted that the first water of thies thre, as ge­nerall conteineth all the vertues (of the other.) But to fret the second and the thirde are better, & this more then the other. To be short, they heel all diseases that cum of bloud or putrified fleume.

In the same Lullius a marueilous water is made in this wyse. Cloues, Nutmegges, Ginger, Zedoaria, Galangal, bothe sortes of Peper, Iuni­per beries, the pilles or barck of Citri or Orēges, xx Sage, Basilicum, Roosemary, Maioram, round Mint, Bay beries, Peny royall, Gentian, Cala­mint, ye flowers of Elder, Roses, Ammens, Spick nard, wood of Aloes, Cubebae, (here semeth som­what to be left out) as well wyld as domekical or growing in gardines, Cardamomum, Cinnamō, Calami aromatici, Stichados, Chamaedryos, Cha­maepity os, Melissae, Mastick, Olibani, Aloes hepa­ticae, Anis siedes and flowers, she siedes of Mug wurt, of euery one an vnce. Put vnto thies dry xxx figges, Rasins that cum frō beyond see, Dait sto­nes, [Page 279] fat swiet Almondes, of euery one an vnce. Whyt old hony half a pound. After twys as much Sugar as all the forsaid be. All thies shalt thou put into Aqua vitae. v. or .vi. times destilled in a lē ­bek of glas, ye Aqua vitae shalbe as much as thrys ye weight of all the speces besides. After thou hast lest them stand .ii. daies, thou shalt destill thē with a slow fier. The first water is moste cleer & pre­cious. The second differeth in colour, and must be receiued in an other vessel: it is whyt, good towhit x ten the faces of wemen, it taketh all the spottes or fracknes from them out of hande, if they be once washt therwith thre daies: and maketh thē swiet smelling & cleer. This is called ye water of Balm or mother of Balm: It oughte to be destilled in a lembeck, in a baith with a slow fyer, with Aqua vitae of the same weight. And ye first water shall run furth odoriferous and maruelous, whiche thou shalt receiue by it selfe: then an other of the colour of safron, the third at length lyke bloud. xx

The vertues of the first and of the secōd water are thies. If the one of thē be poured in to a woūd whyles it is new, there needeth none other reme­dy: But within a naturall daye and a halfe at the moste it shalbe made hool, so be that it be no deed wounde. All ill soores or byles, Old, roten Can­kred, Fistula, Lupus, Noli me tangere, and lyke to them, let them be washt with ether of thies wa­ters, and they shalbe heeled within a fewe dayes. One drop only dropped vpon a Carbuncle quen­sheth xxx it within .iii. houres. If an eye be diseased wt blerednes, or the web, or the naill or any swel­ling [Page 280] carnosity bred vpon it, drop one drop of thies waters vpon it euery third day, and within nyne daies it shalbe hool, except it be vtterly destroyed. A drop of them drunk with a litle good wyne bre­keth the stone in the reines or in the bladdar, or in the yard stopped and that within two houres, & deliuereth from the grief. If deed flesh be washt away therwith, the place is shortly made hool. If a womā be sick of her womb or bely, let her drink a litle of them with sum iuice. If a man haue any x grief of a stroke or by chaunce, without any byll or heed, let the place be bathed and washed with a litle of them, and the grief shall go away within iii. houres. By the like helpe a sinewe shrunken, waxen hard or otherwyse ill at ease, is restored. The rest of their vertues a learned physicion shal imagin by him selfe.

The thirde and bloudy water, whiche surna­med holy and blessed, is so excellent in vertues, that if one vse halfe a sponefull of it .xv. daies, he xx shalbe cured of the leprosy, pthisick or consumptiō Astma or disease of short wynde, the dropsy, pal­sy, Ischia or Sciatica, the swounding, the fallyng sicknes, the drop in the ioyntes called the goute, ye consuming feuer, the strangury, and many other diseases, and that within two monethes. It reco­uereth youth vnto old men: a man that lyeth a dy­ing, out of all hope of the physicions, it restoreth him, if one drop of it let fall into his mouthe, bee swalowed, so that it may cum to the hart. If so be xxx it a man drinke a yeare together (euery daye) the [Page 281] quantitye of a wheate corne of this liquor with a sponefull of water of borage, destilled like Rose­water, after the yeare is ended, he shall seeme as though he were made new, in his flesh, blud, and hole body, both in form and strength.

An other Artificial balm, out of the same boke of Lullius of waters. Turpentyn a pounde and a halfe: Galbani two ounces, Aloes Cicotrinae, Ma­stik, Cloues, Galangall. Cinnamon, Nutmegs, Cubebarum, of euerye one an ounce: gum of Iuy x halfe an ounce, When al is wel beaten, mixt them and destill them in a lembeck of glas with a slow fire first, and gather the first water by it self seue­rallye: then encreasing the fyre, a water somwhat reddishe: and afterwarde encreasynge it more, an oyle of a redde coloure, till nothinge runne anye more: chaunginge the receiuer thryse. This oyle hathe all the vertues of true Balme: For it bur­neth in the water, and courdeth milcke by and by: for if one droppe of it warme be put into a pint of xx Milcke, it shall forth with become courded. The firste liquor is called water of Balme, the second oyl of Balme: the thirde Balme Artificiall. The fyrste is profitable againste the runnynge of the eares, if two or three droppes mornynge and eue­ninge be put into them. Dropte into the eyes, it a­mendeth the blearednesse, and consumeth the tea­res. It dothe meruelouslye restreine superfluous humors in anye parte of the bodye. It taketh a­way the touthache, if they be washt therwith, and xxx killeth the wormes if there be anye in them.

[Page 282] Ther third liquor wil suffer no venom: is an vt­ter ennemy and destruction to spiders and Ser­pentes. Two or .iii. drops let drop into anye ve­nemous bitinge, do make it hole streight. If thou draw a circle with this liquor & shit a venemous beaste therein, it shall dye there rather then goe out of it. To he short, it doth the same thinges all that Triacle dothe, but more effectually all thyn­ges. Being poured or put vpon any impostume, within .ix. daies it healeth them, and likewise a x fistula, be it neuer so ill and also a Noli me tange­re. All diseases bred of fleume and colde humors, it healeth them, if a linnē cloth dipped in it be laid vppon the place where the grief is. It putteth a­way vtterly the Palsy, and all tremblinge of mē ­bers: it strengtheneth meruelouslye the sinewes. It is hoter then the first and second. If a mā put a drop of it in his hand, it perceth streighte with­out grefe. To cōclude, it doth many other things and all diseases risen of a colde cause, it healeth xx them, if they vse it right.

A water strengtheuing the memorye. Floures of Roosemarye, Borrage, Camomell, Violettes, Rooses, of euerye one an ounce: Stichadis, Baye leaues, Samsuchi, Sage, of euery one .ii. ounces. When they are all cut small, thou shalt soke them in the best wine, and destill them by a lembecke. After the liquor is destilled, thou shalt mixt with it a pounde of Turpintyne .viii. ounces of Oliba­num, Mastik, Bdelli, Anacatdorum, of enerye one xxx an ounce: when they are all beaten mixte them [Page 283] with the other and destill them again. Then adde vnto them againe, Nutmegs, Mace, Galangall, Cubebarum, Cardamomi, of euerye one an ounce: Agallochi, Amber, Muske, of euery one .ii. vnces (if the written booke be true,) when they are bea­ten and mixte let them stande .v. daies, and destill them the third time, encreasing the fire til the oyl seace droppinge.

Certain waters of life, to be reckened amongst Balmes, shalt thou finde in Vlstadius boke called x Caelum Philosophorum, the .xliiii. liī. chap.

A balme of an vncertaine author. Turpentin. halfe a pounde, Frankensence .ii. ounces: woode of Aloes, Saffron, of either of them an ounce, Mastik, Cloues, Mace, Galangall, Cinnamon, Zedoariae, Cubebarum, Nutmegges, of euery one halfe an ounce: Gumme of Iuy or Elemi. vi. oun­ces, slating tiles quenched in oyl accordingli, such as neuer water touched .iii. vnces. Pūd those that ought to be pund: first will water issue forthe, se­condly xx oyl of Balm: thirdly balm artificiall.

Balm artificiall (saith Matthaeolus Senensis, in his commentaries vppon Dioscorides, whyche I tried and found of maruelus strēgth against ve­ry many diseases) haue I made & cōposed in this wise. Take rosin Larignae, the teres of firtre pure and liquide (some cal it oyle of fire, the Germans Bulhartz) of either a pounde: Manuae Thurus, La­dani, of ether of them .viii. ounces: Spike a dram mastik, Galangal, cloues, Casiae odorate, zedoariae xxx Nutmegs, Cubebarum, Agallochi, of euerye one [Page 284] iii. ounces, Gum Elemi. vi. vnces: Aloes hepaticae, Castorei, date stones, Storacis Calamitae, Myrrhae, Belzoi of euery one an vnce. Beat such as be to be pund and whē they are mixt with the liquors de­stil them artificially. First wil a most subtil cleare water run out, which burneth meruelousli, called the water of Balm. Then wil folow a yelow oyl, subtil, which they call oyl of balm, at the last balm artificiall, red. The first water which as I haue tried, helpeth cold stomakes meruelouslye, & con­sumeth x fleum. The second liquor doth excellently cure woundes, Fistulaes, paines of the sinewes and ioyntes. The third is not only holsom & good for the saide thinges, but besides to manye other thinges which for breuities sake I ouer pas.

An other. Take Turpentin .ii. pound. Galba­ni, gum of Iuy, of ether half a pound. Roses, bedegar, Rosemary that is grene .iiii. vnces. Take the gums & beat them grose: poure thē into the water of Roses. After take the Turpentyn and pour thē xx together & sprinkle vpon thē rose water: after put the flours vnto them and sieth them together, and when the water shalbe almost consumed, let them be put in a lembek, and cast out the water that de­stilleth first, then shal the oyl folow.

An other called the mother of Balme. Take Turpentyn a pounde: oyle of bayes .vi. ounces Galbani, Gum Elemi, of ether .vi. ounces, gum of Iuy .ii. ounces, Olibani. ii. ounces, wod of Aloes one dram: Mastik, Myrrh, Aloes, Laudani, Ca­storei. xxx Rasae (Resinae) of the pyn tre, of euery one .ii. [Page 285] drams, the gum of Oliue tries a pound. Cloues, Galangal, Cumin, Cinnamon, Nutmegges, Ze­doariae, Cubebarum, of euery one .iii. drams. Tor­mentillae, Dictamni albi, of euery one six drames. When they are all mixt, let them be destilled by a lembeck of glas.

An other of Dorustetterus an excellent physiciō emonst the Germanes. Take Xilobalsami an vn­ce. Opopanacis, Rosin of the Pyn trie, Bdellii, Gal­bani, Ammoniaci, Mastick, Sarcocollae, Gummi x Elemi, Olibani, Mirh, Benzoi, of euery one halfe an vnce. Oyll Benedict, of Bayes, Ladani puri, of an vnce and a halfe. Carpobalsami, (or in the steed of it, Balm of the description of VVilliam Placen­tinus) of ether of them half an vnce. Sangu [...]is Draconis. ii. drams. Castorei, Spicknard, Galangal, Cubebarum, Cinamon, Cardamomi, Graines of Paradys, the barkes or piles of Citri Orenges, of euery one a dram. Oyl of Turpintyn as much as the weight of all the rest. When they are stiept xx together a few daies, let them be destilled in Bal­neo Mariae. (I would thinke better in ashes.)

Of Balmes that be vsed vvith out the body.

AL they before are vsed both within and without the body: but they that folowe, are vsed without only, or chiefly.

Balm is shortly thus made. Turpin xxx [...]yn a pound, Mastick, new wax, of ether an vnce, [Page 286] Saffron .ii. drams. When thei are mixt destil thē.

Balm or oyll Benedict for woundes, palsie, &c. Oyl of Turpintyn a pound. Oyll of Bayes two vnces. Galbani, Gummi Elemi, of ether six drams. Gum of Iuy, Frankencence, Mastick, wood of Aloes, Olibani, of euery one two drams. Aloes Myrrhae, Landani, Cactorei, of euery one .iii. drās. Let all be beeten and powred into the Turpin­tyn and oyll and so stand .iii. daies. Afterwarde take Galangal, Cinnamon, Nutmegges, Zedoa­riae, x Cubebarum, of euery one half an vnce. Dictā ­ni, Consolidae minoris, of ether .iii. drames. When thies are pund, put them in .iiii. vnces of aqua vitae for .iii. daies. Mixt all and destil them in ashes, cō tinuing the fier without ceassing day and night til it be finished: and chaunge the receiuer according to y chaunging of ye colour of yt which is destilled.

A Balm for skares. &c. If by the meanes of a strooke (saith Lullius about the ende of the second boke of Quintessence) any gret syne remayn in the xx face or other partes of the body, by this medicine thou maist remoue that sygne or skar, not vtterly, but that it appeer much les. Mastick .iiii. vnces. The barck of swiet pome Granates, Gummi, Cy­peri, Carpobalsami, of euery one .ii. vnces. Saffrō an vnce. Turpintyn .ii. pound. Oyll of Oliues of the eldest .iiii. vnces. Pun thē that be to be pund, and sift them, and mixt them with the Turpintyn and Carpobalsamo, and together with the oyll de­still them with a slow fyer. The destilled liquor xxx shalt thou put in hors doung or in the refuse of [Page 287] prest vynes. Afterward thou shalt vse it, as trewe Balm, whose tokens and properties to knowe it by it hath euery one, & may be solde in steed of it.

A maruelous water or oyll for strumes and swellinges of the throote, wherupon men are said to haue swollen throotes. Oyll of Baies .vi. vn­ces. Olibani, Mastick, Gummi Arabici, pure and cleer Turpintyn of euery one thre vnces. Mixt them in a morter and destill them in a Lembeck. Afterwarde, put to ashes to the water drawen x out (De la cendre Gallicè) except it shoulde be redd De la Cedre, that we may vnderstande the C [...]der frie. Then destill it againe, and this second liquor kepe it lyke Balm. The swelling being anoynted therwith oftentymes in the daye, ass [...]ageth by lytle and lytle.

An artificiall Balm, not to be destilled, but sod only, out of the Frenche booke of Andreas Furne­rius. Olibani, Galbani, oyll of whyte Poppy, oyll of bitter Almondes, cleer Turpintyn, of euery one xx an vnce. Grien Bras made in pouder .iii. vnces. (Vng quarteron, Gallicè: but this quantitie semeth to muche.) Oyl of Oliues .ii. poundes. Thou shalt heet the Oyl in a leeden kettle vpon the fyer and when it shall begyn to sieth, put in the Galba­num piece meell, and ouer a slowe fyer stur it soft­ly nowe and then: then put to the Mastick and the Olibanum, and stur it till they be melted by litle and litle. Afterward the Pitche and Turpintyn, (but he left out the Pitch before) with a slow fyer xxx so that they sieth not ouer. Then take thē from the [Page 288] fyer, and put to the other two oyles, and mixt thē by stirring, and again set them to the fier a lytle. At lengthe put in the grienes of the bras, mixt them throughly and streyne them through a new clooth into an other vessell leeded also. When thou wilt vse the forsaid oyll, thou must see before that no sinew, or vein almoste be cut. Then purginge the soor diligently and making it cleen, thou shalt make warm a litle of this oyll in a vessel or spoun of bras, and lay it vpon so hoot as the sick may a­bide x it, in suche plentie, that the hool woūd be suf­ficiently moystened. Then shalt thou lay vpon it black vnwasht woll of the members of a wether, or a hempen cloth .iii. or .iiii. tymes folded, and let it abyde bound vnto it .iiii. houres. If so be, it the grief seas not then, power vpon it again as is said afore: and euer take hede that the byle or soore be cleen: so in a few daies it waxeth hool maruelousli

Sum mixt Turpintyn and certain gumes to­gether in a Cucurbita of glas, and let it sieth soft­ly, xx set in sand and cloosed with clay: then they let it stande a whyle, till the dregges settle to the bottō and wa [...] hard: then they streine it.

Oyll also of Hypericō is compared of sum vn­to Balm: whiche bycause it is not destilled, I will describe it hereafter.

A water that bringeth out boones, and preser­ueth that the woundes chaunce not to root. Tur­pintyn pure and whyte, but vnwasht, Zopissae, ho­ny, of euery one a pound: Half a pound of Rosin xxx of the Pyn trie that is whyte. Let thē be destilled.

[Page 289] A water of Epiphanius composed for Fistulaes with Turpintyn, certain gummes and spices. &c It is rehearsed befoore, in the seconde order a­mongste the waters composed for certaine out­warde byly diseases. And again an other like vn­to it in the third order.

Of oyles of the partes of beastes, or excrementes.

OF the bones and marowes maye an oyl x be gotten by sublimacion. Syluius.

Oyl of the yelkes of egs may be de­stilled in a lembeck, like as the oyle of Philosophers, Mesuae, Syluius. Loke before wher we intreated of the destillacion of oyles by descē ­cion downward generally oute of Vlstadius.

Oyle of mannes ordure or donge: looke before in the order of mans dong. Of the liquor of mans bloud, loke before in quint tessence. xx

Of the destillinge of honye▪ we haue wrytten before amongste the waters that bee destilled in Roosestilles. &c. The laste liquor that runneth here oute, is somewhat thicke, (that I iudge,) it maye be called an oyle.

Oyles destilled maye also bee mixte together one with an oteer, as in this medicine of Epipha­nius Empiricus, praised for frakens and all kinde of ruggednesse and spottes of the face. An ounce and a halfe of virgines milcke. Water of Rooses xxx [Page 290] with a little brimstone, an ounce. Oyles of Tarta­ro, of wheate, of yelkes or Egges, of euerye one halfe an ounce: a scrupul of Caphurae. Althoughe the seoyles are not wonte to be made by destilla­cion: yet oyl of wheat and of the yelkes of egges, are better made destilled.

Of oyles of metals, tile stones, Gagate, Aumber.

WAters and oyles, secreate by the singu­ler x industrie and wit of Chymists, are of most greate vertues, and of so thin a substance and so subtil, that a drop of a certain oyl by chaunce, falling vpon a bed, perced in a moment the manifold clothes and keuerings thereof and burned the bordes in the bottome of the bed. Syluius. This vertue of pearsinge se­meth to pertaine chieflye vnto oyles drawne out of metalles, in the which also is a greater force xx of burninge.

I vnderstande that Vinegar is chieflye vsed to be destild, for the drawing out of oyles oute of Metalies, as Antimoni, Leade, Cerussa. Other vse other sharp and most hot liquors for that pur­pose, as sharplie, burning water, vrine destilled, Aqua Forti.

Lullius in the fift Canon of his firste booke of quintessence, when he had taughte to drawe oute the .iiii. elementes oute of plantes, he added. And xxx so shalt thou do also with metals: firste thou shalt [Page 291] make them to resolue with oure Menstrue (I sup­pose he meaneth oure Vrine) vnder dounge for the space of a weke: the Menstruum must be sharp with some Vegetable and stronge quickenynge thinges whiche we shall declare hereafter in the Questionary. After the metalles shall be dissolued set them to be destilled in a fire of the first degree, and the Menstruum shall issue forthe, and the lime or pouder of ye metal shal remaine in the bottome. After this reiterat & repete it again vpō the dregs x of the metall with newe Menstruum as muche as the weight of the metall, and set it to putrifyinge for the space of a month and a half: and after this destill it as thou didst of the Vegetable or quick­ning things, but euery time put new Menstruum vpon the dregs. Other diuers opinions of Philo­sophers in the drawing out of the elements out of minerall thinges, we shall declare in the thirde boke: This saith he.

I suppose it to be a commone thinge vnto all xx oyles of metals to be heauier then other oyles, as Cardanus signifieih and an other certaine author wryteth, that the drops oyl of Vitriol or Coproos to be ponderous and weightie.

Oyle destilled of Orpment or Mysi (or Vitriol of Rom.) annoynted vpon ye arteries & region of the hart, I suppose is hable to saue a mā infected with poyson, be it neuer so sharp and strong, & do kill a manne onlye with touchinge: Cardanus.

And a little after, but sence wee are fallen into xxx this communication, I think it shuld not be so vn­profitable [Page 292] nor far frō the purpose to inquere this how oyl may be made whiche beinge annoynted vpon the Arteriis, maketh the venome to breake out by vomit or purgacion, or sweat, or vrine, It is sure, it muste be of metall, which must be most stronge. I sawe suche once and by the waighte onlye I coniectured that it was without al doute of metall, It muste also bee of the nature of Ve­nome: for by the immoderate heate, as it is saide, it vanquisheth firste the euill infection conceiued x and by naturallye attracteth vnto the vtter par­tes, that is hurtefull, and by the contrarietie dri­ueth it awaye. It must also haue no small stren­gthe to discus & expel: and again, sōe contrarietie against the poysons them selues, which .ii. things agree to the iuice of Laser or Assa Foeetida. Ther­fore those things that must driue out the poysone, ought to be metally poysons, but not most bitter: and most hot and discussing or expelling, also in a maner contrary to the poysons. The matter ther­fore xx of these thinges may consist of these thinges, Mysi & Orpment, and the iuice of Laser or Assa foe­tida, and Gentian, and of the fat of venemous ser­pentes, and Aconitum. If so be it that in any land moo of theese (foresaide vertues, as to discus, ex­pell, and resiste poysones. &c. be to bee gotten, the oyle extracted by the force of fyre shall be best of all. And a little after. But oyle that onlye by a­noyntinge of the Arteries dothe thruste oute the poysone, I woulde not call it the best in this sence xxx that also besydes it thou shouldest Minister in [Page 293] drinke, Triacle or Milke or sum other excellent medicin, ye also it should be the more auaylable. That dare I be bold to say, that the anoynting of the arteries, and the things ministred outwardly, are better and of more strength then those things that are drunck, saue only for this that the poyson remayneth yet in the stomack. For vnto such (poysons newly taken, that they be not yet gone out of the stomack) they that prouoke strong vomities are moost excellent, as Milk, Lie, Oyll, water of x Nucis vomicae or spewing nut. Therfore in vene­mous bytinges, in stingings in oyntmentes that be venemous, in the drinking of venom whiche is now alredy perced to the midrif or nether partes of the chest, the helpes that be ministred outwardly are more auailable and of greater strength. &c. Thies out of Cardane haue I written the more at large, that therby also ye reason migth be the more euident of that marueilous oyl of Scorpions. &c. Whiche bycause it is made without destillacion, xx I will describe it hereafter seuerally.

Oyll of Antimonium is moste proffitable to all ill soores and byles, as I my self dotry with good succes. But the Antimonium is purged first, oftē ­times melted and made liquid with the fyer. Far from this doth the oyll of Antimonium which chy­mistes vse, wherwithall they endeuoure to set the colour of gould vpō siluer: Matthaeolus vpō Diosc.

Oyll of Antimonium howe it is made for soore byles and fistulas. I writ afore out of Vlstadius, xxx in the treetis of Quintessence. But certain practi­cioners [Page 294] also make oyll of Antimonium to diuers diseases within the body, whiche they extoll with maruelous and great praises. They make it af­ter this sort, as I here. Antimonii half a pounde, whyt Tartari Calcionated asmuche: let thē be bea­ten and melted or dissolued in a gouldsmithes Ti­gillo (crucibulo) vpon cooles: when they are mel­ted let them be powred out into sum earthen pot, where they shalbe sturred and mixt together: and when they are becum into a hard lump, let them x be pund again, and streined by a colender (that is a sack of that form that they vse for Hyppocras as they call it) in a moyst place (in a hoot and moyst place) as in a wyne celler, the colender hanging: for so shall the oyll destill out by litle & litle which of sum bycause of the bloudie colour is called Ru­bedo Antimanii, and lykewyse it is made of cer­tain Gouldsmithes for a certain painting I can not tell what. But for the remedies of mans body it ought to be prepared with Quintessence of wyn xx or with burning water, so that twyse asmuche all moste of it be powred to the forsaid rednes of the Antimonium: and let them be sturde diligently in body, and mixt, and then destilled in ashes thre or iiii. times, till the breth lose al the euil smell. The dregs must always be mixt & sturd about when yu powrest i [...] again the destilled water vpon thē, or when thou powrest to them new Quintessence, for I am not sure whiche way it ought to be doone. Sum in the beginning do stregthway mixt reed xxx vineger most sharp (destilled with the Antimoniū & Tartarū calcionated to be melted together. But [Page 295] I wryt althies not as certain: but as I noted thē by the way as I hard them recited certain yeres ago of a certain practicioner. I know that certain chymistes & goldsmithes serche for ye oyl or Quint essence of ye Antimoniū as a moste perfect treasur. Thies destil first sharp lye cōposed of vnslect lyme and ashes Clauellatas by a Filtrū: and is this lye they sieth the Antimoniū subtilly and fynly beten, for the space of .v. houres, and again destil this lye when it is cold, by a Filtrū: & that of ye Antimoniū x that passeth through wt it, that is a pouder of ye­lowe colour, they reserue. After they powre in vpō the Antimoniū put in a Cucurbita or body, moste sharpe red vinegar destilled, so that it be aboue it iii. or .iiii. fingars thick: they set it in a hoot place a few daies, and euery day they shake and▪ mixt it, x. or .xx. times: then they power ye vinegar lightly into an other glas, so yt nothing be troubled. This do [...]hey repete .v. or .vi. times (euer powring new vinegar vpon the Antimoniū remaining in ye Cu­curbita xx or body) at length they put all the vinegar together, & destil it by a lembeck with a slow fyer, til ye oyl begin to run out. This oyl or quintessence of Antimoniū, is of a colour of blud. With this thei die Mercurie, & say it is an incōparable treasure, a chief mistery of ye chymistical art: as we trāslated out of a certain writen doutch boke. A reed oyll is gotten out of Antimoniū, very sharp, smelling lyk brimston, & it reteineth ye vertue of y Antiminium, bycause of the grosnes of the substaunce proffita­ble xxx to few thinges. Cardanus.

Hooll Lyme vnbroken, let it be slekt in cōmun [Page 296] oyll, and destill it in a lembeck of glas, there shall issue forth an oyll good for a boon that is corrupt: Syluius. Put a hot piece of quick Lyme into com­mun oyll, till the Lyme becum powder, then let it be destilled in a lembeck of glas, and oyll of Lyme shall issue, whiche is the firste that was described by Leonard of Praedapalea Patauinus, Ion. Iacobus de Manliis.

Oyll of Cerussa: Looke before where we intre­ted of Quintessence out of Vlstadius. x

Oyll of Gagates or ieet, called Sacratum or holy, moste holsum for them that be possessed of spirits, that haue the falling sicknes, the palsy, the cramp, the stifnes of sinewes, the gout, or be chooked in their wombe, it helpeth also cōceiuing. It is made of Ieet stones after the maner of oyll of Iuniper (by descention) or elles by sublimacion (as oyll of tyle stones) Mesues of Iac. Syluius interpretacion: out of whose notes we haue subscribed thies wor­des: Seing Bitumen is far lighter cost then Ieet, xx and of the same vertues or stronger, a man might proue to get an oyl out of it, whiche shal run more abundauntly specially if it be new Bitumen, foras­muche as it is as it were the fat of the earth, and is burned in steed of oyll of them that dwell about the place of Asphaltita or deed sea, or els in other places wher Bitumen is. Forthermore he douteth whether it can heele the falling sicknes, seing the falling sicknes doth the more appeer with ye foule stinking, smell of the Bitumen. But me thinkes it xxx semeth probable that that sicknes shuld be helped [Page 297] with it by attenuating, digesting, drying, whiche vertues boothe it hathe theim befoore, and that not feablelye: and also muche moore the liquor destilled thereof perfourmeth theese thinges.

Nether doth it not help this diese therfor, because it is likely that the same should be vttred and ap­pere with the perfume of that bituminous smell, as with the perfume of Myrrh, Galbanum, and horns, houfs, and the skins of a she or he gote. For Phisicions vse the hornes & houfes of diuers be­stes x against this siknes, ministring the shauings of them within the body: nether is it a like reasō in the perfuminge of a thinge and receiuinge of it simplely. But of these maiters, Phisicions shuld teach not so much by reasons & coniectures, as by experiment & trial. I my self saw once a perfume of beaten Aumber (whiche also is ascribed vnto ye kind of Bitumen) speciallye white, holden to the nosthrils of one sick of the falling euil, with coles in a spone and the Amber vpon them, and by & by xx the fit ceased: which thing appels or bals as they call them made with Mosch or Ambra will do al­so. But that Mesuae writeth of men possessed with deuils (saith Syluius) is supersticious, & against the faith of a Christen man. Brimston and iet are molten at the fire as al other liquors. The same.

Oyl of philosophers (which some haue named oyl of wisdom, and of perfect mastership, & diuine and holy) by al the old writers consent, is most ef­fectuous to secreat diseases, and tha [...] not to a few xxx of them, for it heateth, drieth, perceth depe by the [Page 298] meanes of the subtelnes of the substance, it dige­steth and consumeth al excremental and superfluous expelled matter. Therfore it is very holsome for the falling sicknes, palsy, turning sicknes, for getfulnes, and for the cold diseases of the splene, rains, bladder, womb, sinewes, al ioynts, & other sinewy parts. But one sort is natural or mineral and an other of the sea, that runneth out of Iles & rocks (called Naphtha) of the which kinde, that which is somewhat white is counted the best: the x redish of a mean goodnes: but that which is som­what black & thick, is the worst. Notwithstāding it is made by arte in this wise. Tiles made of red earth very old, must be beaten into pieces, & set on fire with vnsmoking coles, til they be red hot, thē slek thē in a bole ful of oyl of Rofmary (alchichil) or old claret, & as much as is possible let them sok in the oyl. Dry them by thē selues in cases (caczo­bis. The Munks vpon Mesuen: wher also is red shortly after, Caczola for a Cucurbita or body of a xx stil.) Afterward beat them most smal, and put thē in a vessel that be destilled by sublimacion, ioyn ye vessel to the hed with claye that chymists do vse, sethe them with coles set a fire in a fornace, til an oyl destil into a phial of glas glued to ye lower end of the nose of the head (with clay, Bulcasis) which stopt veri exactly, set it vp & kepe it: for the elder it is the stronger: Mesue as Syluius trāslateth him, whose words also I haue writen here out of his annotaciōs. Oyl (saith he) of tiles is so subtil, that xxx in a moment it spredeth most brode: if it be poured into a mans hād it perceth it forth wt. It is much [Page 299] more subtil, more hot and more effectuous in cold diseases, thē is oyl of balm. It prouoketh vrin, it breaketh the stone, killeth worms: it is holsom for the singing of the eares comming of a gros wind for the palsi, the crāp (spasmo cynico) the sciatica or ach in the hukle bones, the gout in the knees, fete & the greues of the other ioynts, being drunk or anoynted vpon ye place: but let it be drunke mixte wt a litle porcion of some water conuenient for the disease. The making of this oyl is described also x by Rasis in his Antidotari or preseruatiue and by Bulcasis in his boke intitled Seruitor: wheras Bulcasis preferreth new tiles, yt neuer yet toucht wa­ter, because they drink in ye oyl better: & he bids de­uide thē into pieces of an inche bignes, & putreth thē so in a vessel of glas, or glased, wel claied yt the third part therof remain empty. The fire must be made soft at ye first, but so yt it touch ye bottom, & encresed by litle & litle. First shall a water issue forth afterward an oyl (read Bulcasis) which must be gathered xx bi it self. In the same wise do we destil tur­pentyn, guaiacū & many other things. Oyl also of Chamaemel, & Nard also, which is called Benet or blessed of Mesuae: but this (of tiles) is ye chief, & of sōe is called petroleū or oyl of stones. These Sylu. This is a stinking oil, but it perceth passingli. Io. Iac. de Māliis. ¶ Read certain things befor, wher we haue entreted generally of ye destillatiō of oyls by descēcion, out of Vlst.Bul. bideth to dip in the peces euerye one of an i [...]che bignes (a dramme, xxx Rasis) made redde hotte, in mooste olde oyle, and when they are quenched to take them out of y oyl [Page 300] and when thei are al sōwhat grose beaten, to put them into one or mo stillatory vessels: whiche he calleth belies, so that .ii. parts of ye vessell or more be filled. He biddeth also to take hede that ye fyre come not nie to this oile (while it is destilled) be­cause it wil easily be set on fire, and hardly be put out. Afterward again new peces of tiles, dressed as before, to be destilled, til oyl inough be gathe­red: which he biddeth to be kept in a vessell with a narow mouth: moste diligently stopte with waxe x (and earth): For it bretheth out easily because of the subtiltie and thinnes of the substaunce. Vse this oyl (saith he) in cold sicknesses as the falling euil, the benumming of the senses or Apoplexia, the heauines of hearing, and cold gout: other dis­eases also haue I expressed in the booke of oyles, for it is a secrete thing of philosophers. The very same way of making it doth Rasis describe.

The oyl that they cal commonlye Balsamyn (of spik) raiseth vp sodēly them that lie in the falling xx sicknes, being held vnder their noses to be smeld, or els that which they get out of tilestones, & hath the name of the stone: Alexander Benet.

This oyl is made also with certain other thin­ges mixt with it, as I found in a certain written boke, the words wherof I wil rehers here. Take & breke into litle peces red tiles very olde or new, but yt neuer touched water, & thei being made red hot quēch them in oyl of oliues, or els, y is better, in oyl of baies, by & by make thē red hot again, & xxx slek thē as befor vntil they wax blacke. Then put these peces into a lembeck with ye oyl also wherin [Page 301] theiwer quēshed, if ani of it be left, if not, put new vnto it to the measur of a fingar. Afterward put to it Castorei, and Spicknard, or in the steed of it rew, of ether of them one part: Costi two partes. When thies are punned, mixt them with the tyles in a Cucurbita or bely, whiche thou shalt digge in hors dong about. rx. daies. At lengthe thou shalt destill it, encreasing the fyer by litle and litle. The first liquor is good, the second better, but the third of a red colour is best. This oyll is good against x all could diseases as Balm, but this is more sub­til then Balm and more proffitable in could disea­ses, for it perceth through the hand quickly and spredeth abrode a great way. It cureth the stoone of the bladder and the could diseases of the same. It prouoketh vrine. It helpeth the could diseases of the eares, and killeth the wormes of the same. It is moste proffitable for them that be sick of the palsy, and of the Cynical Cramp, being anoynted therupon or drunkē, also the Sciatica, & the griefs xx of the ioyntes and back. A plaster made with this oyll and salt Ammoniack, dissolueth in short space the impostumes and hardnesses of the splien. It is of force against the falling sicknes and the ob­struction or stopping of the nose, being put into ye noosthrilles. It heateth the brain, confirmeth the memory, asswageth touth ache. Being put into ye womb, it prouoketh the flowers. It bringeth out the chyld newly conceiued ether dead or alyue. It openeth the mouth of the vaines, & dissolueth the xxx bloud that is lopperd or curded. It purgeth the [Page 302] lunges from gros humors. A fewe drops of it drunken with syrop of Rooses, helpeth them that drawe their breeth peinfully. It consumeth mar­ueylously the water descending down to the eyes, that is to saye the disease called Suffusion. If fi­shers anoynt their nettes therwith, they shall en­tyse innumerable fishes. Iron moystened therin and put to the fyer shall burne streigth way. It killeth wornes whersoeuer they be. Being made hoot in an egge shell or other vessell, may be dropt x holsumly into the place where the grief is, vntyll the grief asswage. It resisteth could poysons, as the sting of a Scorpion, and also black Popy, and Henbane, if a mā haue reciued thē by his mouth. It puteth away the stoone of the bladder, being mixt with the barck of Percily, and Fenell, (the barkes of the routes being sodde in water, and a litle quantitie of this decoction receiued with a drop or .ii. in drinke) but all thies thinges for the moste part doth Rasis in Antidotary attribute and xx asscribe to the simple oyl Benet, that is, that which is destilled of only tyles & oyl. That is coūted the best (saith Rasis) that is very red, of a strong smel, and of a subtill substaunce.

Oyl of leed: Loke befor, wheras we haue reher sed Vlstadius wordes of Quinessence.

Amber by an artificiall meanes of siething is turned into an oyl of his oun colour. Ge. Agricola In died it is possible to make oyl of Amber, after the same maner as of Iet, wherof we haue writen xxx befor. For they seme, not to be of much vnlyke na­ture. [Page 303] The Germains call them by a cōmun name Agstein, geuing only the difference of black vnto Iet. Cardan supposeth that Camphora also is of ye same kynd, only bycause yt this, that the perfume of Amber receiued in a moyst cloth, giueth after­ward the smell of Camphora in it: which notwith­standing did not appeare so to me as I did proue it for a triall.

Brimston anoynted & drūck taketh away scab­bednes, leprosy and the frenche pockes. But with x a more vehement force, the oyl therof, which how it should be made, we haue declared in our bokes of the frenche diseases. Card. But his bookes of ye frenche disease, I suppose ar not yet cum forth in print. Salt cōteineth an oyll in it if it be mixt wt the lyme or clay called Bitumen. Wherupō Arria­nus declareth, emongst the Ichthiophagi, the men that liue only by fyshe, in his history of Ind, howe they make an oyll of salt. That may be an argu­ment also that the Oliue tries delyte in the Sea xx bankes for a salt groūd is also not a litle fat. But as I said, al thinges do so contein oyl, that it may be drawen out by ye force of fier, but it can not con­tein much, except it haue Bitumē mixt wt it. Car.

For the making of oyl of Brimston, a mā must chose out yt which is pure & neuer touched the fier, chiefly aliue & of an ashy colour.) This oyl is ma­de many wayes at Rome, by sublymaciō & descē ­cion. &c. It is good for many thinges, & chiefly for fistulas, & for ye healing of ye wheeles of ye moutes xxx y mē cal gangrenes (I suppose it to be yt which we call in Englishe cankers) in the curing wherof it [Page 304] excelleth moste of all. For take and wet the end of a fether or other lyke thing, as some yong and tender spring of a trie or herbe, and touche the whee­les once or twyse only therwith, and by and by thei shalbe killed & healed. The Munkes vpō Mesue.

Take a vessell of glas (as Maithaeolus Senen. writeth in his boke of the Frenche euil) not much vnlyke to a litle bell, daubed with potters claye, hang it the space of a cubit from the grounde, by a wyer of bras or iron, vnder ye which thou shalt set x a basen of glas of a great cōpas, with a pot turnde vpsyde downe. Moreouer the bottom of the pot shall hold vp an iron plate of .iiii. fingars broode, made red hoat, wherupon the Brimstone may be brent. Whyles this is brēt, newe shalbe added vpō it. Therupon it shal cum to pas that by the smoke ascending, the hanging vessell in short space shall destill drop down in to the basen that standes vn­der, an oyll, whiche gathered diligently thou shalt serue in a phyall of glas. xx

Brimstone that neuer came ny the fyer, or most yelowe, whyles it is brent, giueth a thick smoke to be receiued in a bell of glas or of stoone. Wherein thorowe the gros vapour an oyll gathered toge­ther destilleth into a large plain vessell, in ye mids wherof the brimstone builded vpon a litle vessell is brent. Other beating the brimstone consume the fyry substaūce of if, with Aqua vitae set on fyer, and after deuil that whiche remaineth, lyke vnto oyll of Philosophers. Other sieth yelowe Brim­stone xxx Turpintyn, of ether an vnce, oyl of Roses a [Page 305] pound, with a slow fire, with .ii. vnces of odorife­rous wine, til the wine be consumed, (as it is red in Luminari maiore.) Syluius.

Put one part of quick brimston into .ii. parts partes of oyl of Lynsied, beat them well and dili­gently together, and let them stand in hors dong ii. dais in a vessel wel shut, & it shalbe clere & fair.

But all these oyls seme to be prepared only for this purpose that they may be ministred without the body: I here say that there be certaine practi­cioners x now a daies, which geue men to drink to ther body, a certain oyl of brimstō, chiefli against falling siknesses, & perauenture that kind whose firy substance, as Syluius maketh menciō, is first consumed by Aqua vitae set on fire, then destild by sublimacion, it may be more safly ministred with in the body then the other.

Oyl of Vitriol or copros is desired of chymists and likewise of phisitions, and as a moste secrete matter is hid. I will put here some descriptions xx therof, whiche I receiued of my frendes, or found in writē bokes, and after other I wil declare one way of this oyl most effectuall & approued, which I know my selfe, whiche a certaine practicioner with vs vsed to the curing almoste of all kinde of diseases, and in many luckely. &c.

Make the Vitriol in to lime, as thou knowest, then pour burning water vnto it, so that it excede the Vitriol a little: then seperate the burning wa­ter by destillacion in a phiall or in a croked stil, or xxx a bely (laid on the one side). When that is drawne [Page 306] out, vrge the spirits of the Vitriol by litle and lit­tle, encreasing the fire more and more, til al ye spi­rits be ouer passed. This liquor destilled put it a­gain into som one of the .iii. maner of vessels afor­said, & destil it in a kettle ful of water, vntil what­so euer watry thing is in it, be separated, whiche thou shalt endeuor to bring to pas by al the witte thou hast, that the watrines be clean gotten out, ether by a lēbek, (with a nose) or a blind lembek, whose nether skirt haue a hollow gutter or circle x like vnto a lēbek) that is to say with a nose). En­deuor that the water in the kettle sethe lightlye (if so be it ought to sieth at all: the dutch word (siedē) semeth to be equi [...]ocal, and may signify as wel se thing as boyling) to thintent that the waterines alone may ascend, and the oyl alwaies remain in the botom of the bely: the which thing to bringe to pas, you shall haue nied of two daies at the least. Then afterward that oyl that is left in the belly, put it into a bely or other of the forsaid vessels de­fensed xx with clay and destil it: & marke whether a­ny water pas before the spirits. For if there be a­ny watrines yet mixt with it, it shalbe nedeful to set it afterward in y sun or hot place in a blind lē ­bek, y the watrines being eleuated and caried vp may remain in the hem & skirt of the lēbek. This if yu repeete ofter then once, this insolaciō I mene the oyl shall becom euer the swieter and better. Ye also a man may repete the destillacion the second or third time: for by that meanes the oyl is rectifi­ed xxx more and more. Thou maist minister .ii. or .iii. drops of this oyl against all manner of diseases, [Page 307] ether by it self, or with waters conuenient for eue­rye disease. This oyl I haue tasted my selfe, it is swiet, pleasant, and strong, in colour (if I remem­ber wel) somwhat white.

An other way. Take .iiii. poundes of Vitriol of Rome, dry it in an earthen vessel till it wax red, after when it is beaten put it into a bely of glasse diligently defenced with clay (as the maner is for Aqua fortis) and first destilit with a soft fire, encresing the degre of the fire by litle and little, vntyll x white fumes begin to issue out at the nose of ye be­ly: then set a great receiuing vessel fensed wt clay and make a fire with wod continuing for ye space of .xii. hours, and at lēght shal issue out red drops and heauye. When the receiuer beginneth to bee clear, the matter is finished, wherfore then cease that the vessels may be couled. Afterward y shalt put it in a litle lembek to separate and auoide the fleum, and reserue the reast, setting it in the sun a ix. daies. When thou wilt vse it, minister it wyth xx white wine, or Malmsy .vi. or .vii. drops, so that nothinge after be eaten by the space of .iii. or .iiii. hours, it mai be receiued also before slepe, if a mā drink not vpon it. This liquor is profitable for a sick stomack, for lepers, for them that be sicke of ye stone, for the retention and keping of vrin, for thē that be sicke of the Ague, and in time of the pesti­lence with water of Acetosae, somwhat warm, putting vnto it half a dram of spices Diamargariton, which is cold if it may be gotten. xxx

An other way to make oyl of Vitriol against in [Page 308] rable diseases. Put as much Vitriol of Rome as ye wil in a bely to wax red, wt such a fire as is vsed to Aqua fortis, for ye space of .xxiiii. hours, as lōge as the water commeth forth without spirits, and more if it be not made red, euer kepinge the same fire. Whē as it is now becomed red, take away ye hed (lembek) and the receiuer, and kepe the water for secret vses to be spoken of. After beat ye Vitri­ol and put it in a bely with .v. partes of quintessēce of wine, that the Vitriol may be soked: The belly x ought to be laide ouerthwarte in a fornace, to the which thou shalt set an other contrary without, ye bottom wherof let it be put in a vessel of cold wa­ter. Then make a fire in the furnace, no les vehe­ment thē such as for Aqua fortis is made. So shal run out first the Aqua vitae, and at length the fyre encreased, oyl of Vitriol shall follow. Then thou shalt separate the Aqua vitae from the oyl, putting a hed to the bely wherin both are conteined, & set­ting a receiuer without, with a fire of Aqua fortis. xx But that the matter may be the more euident, we haue drawn a figure such as it is, of the fornace, wherin the oyl ought to be destilled, with a situa­cion ouerthwart to the bely, and a fire made roūd about, that the oyl issuing forth may find no cole­nes saue only in the receiuer. ¶ The vertues of this oil ar innumerable, wherof sōe we wil recite here, yt a learned phisiciō may coniecture ye rest by him self. To such as haue any hot or cold disease, but more cold, he shall geue .iiii. drops with good xxx wine, or burninge water, fastinge earlye in the [Page 309] morning, and forbid


them to receiue anye meet befor .iiii. houres be past. Against a cō ­tinual ague giue .viii. drops, with halfe an vnce of Rose water, in the morning as is said and lykewyse also a­gainst other diseases, x with destilled liquors or decoctions miet for the purpose. As cōcer­ning the Dosin, that is the quantitie of the receite, vnto strōg men thou maist giue .viii. drops, to men of meen strength fiue, to such as be weake iiii. &c. In this oyll if thou dissolue Marchasit, it shall chaung siluer, and tinge it in all degries.

An other way for the same, that it may be the xx better made and purer. Put in an earthen pot of earth of Crucibulorum glased within as muche Vitrioll of Rome as thou wilt: and destill it in a fornace, as is befor said, with a fyer of Aqua fortis and there shall run out a whyte water of Vitriol: After when it ceaseth, thou shalt encreas the fyer, and a grien water shall folow, which whē it hath left thou shalt make a moste strong and vehemēt fyer, both aboue and beneth, and a red oyl shall is­sue out. Chaunge euer the receiuer according to xxx the chaūging of the liquors: Or els take those .iii. [Page 310] liquors in one vessel, & seperate the waters after­ward from the oyl by destilling them, and the oyll shall remain in the bely. This separatiō is made ye bely stāding vpright (with a head and a receiuer) the first destillacion of ye oyl, the bely lying ouerth warth, as it is said. If thou dip a litle drie woul or bombase in water of Vitriol of Rome, and ther wt thouch any kind of diseases of ye mouth, thou shalt easely heale them: Out of a writen booke of a cer­tain friend: he semeth here to meane that water yt x rūneth out first: which is to be vsed only without the body, not the very oyl of Vitriol, which is more precious and pure, and is kept to be ministred & giuen to drinke against inward diseases.

Of the vertues of oyl of Vitriol, out of ye same writen boke. Drinck Malmsy with a litle oyll of Vitriol, cōtinually for the space of .v. or .viii. dais, it riddeth a man from all obstructions, it purgeth the bloud, and driueth away the stone. It healeth the il scab, if it be drunck with water of fumitory, xx and Myrobalana condite. It reneweth a mā with water of endiue. It healeth all maner of griefes of the head, with water of Maioram, or Buglos, or Melissa: also the turnsicknes, if it be conteined any space. With water of Agresta it healeth al maner of diseases, the body being first purged. It restoreth the memory with the water of Acorus or Fenell. It mouith a man to slepe, with the sied of Letis or Popy. It is good for melancolyck per­sons with water of Bublos or Borage. It cureth xxx mad men with water of the water lily, cōtinuing ye vse of it: also hoat impostums & the sleping euil [Page 311] with water of wyld rewe. It purgeth the body wt Aqua vitae. It healeth ye palsy with water of wyld mint, or sage, & Hyssop, the cramp with water of Sage: the sicknes of quaking with water of Basi­licus, & diuers inward diseases with water of Trifolium, all feblenes of the eyes with water of Fe­nell: the reum from the head with water of Lily, ye catar wt water of Adiantū & Hyssop, & the cough, also the disease of the syde with water of Plātain the Pleuresis wt water of maiden hear, the feble­nes x & wekenes of the stomack, wt water of mint. With water of Quinces, it staunceth vomitting: if the sick be of a moyst temperature or cōplexion, let it be giuen him with water of plantain or shep pardes purs with a litle Diarhodon. It stinteth ye flux of the bely with the water of Plantain: the co lyck with water of Rewe. With water of worm­wod it resistith venemous bytings. It healeth al maner of impostumes and dropsy, continuing it. It is good for the limes that be resolued, if it bee xx chawfed vpon with an Ox gaull. It helpeth the splen with Tamarindis: with water of Radish and and sea bremble, it expelleth the stoone, & openeth the stoppinges of theines. It healeth all agues wt water of Agresta, & certain kyndes of leprosy, cōtinuing the vse of it. This is the trew potable gold, and the trew Selādyn or Chelidonia, & more also in weigth it giueth not place to gold, & it hath the same & as many vertues as potable gould. A litle of it with a litle water of Roses drunk, restoreth ye xxx speche that is lost: it stinteth the bleding at ye nose with Roses.

[Page 312] An other maner of oyll of Vitriol, whiche a cer­tain old man a practicioner in Heluetia vsed, mix­ting .ii. or .iii. drops with Triacle, and bidding thē to sweet after they had drunck it, in a bed .iiii. or. v houres, so that they put not out so muche as a fin­gar, by the whiche medicine I knowe manye too be cured of him from diseases hard to be cured. &c. When he died I sawe the oyll whiche me thougth was of sumwhat a whyte colour or duskish, pera­uenture bycause of the litle pieces of siluer that x were put into it. The taste of it was moste sharpe passing all vinegar be it neuer so strōg, in so much that one drop perced the tong lyke any hoot mar­kyng iron sodenly, yet hurt it not: ye it nether hurt the throot when it was swalowed: otherwyse of no vnplesant taste, almoste of no smel, or els sum­what senting of adustion or brentnes. But it is made in this wyse. Putte .iii. or .iiii. pound of Vi­triol, or as muche as ye list in a large earthen ves­sell glased, and fenced without euery where roūd xx about with clay diligently and dryed againe, and setting the vessell in a chimney vpon quick coles, procure diligently all the smooke of it (from the which as from the poyson thou shalt beware thou kepe thy selfe) the vapuor and beeth out, stirring it with a staf, and mouing euery fout that whiche is beneth vpward, seing lykewyse that in boyling it run not ouer, and continue so doing till it ceas boylyng, and that all the vapor and smooke seme to be cleen consumed. Then shalt thou put in burning xxx cooles of Vitriol many inough from aboue [Page 313] in the very vessel, and leaue it so til the Vitriol be clean brought to lime, that no moisture or vapor at all remain in it, and that now it haue gotten a redish or yelowish colour, nor any vapour or spi­rits seme to ascend from it any more. For except ye Vitriol be very dry, oyl effectual & strong inough should not be drawn out of it, but mixt with a certain white fleum. When as therefore it is suffici­ently broughte into lime, put awaye the fire, and when the vessell is couled by little and little, take x it out softly least peraueuture it breake. Thē get out the Vitriol as wel as ye cā with a knife or o­therwise: although it is no harde matter to get it out of a glased vessel. The Vitriol takē out, breke it smal, & put the peces into an erthen bely, which the potter, as be spoken, hath made of ye best erth, and wonderfully wel


baked, so stronge that it mai be able to abide a vehemente fire in a xx fornace .iii. daies, and iii nights, continual­ly: for if it shuld breke thou shouldest loose both oyl and labor, be it neuer so litle a crak or chinck that shoulde happen vnto it. Therfore yt it may the easi­er withstande & abide xxx the fire, it must be fē ­ced [Page 314] with clay, and yt, ii. or .iii. fold, yt is, first dried & parieted again, & again. The form of the fornace shalbe in this sort. This fornace shalbe butlded. 4 square, & in the top a litle imbosed & vaulted roūd in the midst of ye top of ye arch shalbe made a hole or smoking vent, so larg, y eueri hour or as oft as nead shal require, coles may be put conueniently into ye fornace by it, wt a lōg iron fire shouel, to put in the coles gētlely & charily wtall yt they may slide down about the bely in such wise yt it be not hurt. In the. 4. corners also aboue must be left holes or x vēts, in euery coruer one, & so mani stoples of clai must be made mete for thē. Whē the coles are now put in & the fyre burneth, the hole of the valt must be shut wt a lid of iron or wt the fire shouel, and the holes of the▪ corners must be left open, yt thair mai haue entraunce. The bely ought to be placed in ye midle of the fornace vpon such an yron which shal rest at both ends in ye wals on both sides of ye for­nace: in ye midle bought of this irō shal the bely be xx laid. The mouth of the bely ought to loke out wt ­out ye fornace a litle by a hole which must streight way be shut & stopt wt clay, yt the air may haue no entrāce ther about. Thē must ye mouth of ye belibe ioyned wt the mouth of ye receiue, so yt thone be put into thother. It is requisit that the receiuer be of glas & good & great, perauēture lest whē it is stuf­fed wt the spirits it shuld chāce to breke, or els to ye intēt it may be the further from the fornace. And wher thei ar ioyned together, yu shalt cōpas ye ioyn­tes xxx roūd about diligētly wt very good clay tēpred wt the whites of egs & linnē clouts about it, lest [...] [Page 315] spirits shuld brethe out. This clai must be suffred to be dried, before ye begin the busines. Moreouer ther must yet .ii. holes be made in the ii. contrary sides of the fornace (not in yt side yt the bely loketh out at, nether in the cōtrary, but in the other two. These also must haue their stopples to shut thē wt al, yt the heat may be kept in. The vse of these ho­les, yt the coles which ar put in at the top of ye valt may be hadsōly disposed wt some iron prōg for the purpose put in at ye holes, & ordred in suche wise yt x they be beneth, aboue & on euery side of the bely, & it in the very mids of the fire: by ye same holes, shal it be taken hede, yt the flore of the grate be not stopt wt coles or ashes to much, & that thentrāce of thair be not shut out, by mouing them wt the iron prong: yt being don, by & by the holes must be shut again wt their stopples. In the nether part also of ye fornace must be left a dore indifferēt larg, yt the air may haue entrāce beneth, lest the fire be [...]mo­therd. A litle aboue this dore shalbe laid on cros xx ouerthwart an other in order vpō which must be a flore & pauemēt made, an inch thik, ful of holes as big as a mā may put in his thōb at thē, to thin­tēt ye air mai haue acces: it must be sene vnto most diligētly yt the fire may be cōtinued great inough, for y space of. 3, dais & nights, as it is said, & neuer left or let slake: for so also the oyl & the labor shuld he lost. Thus whē eueri thing is apoynted, & the fornace & the bely dried, yu shalt begin y destillatiō cōtinuing a strong fire with coles as it is said. At xxx lēgth whē. 3. dais are ended y receiuer beginneth to becom clere and white, the fire burning yet in [Page 316] his ful strength, and this is a token of perfectiō. Therfore thou shalt let the fire to go oute and the fornace once couled, take awaye the receiuer, and turning it in thy handes, and inclining it now to one side, now to an other, gather all the drops to­gether that cleue vnto the sides, and the oyl or ly­quor so gathered, pour it into a vessell of the best Venice glas: for it is daunger leaste the commun glas shuld be eaten through of it, for it consumeth and eteth like Aqua fortis, This liquor that prac­ticioner x to cloke the thing, called it oyl of philoso­phers, the philosophers stone, and ye leper: he said siluer wolde be dissolued in it, if it were put into it pure and thin made in a plate, & likewise coyns of siluer: notwithstanding I found after his deathe hole peces of siluer. I heare that it chaunced him that an earthen bely claue a sonder once: wherfor a man muste prouide, that one maye be had of the best erth, from Haganovv perauenture, or Colen or Acon: for there men saye the best and strongest xx car then pots of al are made. He affirmed more o­uer that this liquor did graue in the vessel it was kepte in. He had gotten the waye howe to make it first of a certain goldsmith.

Of the burninge or broylinge of Chalcan­thum, that is Vitriol, and his kindes. Bulcasis, writeth in a maner the same things in his thirde boke of the preparacion of medicines, whiche we haue declared afoore in his preparacion for the makinge of Vitriol Zimor, also he teacheth to xxx [Page 317] prepare after the same maner. But emongst di­uers wayes of this oyl of Vitriol, I lyke that best which I described last. For the liquor that is de­stilled that way is the sharpest of all, and also the tartest, in so muche that it may be called vinegar of metal, as me thinketh: Wherfore of certain it is highly commended for the quenshing of thirst in somer tyme, one drop of it put into a draught of wyne, lyke as I found in a certain doutch writtē booke, where as this also is added: Vitriolum is x destilled in a bely laid ouerthwart, fensed wt clay, in the flames of the fyer, it runneth out skant the third day, and first water.

An other way out of the same booke. Stiep Vitriol in Aqua fortis, whiche may drawe out all the fatnes therof, from the which if thou separate the Aqua fortis by destillacion, an oyll shall remaine. But perauentur this way is to daungerous that a liquor so destilled should be receiued within the body. But without the body and to the wheeles or xx cankar of the mouth it may well be ministred.

I remember I haue red in sum place in Lulliꝰ in his worke of Quintessence, where he maketh mē cion of oyl or Quintessence of Vitriol. But in what sort it should be made, I could neuer yet fynde in any booke that went abrode: so greatly haue they all kept secret this thing as a marueylous myste­ry. For the description whiche I will declare here after out of the boke of Nicolas Massa vpon the di­sease of Naples, can not be receiued within ye body. xxx

When the Chalcanthum, that is the Vitriol, or [Page 318] Mysis that is Vitriol of Rome is brent an oyll moste sharp & hoat is drawen out of it by the force of the fyre, in vessels of glas wherwith if a man touche wartes when they ar cut or wounded, they will go away. The same if a mā tast it, it striketh the tong lyke as it were a hoat iron. Yet the vse of it is to dry byles within that be out of hoope of re­couery, wher as thei be not much filthy, as it chaū ceth in certain that be diseased of Phthoe corrup­cion & matter without grief. It serueth also to cut x of cancars & corrupt members, with the wood O­liue anoynted with it, Cardanus. The same coniec­tur we wryte before, that oyl of Mysis or arsnick anoynted without may seme to deliuer frō poysō. The spirit or Quintesseuce of Vitriol is praysed of certain practicioners against the falling sicknes and Apoplexia or benumming of sences.

Shomakers inck lowseth the bely, both in hony and meed drunck to the weight of a dram, & also in wyne, specially the oyll therof. George Agricola, xx in his .iii. boke of the nature of things digd out of the ground. Oyl of Vitriol doth kill not only men but tries: wherfor it must be made in sum out syd or place where no man dwelleth. Albucasis & other shew the way of making it, Brassauolus (In myne opinion not the oyl, but ye smoke of Vitriol whyles it is brent with fier & prepared vnto destillaciō is so hurtful.) And again, of Chalcanthū, yt is vitriol oyl is made so burning, that we vse it for potētiall fyer: for it is of a caustical, yu is a burning nature, & xxx with litle grief it cutteth members, if they be tou­ched [Page 319] with a knief anoited with Oliues. Whyles ye oylis preparing, ye must take hede of the smoke: bycause it doth not only kyl men but also the tries that be nye, it drieth thē vp. The tryal wherof Frā ciscus de Mōte the notable bone setter whose tries of his archard euery one died wt the smoke of Vi­triol whyles he prepared the oyll therof.

The oyl of Vitriol is maruelous, burning lyke a hoat irō without grief, & is made in this maner, xxx. vnces of Vitriol of Rome or of Cypres, Salnitrum, x roche Alum, of ether .iiii. vnces. When they are all beten let them be calcionated with fier ac­cording to arte. Afterward put this calcionated in a croked Bocia clayed for the fier of an alchymists fornace, and by the fier thou shalt haue the oyl in­cresed in the receiuer: which is a marueilous Cauterium or burning thing, and hath no pere in any operacion, and chiefly in takyng away of wens & great wartes. But the receiuer must be great, if thou wilt make the forsaid oyl: Nicolas Massa in xx his boke of the disease Naples, and Thomas Philo­logus, who taketh .xx. drames of Vitriol, but of Alum and salt of ether. xxiiii ¶ A water of diuers metals (out of a certain dutch boke) for the lepro­si, spots & dunnes of the eies. The filing of siluer coper, stiele, gould, of euerye one as muche as ye can get: the first daye put it in vryn whyles it is warm made by a boy or wenche that is a maide, the next day in the crums of hoat bread: the third in a whyte of an egge: the fourth in the milke of a xxx woman yt nurseth a wenche: the fift in reed wyne. [Page 320] Then put all thies into a still & destill them with a litle fyer, and kipe it. For the vertue of it is incō parable. It is good against the leprosy, and al the spots in the face, and it procureth vnto the face a youthfull brightnes, it maketh also cleernes of ye sight thies shalt thou reed otherwyse in the Ad­dicions vpon the Breuiarium or Bridgment of Arnold de Villa Nona. 1. 18.

Of Aqua fortis and such lyke. x

[...]E described a litle before a certain wa­ter lyke Aqua fortis, destilled of Vitriol, Sal Nitrum, and Alum against greate wartes. &c. But the commun Aqua for­tis also, and the simple oyl of Vitriol, if a man put a drop of them in to a wen or warte first cut, they take it away: of the whiche thing I made a tryall in my self vpon a sied wart on my fyngars ende, wherinto when I had first cut it with a razer, I xx put a drop of Aqua fortis, and although it wēt not away by & by, yet within a few wekes is was gon Aqua fortis or to separate metalles is thus made. One part of Sal nitrum, liquid or molten Alum (that they call roche .iii. partes: sand half a parte, when they are dryed diligently and purged with the fyer, let them be destilled in a vessell of glas. It is gathered by it selfe, that whiche issueth out first, at length when the glas looketh lyke a safrō colour, encrease the fyre and an other foloweth: xxx whiche is receiued in the first for the moste parte: [Page 321] and yet if thou take it in water of the fountain or well, it is yet so sharpe that neuer the les it dissol­ueth siluer, and separateth it from Goulde. It is separated in this wise. Take a litle quantity of ye water drawn out, and put into it the weight of. xii grains of very pure siluer▪ and set it vpō ashes til the siluer be dissolued. This shall send down into the bottom of the vessell, groundes like vnto fine lime, which taken awaye the pure water that re­maineth, put it to the hole water from the which x thou druest it, which in like maner shal it self al­so let down into the bottom groundes like the o­ther, which taken away, thou shalt haue the hole water most pure and most strong to dissolue syl­uer and other metals except gould (gould also I suppose is dissolued of Chymists with Aqua fortis but of another maner of making.) But seing it vanisheth away easili and consumeth, it shalbe kept in a glas diligentlye shut. To a man that imagi­neth how great strengthes it hath, which takinge xx water (as I said) of the wel, yea withoute fyre in xxiiii. hours doth bring siluer vnto water, but wt a little heate of ashes, in .ii. or .iii. houres, there is no man but he wil graunt those last vapors, and water wherunto they be tourned to haue marue­lous strength, or rather increadible. Of the same kind is water that is made of the salts Ammoni­ak and Nitrum, with Chalcanthum (yt is coproos) and Alum molten in equal porcions, putting vn­to them at last one fourth part of roust: this made xxx after the same maner, spareth not very stones. [Page 322] It yet a man ad and put to a litle of the obstracite stone, called Smiris wherwith they polishe preci­ous stones, thou shalt haue more plenty of water and better, because it wil not bee burned. Theese things therfor receiued and found true by trials, let vs see what shoulde be cause that this water becommeth so strong: for manifest experience te­cheth, that the drier part attenuated and fined by the force of the fire, receiueth a firye and a fret­ting or gnawing strength. But why burneth not x the water of separatinge, as burnyng water do­the? Because that the burninge water is hotter and thinner, and les drye, therefore it maye bren, and excellentlye heaten, but not freate. But the o­ther can freat, not burne, and also heaten a little. By like reason therfore the oyl that is takē out of Chalcanthum by the force of the fire, for as muche as it turneth the driest part into humor, it is most sharpe, and striketh the tounge like fire. Cardan. Let no manne thinke that this liquor perteineth xx only to Chymists and goldsmithes. For it is pro­fitable also for medicines vnto mans body. It is dropped into warts that be cut and slit, as I said afore. Some dip the end of a little band in it and put it into a hollow touth, from which they wolde take the sence & feling of the grefe and mortify it. I haue hard the suffusion or web of the eie to be cured in certain with the vertue of this liquor, by the same quick siluer is precipitated, as we shall now declare: and the oyle of Chalcanthum or Co­proos xxx is drawn out by it, as we said. Take halfe [Page 323] an ounce of Aqua fortis: mixt it with an ounce and a half of Roosewater, soores of the throte, palace, iawes and lips, let them be touched twise a daye with a little Cotton tide to the top of a sticke and moistned in this liquor: Thom. Philologus.

Certain diuers maners of Aqua fortis, maiste thou read after, where we shall write of Mercury sublimated. ¶ Burning water, that a candle ma [...] burne in the verye water. Put a sextar or .xx. vn­ces of the eldest wine, in a potte wide aboue and x narow beneath, wherunto thou shalt ad .ii. vnces of bothe kindes of Sulphur or brimstone, that is of the quik and dead. ii vnces: and as much alum, and as much of gros salt. Let thē be sod together til the third part be consumed. A tallowe or waxe candle annoynted with this shal burne in the wa­ter, as well as in the aire. If so be it thou sprin­kle a heare or cloth therwith, light it at the flame and it shall burne mooste manifestlye withoute hurte. Oute of a written booke. It wold appeare xx that a liquor destilled of this matter by the force of the fyre, woulde be muche more effectuous to the same conclusion.

A water to whitten the tethe whiche Isabella of Arragonia, the Duches of Millen did vse. A pound of Salte purged and beaten: an ounce of Gla [...] ­sye or Isly Alum, let them bee destilled in a lem­becke, Mixt an ounce of this water with an vnce of Plantaine water, and with a little wode wouldipte therein rub the teethe, and they shall becom xxx most bright. Furnerius.

[Page 324] An other like out of the same boke. Sall Ammo niak, Sall Gemmae of ether. iii ounces, Suger A­lum an ounce and a halfe, commone Salte, an ounce. When they are beaten destil them in a lem­becke of glasse: and with the liquor drawne oute thereof rub the tethe with a stone, and after wash the mouth with a litle white wine. Read befor in the end of the Cosmeticall waters, the same des­cription, but without common salt, the vse wherof is declared without destillacion. x

Aqua Angelica of a maruelous vertue against blearednesse, Cankar, and burninge with fyre. Three ounces of vn [...]lekt lime and halfe a pound of raine water, let them stande together in a ves­sell of glasse or tinne a .iii. daies. Then mirtinge them sturre them together, and let them settle a­gain a .xxiii. hours or more in a vessell well coue­red. Afterwarde straine them tenderly throughe a linnen clothe till it bee cleare. Then put to it .x. drawmes of Sall Ammoniak the whitest thou cāst xx finde, and finest beaten and molten wyth longe mouing in the said water. After when it is setled thou shalt straine certaine times the cleare water that standeth aboue, or els destil it by a Filtrum. Thys water healeth the clothe or spot (La Toile in Frenche, that is the webbe) of the eyes, three drops thrise a daye dropt into them, continuinge till the eye be made hoole. It taketh awaye also the teares of the eyes, the rednesse and bleared­nesse, also the Cankar and burnyng if it be right­lye xxx ministred. It taketh awaye all spots and [Page 325] steines of cloth both silke and woullen, if they bee washt in it a litle warmed. Furnerius.

Mans vrin destilled, chymistes vse it to resol­ue goulde: printers for their inck that they vse to print bookes with all.

Diuers waters, wonderfully drying, sharpe, fretting, for healing of the whelkes of the frenche pockes without anoynting, maiest thou reade in Nicolas Massa, in his .vi. booke, the .ii. chapt. of the Frenche pockes. x

A certain burning water with orpment. &c. de­stilled, is described of Rogerius a Surgion.

Of the lyquors of precious stones.

CArdan in his second booke of subtil­tie, serching a water whiche put in by a Syringe or Spoute mighte breake the stoones of the bladder, supposeth suche a one might be re­ceiued xx of the stoone called Tecoli­thos, or the stones of creuisses. &c. as we haue re­hersed befor, in the tretize of y vertues of destilled liquors generally. I if I may ad cōiectur to con­iectur, I would destill ether thies or other stones or glas, with the iuice of Parietary.

Certain chymistes, do prayse highly the spirit or Quintessence of berill, against the stoone of the reines or bladdar.

Of cirtain massy thinges, as quicksil­uer xxx [Page 326] precipitated or killed, and the same and arsn [...]ck sublimated.

LEt vs ad here certain massy and hooll medicines, which also be sublimated or sod in glas vessels at the fyre, although it be almoste besydes our matter, when as we purposed to entreat only in this boke, ofli­quors separated from a grosser substaunce. Yet because they be a few medicines and sublimated (that is they are prepared and made with lyke in x strumentes as the forsaid liquors) and hetherto for the most part secret, yt is knowen & vsed of few, & maruelous effectuous, I thought not good to let them pas. Quick siluer precipitated is thus made, as Car. wryteth in his fift boke of Subtil­tie. Take Alum, Calcanthum (that is coproos) of ether lyke much: put therto salt as much as one of them & half as muche, destil this together in glas vessels. Put a pound of this water (yt is of aqua for tis cōmunly called) .iii. poūd of quick siluer into a xx glas, destil therout, & encresing the fier cōtinue til the smoke and the vessel wax red, & no water at al remain. At length breake the vessell, & gather the quick siluer, whiche thou shalt se now gathered to gether lyke a stone, grynd this very small vpon a table of red marble, & sieth it again & destil it til it be dryed in a glasen vessel. Again breake ye vessel & gather the matter yt remaineth, & grinde the same again vpon ye moler very fine & subtil. Afterward put it in a vessel of bras, & a gret fier made vnder xxx it mixt it & stur it about by the space of .ii. houres, til it get almost a brightnes & rednes les, thē take [Page 327] it and kepe it in vessels of glas. This emongst all other yt eat the flesh without grief, & dry vp putri­fying sores, if it be rightly made is the best, nether serueth it to any other purpose yt I knowe: Thies thinges writeth he. Perles are dissolued wt strōg vinegar, specially being destilled, or with the iuice of limōs. &c. precipitated, and sublimated, & Cinna briū, and they return into quicksiluer: Syluius.

A way to make red pouder, yt is quicksiluer cal­cionated & precipitated, out of Marianus ye surgeō. x Six vnces of Aqua fortis. iiii. vnces of quicksiluer, mixt thē together in a bely or cucurbita of glas wel claied, & with a hed vpō it, y nose end wherof shall be put within a receiuer, let them be destilled with a moderat fyer (encreasing it by litle & litle. But aqua fortis that separateth gold frō siluer is made thus. Sal nitrū, roche Alū, Vitriol of Rome, of eue ry one .ii. poūdes: let thē be mixt in a morter, euer beating & grinding with the pestil til they be well mixt. Then put the pouder sumwhat groos into a xx bely vnclayed, & al the mouthes stopt, let it be de­stilled. The tokē of his goodnes is this, if ye groūd wherupō a litle of it falleth, do boyll streigthway. The vertue of this reed pouder is maruelious. Take out of the barbers shop .iii. vnces of lye, of Praecipitatū an vnce & a half, rosed hony .ii. vnces, mixt them diligētly. With this medicine without doubt thou shalt dry & clēse a filthy sore and roten (wherupō the flesh shal after begin to brede) wher as other clensing things, as those made of ye iuice xxx of Apiū, or of ye iuice of Cynoglos shal do no good.

[Page 328] Nicolas Massa in his booke of the Frenche dis­ease, calleth Mercurium praecipitatum, Angelicall pouder, because of the marueilous & as it were a diuine operacion of it in the Frēch pockes, which he his selfe hath not seldom tryed. This medicin (saith he) dryeth, with a certain gentle eating of the soft and superfluous fleshe, and that withoute grief, remouing also the euill secret qualitie of the soores, and chiefly of the disease of Naples. It di­gesteth any matter, and purgeth it, & letteth the x disease called Corrosio of gnawyng & the canker: it dissolueth groos matter, hard and rawe, after ye opening of gummes. And no medicine is to be cō ­pared with this in this disease. For if thou conti­new in the vse of it, it leadeth vnto the perfect bre­ding of the skin, as I haue oftentimes tryed: and it is excellent in the euill sores of the yard. It is made in this wyse. But a pound of quick siluer in a litle bely of glas, and power as muche Aqua for­tis vnto it. Then put the bely in a pot and ashes in xx space betwene the bely and the pot sydes, that the pot breake not assone as it toucheth the fyer. Thē put vnder fyer, slow at the first, and let it be encresed by lytle and litle, yet after a certain mean: and so with a strong fyer let it be left, till all the water be consumed, whiche is perceiued when no more vapours ascend out of ye bely. So shalt thou haue Mercurium calcionated red. Grynde this, & if any parte of the quick siluer remaine with it, put the said pouder in a cleen vessell of bras at the fyer, & xxx so mixt it, let it stande till all the part of quick sil­uer [Page 329] be consumed. This pouder maist thou vse to all the forsaid diseases and specially to the sores of the yard, & of other places, wher rottennes and much il matter letteth the knitting or heling vp: and in fistulaes dissolue it with wine, and cast it in by a brasen pipe, for it worketh meruelously.

Moreouer water to separate gold from siluer is thus made. Two poundes of Vitriol of Rome Roche Alum .xvi. ounces: Sal Nitrum a pounde: let them be put in a croked bely (writhē bakward) x claied, or in a streght with his head and receiuer. Destyll them as Alchymists do. This water is meruelous to put away wartes, in what parte of the body so euer they be, and specially in the foū ­dament and wombe: it brenneth and searreth al­so euil sores eating them out euery where, yea e­uen in the throte, and letteth the sores from crie­ping and spreading, namelye of the yarde and the wombe. If it be to vehement, mixte it with Roose water. And I my selfe haue healed ill sores and xx biles of the throte, touching them twise a dai with the saide water, mixtinge with it half so muche of Rosewater: and it is one of our secreates (se more in the same, the .vi. boke and .ii. chapter.)

But this angelicall pouder had I of a certaine olde Alcumist, and I made it before Iohannes de Vigo euer made anye mencion of it. Thus farre Massa: and parte Thom. Philologus out of him.

Of the making and commodities of this redde pouder, read Iohannes de Vigo in his fifte boke of xxx Additionum: where he biddeth that the vessels re­receiuer [Page 330] shall be thrise as bigge as the bealye, the xxxviii. leafe. b. And that white found with thys pouder, is siluer sublimated from the redde: like as is what so euer is yelowe or of a Saffron co­loure. And also in his booke entituled Capiosa, the. Clxiii. lefe. a.

Pouder of Mercury (saithe Matthaeolus Senen­sis, in his booke of the waye to heale the Frenche disease) is made in this maner. Take .iiii. poūds of water, wherewith gould is seperated from sil­uer: x a pound and a half of quick siluer. Put these in a vessel of glas, with a narow mouthe, wyth a croked nek, round about fensed with clay, which shalbe receiued of an other: thē stop the ioynts of the vessels with potters clay diligently. Thē put vnderfire made of coles, so that it may euer wax bigger and bigger, so long till all the water haue run out. After this breake the phial, and take out lightly the red cake, that setleth in the bottome, & what white so euer sticks in it cast it away, but ye xx red make it in pouder. But for asmuch as throu­ghe this pouder much harm might happen to thē shuld receiue it, except it be duely prepared. Take ii. ounces of the said pouder, and let them stād to soke in water of Plantaine and Acetosae, of ether ii. ounces, the next morow early take the waters from thence and put new vnto it, and set it to the fire in a vessel of bras or erth: when they are hot, cease not to stur them aboute with an iron or wo­den spattle or s [...]is vntil al becom pouder and that xxx withoute anye difficultie: of the which thou maist [Page 331] when thou list make such a recept against ye fren­che disease aswel that is Flegmatike as Melan­coly. Take electuarii Conciliatoris (this is made of diuers cordiall medicins, and spices, precious stones, pearles, gould, siluer, Camphora, Ambra, Mosch: & is described of him, Differentia. 196) half a scruple, perls, hyacincts, of ether .v. grains: the pouder of Praecipitatum. v. grains: pouder of D [...]a­muscum, Diamargariton, of ether halfe a scrupull: Make .v. pils (let thē be gilded, Thom, Philologꝰ x who addeth Terrae Sigillatae and Boli Armeniae of euery .iii. grains,) let these be taken of the paciēt an hour before day: & let him kepe his bed .v. hou­res. Shortly, beleue me, shal the french pocks be auoided with this receit. For the fleum and blak choler also shal vanish away bothe by vomit and downwardes. Besides this there are very many kinds of diseases that we haue cured with such a pouder. For it puts not awaye onlye matter and rotten flesh being strawed vppon, but also wyth­out xx any difficultie it bringeth sores & biles vnto a skar: the pestilence also with a little Triacle, and with the iuice of the hearbe called Tuneci, whiche they call Carduum Benedictum, or wt an electua­rye of precious stones, if it be not yet confirmed & stablished in the bodye, it driueth it away merue­louslye. Manye also that bee Limphatici, that is, mad, or Melancolike, whome they beleued com­monly to be resorted vnto of Deuils, we haue cu­red them with ye same. What make I mani words xxx We haue deliuered with this pouder, those yt wer [Page 332] almost dead of the quartain, putting vnto it Sac­charum Buglossatum or triacle, or Mithridatium, som digestion made, an hour before the fit, in .v. or vii. grains weight, according to the age and strē ­ght of the body of the diseased. Yea also it is holsō to be ministred amongst the griefes of the yard & great guts: for we haue cured some that auoyded their dung by their mouth: leaninge to the moni­ments and sayings of Paulus Aegineta, that saith, how certain phisitiōs haue ministred in that dis­ease x of the great guttes, quicke siluer killed. The same resisteth the taking, as they cal it, or inchāt­ment: It hath besides this many notable vertues which when I haue more leisure, I wil rehearse vnto thee (he speketh to him yt talketh with him) one by one: perauenture then it shall delite me to expres, in what sorte thou maist make pouder wt gould and quicke siluer, or els the water declared before. These he. I hare of late that a certain phi­sicion or chymist at Athesin, did prepare Mercuri­um xx praecipitatum with gould, and sold it like gold, which had suche vertue, to eat oute gnawinge or grief. Se those that we shal declare about the end of those that folow next after.

How Praecipitatum is made, which is a remedy against all diseases growing of the rottennes of humors, out of a certain writē boke. Make a wa­ter of equal porcions of Vitriol of Rome and Sal Nitrum, with a heade and receiuer, in the whiche thou shalt put the sixt-part of the weighte of rawe xxx Mercury, yt is to say, if ther be. 3. poūds of Vitriol [Page 333] and Sal nitrum, put .vi. vnces of Mercury. After­ward suffer the water with his spirites to descend in to the receiuer. Then auoyde all that is in the receiuer into a clean bely and that is claied: vnder the whiche put a head with a receiuer, and destill it again: and whē the water is in the receiuer, put it againe in the bely in the whiche the Mercury re­mained. Thou shalt repete this till the Mercury wax red. Then when it is red washe it with Cor­diall waters, as Borage & Balme and such lyke. x But first washe it often tymes in fountain water or well water destilled. Mercury so prepared shalt thou giue to sick men within their bodies, in this maner. If the body be very strong, giue .x. grains if it be mean .viii. weakes, fiue: if it be a chyld, cō ­sider diligently what is necessary to be done. But vtterly mixt it with triacle: so shalt thou giue it to him that is infected with poyson, droysy, pestilēce or taken with other infirmitie. If a sounde man once a yeare, or euery third yeare, as it shall seme xx him good, vse this Praecipitatum with a dew dige­stion of the humors, that is with a preparacion of purgacion, he shall preuent many diseases. Note that in the stede of Mercury thou mayst vse Amal gama made of six partes of quick siluer and of one part of gold and so shalt thou worke greatter wō ­ders. (This Amalgama must be made red lyke as Mercury alone with Aqua fortis: although Mat­theolus Senensis, as we declared a litle before, wry teth that the pouder Mercurial may bee made of xxx such a mixture, yee and that without Aqua fortis.) [Page 334] And marke that thou maist heale woundes with the first or second Praecipitatum, whiche thou shalt vse thus: Put of it about the wound and within. And this is a great secret. And know that in .iiii. destillacions thou shalt bring this to pas: whiche doone, put it in a cleane bely in the fyer, that the spirites (that is of the Hydrargyri that is the quick siluer sublimated mixt with the Praecipita­tum) as muche as is possible may departe, then make as is aboue specified. x

Of the sublimacion of quick siluer, thou shalt read Bulcasis in his thirde booke of his worke that he calleth Seruitor. But of the vse of it in bur­ninges and seerynges, and for the French diseas, reade Nicolaus Massa the sixte booke, the seconde chapter, and of the same booke the fourth, howe it is to be ordered to seerynges, both otherwyse, and that the seeryng or burning be done with none or litle grief. Certain vse it at this day for the ill and angry skabes, and ring wormes or tettares. &c. xx aswell in men as in horses.

Quick siluer (saieth Cardan) is sublimated in this maner. Put Quick siluer and Shomakers inck of ether lyke weyght, and with moste sharpe whyte vynegar mixt it so long, till the quick sil­uer be seen no more: then in a vessel of glas parie­ted with clay sieth it till it growe together. If any doe run abrode & cum not together, break it again in a morter with vinegar put to it, and sieth it yet again. Thei vse quick siluer so excoct for painting xxx For it whytteneth and addeth a brightnes to we­mens [Page 335] faces. But it maketh the tieth fall out and briedeth a stinking breth. But for the vse of syluer and for the art of Goldsmythes, it is proffitable not in few thynges. Of the sublimation of Mercu­ry, Marchasyt, Magnesiae, & Tutiae, looke in Geber Summae perfectionis, 1. 4. 45. and so furth. Also of the sublimacion of Brimstone and arsnick. 43. chapter. Sublimatum, Praecipitatum, and Cina­brium are dissolued with strong vinegar, special­ly destilled, and returne into quic siluer. Syluius. x

Auicenna maketh mencion of Arsnick sublima­ted. Arsnick or Orpment (sayeth Albertns Mag­nus in his booke of Metalles) is of the kynde of Stones, of a Citriny colour and reed, the which stone the chymici call one of the spirites. It hath the nature of Brymstone in heating and drying. Being calcinated with the fyer it waxeth black, and by and by with sublimation it becummeth mooste whyte. If it be sublimated three or foure tymes it purchaseth suche strengthe, that it wyll xx peers through Bras, and burne vehemently all metalles except Gould. Being set in the ayre it altereth and chaungeth the same Bras in to a whyte colour. Wherfore Falsifiers vse it, to make Bras lyke Syluer: in whiche thyng it is able to do very muche.

The medicines that ought to be vsed to a cācre exulcerated, ougth to be of a very strong opera­tion. Emōg other the best & safest help in this dis­ease Guido a Cauliaco saith, is arsnik sublimated xxx [Page 336] whose notable vertues we haue alredy made mencion of oftentymes before, and hereafter will wee celebrate & bring it into renoune yet more. This killeth) saith Theodoricus) the cankar, the wolfe, Esthiomenum (that is, Sphacelum, or Syderatio blasting) noli me tangere, the Fistula, and al suche sore and wurst diseases, it killeth thē and routeth them out the first daye. But a man must haue a great consideracion and take diligent hede to the places nye about, whyles it is ministred and laid x to, leest that they themselues chaunce to be vexed and assayled with any inflammacion or swelling, and concurs of the humors. Whiche discommodi­tie thou shalt easely auoyde, if so be it thou anoynt those partes that be ny, and compas the Carcyno­ma or eating cankar, with Bol Armena, and other lyke. But also the Arsmik sublimatum must be ministred in dew maner or iust quantitie (which a rationall physicion defineth only by an artificial cō ­iecture) &c. Io, Tagautius in his institucions of xx Surgery. 3. 19.

Zenzifar, that is Zinabrium, how it is made by sublimacion, loke in Bulcasis and Cardan, the fift booke de Subtilitate. The calcionating of orpmēt that it may get a red colour: in Ioan. de Vigo in his Antidotary, the. 163. lief.

Tartarum, that is the dried lyes of wyne, how it is sharpened, that it may haue marueylous ver­tues for certain medicines (by the destillacion of burning water). Lullius teacheth in his seconde xxx booke of Quintessence.

[Page 337] A certain practicioner told me that he did dres and prepare the stoone called Cyanence, that is, Lazulus in such wise, that it might bring vp more stronglye and more safely black choler from me­lancholy men and those that were mad. And first if I remember me well he saide it must be calcio­nated, then sublimated: or first that the best Aqua vitae shoulde be destilled vppon it, putte in a Cu­curbita or bellye, then sublimated, and be sprinc­kled or watered with Aqua vitae. vi. times destil­led, x and dried again.

Salt that it may be more pure to be put to me­dicines or meates, after it is mixt with water let it be destilled by a Filtrum, and again let it be sod till the water be consumed. The same purged in a gouldsmithes Crucibulo with a greate fyre is molten and fused. When it is so molten, lette it be mixt with Salt Alcalis (or in steade of it with the white gall of glas (for there is black also) which some call the norishmente of glas, other Zoza as xx I heare, and with Sal Gemmae. When theese are beaten they vse them for Chrysocolla, or also they put a little of Chrysocolla vnto it. But this mix­ture hath to much sharpnes, and consumeth some of ye gold. Wherfore they vse it only to courser wor­kes, but to finer they vse only Borax. Ther be sōe that mixt Borax, commun salt molten and salt Al­calis together in equall porcions, and in secreate matters count it for Borax. But these are besides the matters perteining to phisick. xxx

Soot how it is gathered of pitche and butter, [Page 338] thou shalt read in Dioscorides and Bulcasis.

Of certaine other not Alchymi­sticall or not destilled or sublimated me­dicines, but cunninglye and wittilye prepared by other and diuers wayes.

THe medicins that we haue hitherto described are all comprehended vnder the name of ly­quors x because they haue no earthy matter mixte with them, but they are ether of a watry, or aiery, or fiery nature, whether so euer they be waters or oyls, or any third kind of liquor. Al are prepared in certain Alchymical vessels and by the force of the fire. But for as much as their scope and ende (that is to the intent that the best and chiefe in e­uery medicin, might be had drawn out, pure and liquid from the earthye, grose and more impure matter) semeth to be more large, and to be exten­ded xx also to manye other preparations, makinges and composicions of medicines: I thinck it good to ioyne certaine thinges hereunto in manner of a Corollarium or addicion whiche are not verye common, nor to be met with euery where. But no man ought to looke heare for a full or exacte and generall way of composition at our hands: when as we shal teache only a fewe, and suche as shall come to minde by the waye, and all theese as it were by matters besides oure necessary purpose. xxx But if anye manne desire moe and more fully of [Page 339] diuers kyndes and wayes of making and prepa­ring of medicines, let him goo to the bokes of Iac. Siluius and other of thies matters.

Of diuers Oyles.

I Se the moste part of odoriferous and precious oils to be sod in a double vessel It is an easy matter to pres oute an oyl that shalbe like the plant in sauor & x vertues, in those that contein oyl aboundātly: (or out of the frutes of them sod in water it is gathe­red.) But in such as haue no great plenty of oyle, we are wont to pres oute the sauor and strengthe with the oyl .iii. waies. In the more common and moore aunciente waye, of Dioscorides the flours were poured into pure oyl .iiii. dais, & were set out in the sun, then the oyl being prest out, moste dili­gently, as muche more of the new flours was ad­ded, and again it was set oute in the hot Sunne, xx & so oft might a man do so, til the oyl did drink vp the sauour. They did ad also thicknings for oynt­mentes, as of hony and odoriferous thynges.

The second way it standeth in pressinge oute, in som thinges without any help of Art, as Myroba­lano, in other that be dry and odoriferous by their own accord, as the Nutmeg, that is light stiept in wine and pres out with a pres. So may a manne draw oyl oute of spices. But they that be odorife­rous, and lack the substaunce of oyles, as flours, xxx they geue oyle in thys sorte. Sprynkle Flowers [Page 340] vppon Almondes and vnder them, and lay in or­der the leaues of Almondes and of the flours by course, and kepe them so longe prest together, till the smel of the floures maye be vanished awaye, then put them away and in their steede laye other flours after the same sorte, and do this so ofte (for there is not one way in all) till the Almonds haue gotten a verye great smell, then haue them to the pres. A man must firste blaunch them and parch them a little at the fyre. By this meanes the oyle x getteth the more strengthe and vertue, and is les in daunger of corruption, because no (waterye) iuice is left in it.

The third way is by destillacion (whereof it is said afore.) Cardan.

Vnto the most parte of oyles that be to be sod and made by fire, they put some wine, by the whi­che meanes they smell les of adustion & brētnes, & they be sod til the wine be consumed. But flow­ers and suche as be of a sclender substaunce, it is xx better they shoulde not be sodde in oyle, or at the leaste not to boyle in it. &c. A man muste adde the moore wine, if there be many species that be mixt with the wine, and to be sod somwhat long: so that somtimes the wine be almost double vnto the oil. Som be stiepte firste in wine, and then the iuice prest out is added to the oyle, & is sod together, e­ther by it self, or with a part of Turpentin: as thei do in oyl of Hypericō or S. Ihons wurt.

Iasminum is made of .ii. ounces of flours of Iasmin xxx sette in the Sunne .v. dayes in a pounde of [Page 341] oyl, whiche afterward is sod with a slow fyer.

Oyl of swiet Almondes, hooll Cloues beinge added therunto, let it be set in the sun .viii. daies, it shalbe marueylous swiet smelling. But thou shalt reed diuers wayes in Mesue, and in the an­notacions of Syluius vpon the same, of the pres­sing out of oyll of Almondes, whiche also may be applyed to diuers other fruites and siedes from the whiche oyll is prest out. ¶ We vse the oyll of Almondes am. (that is bitter) in stede of oyll of ye x kirnelles of peeches, but it dryeth vp moore then the other, Brassauolus.

I am wont to make an oyll of siedes and the reed codes of Capsicum, or Cardamomū Arabicū: other of the codes therof alone, put in oyll, whiche is wont to be vsed in place of oyll of Peper, or also of Euphorbium, if it be put in in more abundance, for it is far more vehement then Peper. With vs (they call it reed Peper, sum of the cōmun people call it Siliquastrum, but not ryghtly) but fewe of xx those silique or codes do wax rype, bycause of the hasty coold of haruest. But vnrype codes also, hā ­ged in stoues a few daies and dried, may well be put vnto oyll. For they haue sharpnes inough: whiche is not to be found in the hool plāt besydes, when as the leest heares or stringes are without any taste, and the leeues and stem are vnsauery: but in the codes is so excellēt a tast, that it is wor­thy to be wondred at. Sum bycause of the vehe­ment heat therof reken it almost emōgst poysons, xxx as Cardan: whiche I prayse not. Nether was the [...] [Page 342] euer any man said that fyer was venemous, burn it neuer so much: when it hath no venemous qualitie besydes. I haue my self vsed both the siedes of this Capsicum and the codes, without harm in potage but in a small quantitie.

An oyl of the kirnels of cheries clenseth ye face, taketh away spottes and frakenes: it is good also for the gout, and the stone of the reynes & blad­der. It is made as oyl of swiet Almondes. Furne.

Oyll of hay is thus made. Let the hay be set on x fyer and quenched: and after let it be layde vpon cooles, and when it is resolued into smoock, lay an iron place vpon it and a certain vnctuositie or fatnes shall cleue vnto it, whiche is called oyll of hay. This oyll with a fether is anoynted vpon ring wormes and tetters: Rogerius.

Oyl of whete is made betwene two iron plates moderatly made hoat (or as Rasis hath, between a marble and a thick plate of iron,) but muche bet­ter as I heare, by destillacion: it is commended xx against the ruggednes of the skinne and ring­wormes: Furnerius and other. Sum say also that it is good for fistulas, & the chames or chinkes of the skin: Mat. Read befor emōgst ye oyls destilled.

Oyll of Iuy beries, drawen out lyke as out of Bay beries, is good against the gout of a could cause, or of obstructiō or stopping: and it restoreth the astonied mēbers & takē with the palsy. Roge.

A maruelous oyl of Hypericon or saint Iohns wurt. Thre vnces of the tops of Hypericon are in xxx fused .iii. daies in odoriferous wyn as much as is [Page 343] sufficient, afterward sieth it in a double vessel wel stopt, and pres it out strongly. Lykewyse stiep new Hypericon, sieth it and presse it, put to it .iii. vnces of Turpintyn, six vnces of old oyll, a scru­pull of Saffron. Sieth it till the wyne be consu­med. This oyll (saith Syluius) no man knoweth who was the author of it: Yet Galen wryteth that Tart or harsch wyne, wherin the leeues of Andro­saenni or Ascyri (whiche are kyndes of Hypericon) are solde, doth cloose great woundes: and as sum x thinke, Hypericon hoat, dry and of subtill partes, is holsome for them to drynke that be diseased wt ache in the hippes or Sciatica. Of the whiche, & the vertues of other mixt heer, thou maiest gather, y whiche oyl strengtheneth, digesteth and sclende­reth. For it is composed of contrary substaunces. Sylui. vpon Mesuen. Brassa. putteth the same dis­criptiō in Examine simplice. 519. chap. Sum (saith he) put simpely the flowers into a glased vessell, y the oyl may be gotten out by it self wt the strength xx of ye sun: other dig it vnder ye ground, other make it by infusing, ether of the flowers alone, or other mo thinges mixt with it, (as we haue declared alredy out of the wordes of Syl. Thus prepared in a glased or glas vessell, they keepe it. But thies thinges are cleerly expounded of Mesue & newer authors. Thies Brassauo. Sum put to it wormes or bowels of the earth, and let it stande a moneth or more in a wine cellar in a pot stopt with clay or past, thē they sieth it by litle & litle in y same about xxx ten houres, they strein it through a bag & pres it. [Page 344] That is the best that is streined first. The colour of the oyl is almost red, the tast is sumwhat sour. The vse of it is for woundes, prickinges and all kyndes of offensions and the swellinges that cum therupon. Sum vse them to the greuous soores of the legges.

An other cōposition of oyl of Hypericon, which healeth any wound great or small within .xxiiii. houres, out of a certain boke imprinted in french without an author. A handfull of Hypericon: Cō ­mun x oyll two poundes, a pound of Axungia, that is swynes grees, clarified & streined. Turpintyn of Venice the third part of a pound. A dram of saf fron. Cut all small and fyne and mixt them in a great phiall of glas, whiche when thou hast stopt diligently with wax and otherwyse, set it in dong two foot diep or more, in a place that the morning sun beemes and euening may cum to it. At the length when the yeare is gone about, take out the phial, in the whiche thou shalt fynde an oyll lyke xx vnto Balm. That must ye vse as hoat as may be suffered.

An oyll is made also of Iuniper beries, by ex­pression, as of other siedes. Brassauo.

An oyll of the beries of Bayes and Iuniper, stept in wyne, is beatē out with a miln, wery pro­fitable for thē that haue griefe in the hukle boon, and colde diseases of the ioyntes: Iac. Hollerius.

Oyl of Baies. The beries of Baies grene and beten, let them be sod in oyl and streined. An other xxx way. Beat the rype beries of Baies with ye leues, [Page 345] sieth them and strain them. Otherwise, set the be­ries beaten in wine, and when they are stiept .iii. daies, let them be prest out in a pres. Or els fresh and ripe beaten, let thē be put in a sak, and the oyl drawn out. It is holsome againste the colick, the disease of the great guts & the Sciatica: Rogerius.

Oyl out of the Myrepsical Nutte, prest with an Anuil and a redde hotte iron is gotten oute. Iac. Hollerius.

Oyles to asswage griefes are made of certain x herbs brused together and sod in oyl, as of Calen dulae (Mary goldes) Rosemary, Maioram and o­ther. Iac. Hollerius.

Oyl of Nutmegs. Cut them in smalpeces, and when they haue stand .iii. dais infused in Malm sye, drye them in the shadow .ii. daies, then warm them moderatly in a fryinge pan: and thou shalt sprinkle them in the meane season with Rosewa­ter, and pres them out in a pres Cardan.

I hear say som do not stiep them in wine, but xx pres the very nuts alone beatē and heated. I my self made of late verye good in this wise, beinge taught of a certain French man. I put in a glas about .v. ounces of Nutmegs somwhat grose be­ten, for the space of one nighte in wine so that the wine was higher by a finger bredthe. The nexte day I shut ye matter in a sack of linnen, bound at the end, that they could not fal out: Thē I bound euery wher with thred that they shuld not com all together on a hepe. But the matter must firste be xxx warmed in a skellet, not to much, but as much as [Page 346] a finger may suffer, and so put in a litle bag must they be by & by tied, and pressed in a little presse of wod, with a litle lake or gutter of wod, hauing a spout enclining downward, the litle bag put ther in. &c. They yeilde for the most part, the .viii. part of the weight of the nuts, so that one ounce of the nuts geue a dram of oyl, if the nuts be sufficiētly moystie. A man may warm ye same matter again & pres it as before: but the second time yeldeth ve­ry litle oyl and not so good. It is better therfor to x leaue this matter and to dry it in the bag: whiche when nede shalbe may be laid to the stomak, or to the mouthe thereof. This oyle lately prest oute is somwhat thick, and separated as though it were by Hilloks, al which must be diligently gathered out of the wine, and the wine streined from them with a linnen cloth, they be brought into one mas and lump, pressing and wringing it with your fin gers to the dish side wherinto the matter is crusht out, that al the wine may be most diligently sepe­rated. xx The substaunce and the coloure appeareth like waxe. The mountenance of a pease annoyn­ted vpon the mouth of the stomack, dothe merue­lously strēgthen it. I here say som vse the anoyn­ting of it to the sturring vp of their luste. Beinge swalowed, it heateth moderatly the stomack, and maketh swiet breth. ¶ I here more ouer that som sieth the nuts beaten a while (I can not tell whe­ther in wine or in water) and gather the fattines that swimmeth aboue. I remember also yt I saw xxx once an iron instrument like a pair of tonges, the [Page 347] two extreme irons or ends wherof, consisted of. ii hollow half spheres, so that when they wer prest together they might hold a Nutmegge, or a little les, as occasion of the pressing serued. The one of the half spheres was bored throughe with .iiii. or v. little holes, that the oyl might run out, whē the ends of the tonges moderatly made hot wer prest together. I founde also this descripcion in a cer­tain writen boke. Take .ii. pounds of Nutmegs. Thre ounces of Malmesy, wherewith the Nut­megs x (somwhat grose beaten) may be sprinckled. Put to half a pounde of commun oyle elect: when they are all mixte together, let them be prest cun­ninglye in a pres. But my waye, whyche I des­cribed afore and tried my selfe, liketh me moore then the other.

There be many waies to make oyl of Rooses. It is made ether with oyl and ripe Roses, or bo­the of them vnripe, or the one ripe, thother vnripe and so ther is .iiii. diuers waies. Som in stead of xx commun oyle take oyl of Almondes. Rasis in hys Antidotario seperato putteth .iii. waies. Firste. Take a pound of cōmun oil washed, wherin thou shalt put the fourthe parte of Grene Rooses in a glased vessell (of glas rather) which thou shalt set in the sun for the space of .iii. daies (ye .xl. as Aegi neta hath). Then straine it and put it in a glasse. This waye is better then the other. The second: Take oyl and Roses as before, and hang the ves­sell in a well so that it maye be touched of the wa­ter: xxx and after .ii. monethes take it oute, straine it [Page 348] and kepe it. The third: Oyl and Roses as before, put them in a glas anoynted within with honye, which stopt thou shalt let it diep in ye erth, wher it shall not be touched nether with water nor other moisture. ii, months. This oyl wilbe better smel­linge then the other: These writeth Rasis oute of Aegineta as it appeareth. Aegineta biddeth in the xx. chap. of the seuenth boke, vnto a Sextarium or wine pint of oyl Omphacinum (made of oliues not fully ripe) to put .iii. ounces of red Roses the nails x taken awai, and for the space of .xxiiii. hours laid out in the air, then the oyl to be set .xl. daies wtout dores in the sun, not vpon the ground, but vpon a borde. ¶ Mesuae in the. 411. chapt. describeth .iiii. waies. First that fresh and new red roses be set in the sun .vii. daies, then let them be sod in a double vessel .iii. houres: then (the Rose leaues wronge oute) let other be put in, and let them be set in the sun and sod as before. Which whē thou hast done thrise, put to the oyl water of infusion of Rooses, xx yt is wherin Rooses likewise haue stāded, (which he saithe, we haue prescribed in the chapter of syr­rups,) as it were the fourth of the oyl (that is, the fourth part, as the Munkes haue it. Syluius trā ­slateth it, as much as the oyl is, which I like not so well.) So when it is set in the sunne .xl. daies, straine it and sette it longe againe in the Sunne. The second, mixting with the oyl washt the iuyce of Roses, and the water of their infusion, and the leaues beaten together: then setting it in the sun xxx and chaunginge it as before. &c. The thirde, that [Page 349] with swiet Almondes blaunshed, & exactly beaten in a morter, leaues of Roses be beaten again, thē make them in litle lumpes or caakes, and keepe them in a hoat aire .xxiiii. houres. Then beate thē again and kneed them in the morter very exactly, pouring vnto it a litle hoat water of infusion of Roses. At length prees out the oyll with a presse, & put in a glas couered set it to sū. The fourth, y it be made with Sesamum blaunshed after the same maner as with Almondes. But Almondes are x more mete for vnrype Rooses: Sesama for rype. Thies hath Mesue, wher Syluius had it. The first composition (saith he) of the .iiii. now rehersed, is vsed of many: but of the Parisians, the composition of Nicolas, whiche shalbe declared in his Antido­tary. And againe, I heare that oyll of Roses is is made moste odoriferous, by putrifying the ro­ses one moneth in dung in a vessell well stopt. Af­ter the same maner of commun Mastick, and Ro­ses incarnate and Muske Roses and suche lyke, xx I doubt not but it may be made most odoriferous without the mixture of any oyll. ¶ Sieth Roses, Wormwod, or any other odoriferous herb in wa­ter with the fourth part of oyl, til all the water be consumed, and the oyll shall haue the strengthes and vertues of the herbes. So shalt thou make oyll out of hand of any thing. Cardanus out of Sy­meon. ¶ There be sum that when the Rooses are beeten, and sod in only water, say there swimmeth a certain fat foom, whiche may be streined or ga­thered xxx with a fether. ¶ An other certain man told [Page 350] me, that the leaues of Roses new should be sod in water til they be thick as hony almost, then crusht with a spoon, that the oyll or foom may enter in to it: but sum water wilbe mixt also with it, wher­fore when it is gathered in a glas, it is set in the sun & ye oyl swiming aboue in ye top is separated.

Oyll of the flowers of Elder purgeth and ma­keth smouth the skin, strengtheneth the sinewes, and helpeth the griefes of them. Furnerius.

Oyl of Spick moste holsome for thē that haue x the gout in their fiet, whiche a certain physicion of late did cōmunicate. Fill a glas with the flowers of Spick nard dryed in the sun, and power vpon thē oyl of Oliues, so that it be higher by a fingar bredth. When it hath stande .iii. daies in the sun, make it boyll in a kettell six or seuen waues and streine it with migth: then put in other flowers dried, set them in the sun .xvi. daies or more. So shalt thou haue (saith he) an oyl to put away peyn or grief wurth gould, as I haue tried with often xx experience. Lay linnen cloothes moystened in it vnto the grief, it misseth very seldō, yea although a man do not consider the humor offending. See more in the Antidotary of Arnold de Villa noua.

Oyll of the flowers of Verbascum is made, by settin them in the sun in a glas (as also of the flo­wers of Rosemary) moste cōmended & praysed for the gout of the fiet & of other griefs, specially hoat.

Oyl of violets is made as oyll of Roses, but of grien oy [...]l, or oyll of Almondes or Sasamin: Mesue. xxx Paulus Aegineta maketh this oyll of purple Vio­leth [Page 351] or Leucoio that is yelowe: or he setteth them in the sun couering the vessell exactly that it breth not through, only ten daies, the Violettes in the meane season thrys chaunged, and at lengthe he addeth dry Violettes.

Of oyll of Tartarum, that is the dry Lies of wyne.

OYll of Tartarum deuysed by Peter Argil x lata, serueth to clense the face and to smouth it. Tartarum cleauing to the sy­des of the vessell, whyte rather then red made into pouder, is stept in vinegar, after it is folded in a linnen cloothe, then lette it be put in Tow moystened with water vnder the ashes: after that let it be laid in a dish hielding towad the one syde .iii. daies: then shall a certaine humor sumwhat red destill.

Nicolas way to make oyl of Tartarum cleaning xx to the sydes of the vessels. Take that Tartarū that is of good wyne beaten, folded in a linnen cloth, moysten it well with strong whyte vynegar: sieth it vnder hoat ashes (burn it) til it wax black, beet it again, kepe it in a vessell lying on the one syde enclyned eight daies, in a cold place, til it be resolueed into oyl, whiche if it doo not, pres it out and kepe it. The same wayes doth Mesues make oyls of egs. It wer better, whē ye Tartarū is calcinated and put it in a Hippocras bagge, as they call it, & xxx let it be put in a dry place, till the oyll runne out [Page 352] into a vessel set vnder it. Syluius. I fynd an other certain maner in Furnerius in a Frenche booke of decking, where as he biddeth to take Tartarū burned and calcinated, as muche as can be taken at two handfulles and tied straite in a linnen clout to be burnt and calcinated in a furnace of Glas, Lyme or Brick: thē to be powred into a good quā ­titie of water with as muche Alum as a nut and to be muche sturred aboute: then when thou hast let rest .xxiiii. houres, streine this water (casting x that away that remaineth in the linnen cloth) and sieth it in a skillet, till nothing els then a certayne whyte crust remaine. &c. (this place semeth to be mangled,) whiche (hanged in a litle bag) ny to the earth, within thre daies thou shalt see it turned in to liquor: whiche muste be a certain tymes strai­ned til it becum cleer.

Sum put Tartarum to be calcinated in a newe pot in a potters ouen, and when the vesselles are all baked then take it out. But I thinke it should xx be calcinated better & moore purely in hoat ashes or cooles, as apples or wardens are wonte to bee rosted happing them also with cooles. It shalbe inough burnt, when it shall appeare nowe whyte nor any more black, whē it is so burnt, they hang it in a litle bag with a sharp end lyke a spyr stieple tund vpsyde doun, the mouth or wyde end put in a clouen stick wherby it shall hang and be prest to­gether, wt a phiall of glas set vnder with a tunnil.

An other way. Take equall porcions of Tan­tarum xxx and Salnitrum pund, burne them in a larg [Page 353] pot: then grinde or breake them with a hotte iron and put them in a little bagge in a wine celer, that they may destill.

An other. Beat Tartarum and Nitrum in equal parts, mixt them and burn them that the Nitrum maye be consumed. The Tartarum that remay­neth: put in a bladder (that is a glas like a blad­der) hang it in hot water, and it shallbe streighte resolued into oyle. ¶ An other. Tartarum well washte from the dregs and verye wel dried shalt x thou calcinat till it waxe white: Then when it is beaten and sifted, dissolue it with raine water de­stilled and made warme: when it is molten destill it by a Filtrum: then lette it gather into a Iellye: when it is so, calcinat it againe that it may waxe more white. So at lengthe shalt thou hange it in a little bagge, as an Hippocras bagge in a moyst place: laye on some brode thinge for a couer, that no vncleane thinge fall into it, and setting a gla­sed pot vnder it. xx

Some destill it in a lembeek of glas (that is to say in ashes) from whence a water runneth first, then the fire encreased by litle and little, the oyle.

The vse. It is good for all scabs and Ring­wormes, it maketh the skin white, cleare & youth­like. I haue sene it vsed to runninge soores of the head: to the which I thinck that is better wher wt Nitrum is burned together. It maketh coper al­so & siluer white, and putteth away spots & steins in linnē clothes. It is put to colours to make thē xxx more bright, as I think, as they put to wrytinge [Page 354] inke, of the coloure of the bresill wode and other. Rogerius also. 4. 9: teacheth to make oyl of Tarta­rum. This (saith he) clenseth cloths and spots re­maining after birth of a melancoly cause, & pur­geth the face.

Of oyls of the yelkes of egges, wormes, and Scorpions.

OYl of egs, out of Rasis. Put the yelks of egs in an iron kettel vpon the coles till x they be burnt, and the oyl that drippeth out kepe it in a glas. It is good for the greues of the tuel or fundament, and of the eares and teethe. ¶ This oyl (saithe Mesues) is proued with much experience to purge the skin, to heale thorowly tetters, ringwormes and other faultes of the skin, to brede heare, to sores boyles and fi­stulaes. Thirty eg yolkes or there about hard ro­sted, crummed with the handes, let them be par­ched in an earthen frying pan or skellet leaden wt xx a moderate fire, sturring them with a wodē spone or erthen, til they waxe red, and let the oyle be re­solued from them, which being pressed yeld more then a sponeful. Or the same yelkes harde rosted let them be broken vpon a moler, then let them be beaten into lumps, and prest out in a pres as we haue declared in oyle of Almondes, and an Oyle shall destil from them. Or the same yelkes put in to a bealy with a lembecke let them be destilled by the force of the fire, as it shalbe said of oyl of Phi­losophers. xxx These saith Mesues. Whereas Syluius [Page 355] in his annotacions saith. It taketh away merue­lously the foulnes of the skin, and skars, specially that be left in burnte places, for the moste parte it smelleth somwhat strong, yet at the laste destilled by sublimacion, les. It encreaseth heare, as Sera­pion saith in his Antidotarie.

Oyle of egges of Nicolas fashion. Frye sodden yolkes of egges with a slow fyre made of coles in an iron skellet, continually sturringe them wyth an iron rodde, till they be well rosted, presse them x oute in a stronge linnen clothe moystened in oyle of Almondes. But it is better (saithe Syluius) to frye the yelkes rawe, and moue them continually with a spone, til they being rosted, and prest with a spone, geue an oyl in a vessel hielding, which put in a glas reserued good a greate while. Oute of xx. yolkes thou shalt draw oute in .ii. houres .iiii. ounces or there about.

Matthaeolus wrytinge vpon Dioscorides, pray­seth this oyl for the roughnes of ye skin, for ring­wormes, xx for cleftes of the lippes, handes, feete, and tuell: also for the griefes of sores, ioynts, and all sinewy places: to conclude for the griefes and sores of the eares. Moreouer it is good (saith he) for places burnt with fire, and in the thin skins of the brain, it separateth the impared partes from ye hole meruelously, whiche not without my great honor and commendacion and profit of the sicke, I haue often tried in Surgery.

In a wounde vpon the braine panne, poure in xxx the oyl of egs, and it wil take away the griefe, as [Page 356] Abhomeron, Abynzoar teacheth, whiche we haue also tried with good succes: Marianus Sāctus.

An oyle for the sores or boyles of children .xvi. yolkes of egs sod: an vure of Mirrh .iiii. graines of black Helleborus, let them be mixte together wt an iron spone in an iron skellet set vpō a few co­les, then pres the yelks, and get out the oyl, till it begin to be clere without skin: put yt oyl in a glas and kepe it for thine vse: anoynt the sores twise a day, and the scabs shall fall awaye by their owne x accorde. Alexander Benedictus in his .xxx. booke of experimentes.

I haue sene this oyl made .ii. waies: firste, fry­ing the yelks in a frying pan til they wax red and yeild an oyl: secondly, siething them much lōger, til they appere blak, & all the moisture gone oute of them: for at length they yelde an oyle fodenlye: which is separated with a spone remouing y fry­ing pan from the fire streightway, and pressing ye yolkes with the spone: this some men think to be xx of greater vertue for places burnt with fyre: it se­meth in dede to dry more.

This oyl maketh skars subtil, dissolueth Tet­ters and ringwormes: Rogerius. But Brassauolꝰ writeth that the Apothecaries do falsly attribute vnto this oyl the vertue to put away skars, to the intente they may get egges from folishe people. Thou shalt reade more of the vertues thereof in the Antidotary of Arnold. Some tie the yolckes so fried in a linnen cloth, and pres them in apres xxx

[Page 357] Oyll of wormes or bowels of the earth is com­mended for the asswaging of griefes, specially of the sinewes & ioyntes, also if they cum of the frēch diseases. It is made, the worms purged frō their earthy excrementes, ether by styping these excre­mentes through the fingars, or rather by letting them stande alyue in sum vessell where hay is, to crepe: then sod with a litle wyne in oyl and stray­ned: or set in the sun before thei be sod. Sum sieth them in water and gather the fatnes that swym­meth x aboue.

Sum get out the peth of biggar elder pypes & somwhat strong, & put the wormes into thē pow­ring in also oyl: and so stopt, they let them stande in a furnace for the space of halfe an houre: then they take away the oyl and kepe it.

Oyl of Scorpions (saith Mesues) breaketh the stone of the reines and bladdar, and expelleth it, being anoynted vpon the loynes, the priuy partes where heer is, and betwien the tuel beneath & the xx beginning of ye yard, or els spouted in by ye yarde. It is made of .xx. Scorpions or a litle moo, or fe­wer, set in the sun in oyll of bitter Almondes for the space of a month in a glas well stopt. Or roūd Aristolochia gentian, Cyperi, the barkes of the ro­tes of Capers, of euery one an vnce, let them be set to sun in a Sextar of oyll of bitter Almondes, xx. daies in a glas stopt: then put in the Scor­pions from ten till .xv. in to the oyll: stop the glas and set them in the sun againe a moneth. He that xxx is diseased with the stone shalbe anoynted with it [Page 358] as he cummeth out of the bathe, in the .iii. forsaid partes, and let a litle portion of it be put in at the yard euery houre. It is maruelous. Sum had rather vsed the first, sum ye latter as more effectuall and better wurking. Thies Mesues. But Siluius in his annotacions saith, it is prepared also nowe with old oyll putting to simple medicines good against poyson: and it becummeth an oyl of mar­uelous vertues against al poysons and pestilēce. I knowe a man with the help of this, that seteth x light by any be it neuer so cruel and strong a poy­son, but both he and his seruauntes are preserued safe going with him to visite the sick of the pesti­lence: and with the only anoynting, diuers to haue bene deliuered from moste cruel poysons drunkē. The first because of the Scorpions is coulde, the latter bycause of the spices is hoat & more strong­ly wurking, not bycause of the heet of thies and subtilnes of the substaunce (wherwith it openeth perceth, sclendreth, clenseth, & breaketh thorowe) xx but also by the propertie of the hool substaunce of Scorpions, and (as they speake) specificall form, wherwith it breketh both the kynde of stone of the reines and bladdar, anoynted only vpon the loy­nes, if it be in the reines: but if in the bladdar, vpō the priuy place wher the heer is, betwien the tuel and the yarde, and then also a litle put in at the yarde: Hitherto Syluius.

In the secretes of Variguanus, we reed that certain haue been presently and out of hande deliue­red xxx from a cotidiā ague being anoynted with the [Page 359] oyll of Scorpions.

Oyll of Scorpions whose operacion is mar­uelous against poysons specially of Serpentes and other beates, and peculiarly against Napel­lum, is written by Matthaeolus Senensis in his sixt booke of his commētaries vpon Dioscorides im­printed in Italian, from whence we haue tran­slated it into Latin. This oyll (saith he) anoynted vppon the pulsing veynes, where they appeare moste, as of the temples, handes and fiet, and in x the place of the hart, so that euery third hower the anoynting be repeted, deliuereth safely from all poysons within the body receyued, that haue no gnawyng nor frettyng operacion: and lykewyse from the bytinges of Eddars, Aspes, and any o­ther venemous beast. The composition therof is thus, whiche I let bee knowen abroode, that the hool worlde may knowe and confesse my lyberall and good hart. In the begynning of May take thre pound of commun oyll of a hundreth yeare xx old, or certenly the eldest of all that may be found. Thre handful of Hypericon or saint Iohns wurt fresh, (with the herbe and flowers.) Put the oyll into a bely of glay, twyse as big as for the measur thereof, and when the Hypericon is a litle beaten put it in vpon it. Then the vessell being stopt, set it in moste fyne sand vp to the midst where it may be made hoat the hool day of the sun, for the space of ten or twelue daies. After thou shalt put it in Balneo Marie fowre and twenty howres. xxx [Page 360] Then pres out the oyll from the herbe and put to Hyperici, Chamedryos, Calaminthae, Cardui san­cti, of euery one a handfull moderatly beeten: and put them again into the bath for .iii. daies. After­ward thou shalt streine them and pres them: and putting to them .iii. handfuls of flowers of Hype­ricon well pickt from the stalkes, and wel beeten, set it again .iii. daies in Balneo Mariae, and pres it out as before. This shalt thou repete .iii. or .iiii. tymes, till the oyll haue gotten a colour as red as x bloud. Afterward take the sedes of ye tender parts of Hypericon, or the huskes lyke to the cornes of barly, wherin the sedes ly hid, in suche plenty that it may be equall with the three handfulles: beate thies sprinkling vpon them a litle whyte wyne, & power it into the said oyll. then bery it in sand in the sun eight daies, and straight after in the bath for .iii. daies. Streine and pres it as before. And do this thre or .iiii. tymes putting in new tender­lynges of Hypericon, till a very sad or darke reed xx colour remaine in it. After this, take fresh Scor­dium, Calamint,, the les Centaury, Carduum san­ctum, Veruin, Dictamnum Creticum, of euery one halfe a handfull. When they are beaten, put them into oyll: and put them in a bath for twoo daies. Strein them and pres them as before. Then take Zedoariae, the roote of whyte Dictamni, Gentian, Tormentillae, Aristolochiae root, of euery one thre drams: of freshe Scordium a handfull. When they are beaten together, power them in and let them xxx stand thre daies in the bath, strein and pres. And [Page 361] again, put into the oyl Styracis Calamitae, Belzoi or Laserpitii, of ether .vi. drammes: the bearies of Iuniper .iiii. drams: Nigellae. iii. drams: odorife­rous Casiae. ix. drammes, white Saunders .iiii. drams: Scoenanthi, Cuperis of ether a dram and a half, when they are beaten pour them in, and put them into the bath .iii. daies, straine and pres. After, take .xxx. liue Scorpions, gathered in the Caniculer daies, and put them in a belly of glas vpon hot ashes, and when thou seest them sweate x for heat, and to send out an humor, power vppon them al the forsaid oyl hot (but not so hot, that the vessell breake therwith,) and sodenlye stoppe the mouth of the vessell, and put it in a bath .iii. dais. Then strain it and pres it, and cast awai the scor­pions now sod: and put into the oyle Rhabarbi E­lectissimi, commun Mirh, Aloes Hepaticae, of eue­ry one .iii. drams, Spiknard .ii. drams, one dram of Saffron: Triacle elect, Mithridatii perfecti, of ether half an ounce. When they are beaten poure xx them in and put it in a bath .iii. dais, and strain it no more after that, but set it vp, and keepe it as a balm. For it is a remeady of great admiracion a­gainst the forsaid poisons, & specially against the Napellum, wherewith those .ii. theues of Cor [...]ica wer infected, whose history we recited in ye fourth boke, wher we made mētion of Aconitum, to whi­che place I send the reader. These writeth Matt.

Cardanus thinketh that the oyl which should be anoynted without the body against poysons, vpō xxx the pulses and region of the hart, oughte to be of [Page 362] metall, as of orpment or drawne out of Myssi, see before in the beginning of the tretise of oyles de­stilled of metally thinges.

Of oyl of Serpents or blacke Edders, also of oyl of frogs, rede Mesuae. &c.

Oyl of Castoreum is composed with manye o­ther spices, and hot gums. &c. as Syluius descri­beth vpō Mesuen: it may also be made simple and single, and for the hard and Massy part of Casto­rei the fattines cleauinge to it to be added, or ra­ther both, as I counsell. x

Brimston is made hot in oenostagmate (I vn­derstand burning water) till a certaine skin swim aboue (they call it an oyl) which a man must take in a shell, sometimes the water muste be chaun­ged, till oyl inough be gathered, wherewith they saye Hydargiron, that is quicke Siluer sunken in a body is entised oute, if it be anoynted streighte waye when a man commeth oute of the bathes. Iac. Hollerius. See befoore amongste the de­stilled oyles. xx

Of fomentations and perfumes▪

FOmenta are called of the Grekes Pyria­mata, all thinges that be laide hot to the bodye withoute, ether to asswage the griefe, or to drawe oute the matter, bo­the otherwise, and also to dissolue swellings: this perauenture is done by dri fomenta [...]ions rather, xxx the other by moyste. Sometimes I woulde vse [Page 363] now the one now the other both dry and moyst by course, as in gouty greues ether in the feete or o­ther ioynts, wher as it is ieopardy least the more subtill parte of the matter drawne oute, the gro­ser be lefte behinde and made more hard. Moyst fomentacions seme to prepare the matter for the drye, to extenuate and make sclender, to mollefy, to digest, to make them vapor out: some perauen­ture do none of these, accordinge to the diuersitie of the matter. But dry fomentacions do drye and x draw outward, and heaten more. Moist be ether liquid or running as simple water, or [...]alte, Oyl, milk by it self, or with hony: herbs and flours sod in water or wine or other liquor, and laid vpon a linnen cloth or bag, or put into a blader, or a sp [...]g moistned therin, or a linnen cloth, or wul, or a Filtrum, that is a shred of wollen cloth. Bladders or like thinges full of hot water or oyl. Cataplasma­ta also maye be numbred amongste these, whyche are ministred hot, that is to saye hearbes sod, and xx beaten laide vppon a linnen cloth. Dry are suche, as Milium, Salte, Sande, bran, Otes made hot in a kettle, and sturred aboute, are put into a lin­nen clothe or bagge. Celsus in some places com­mendeth the iuice of hotte Salte, and in an other place he saithe it is most holsome to make fomen­tacions wyth moyste Salte. You shall, as he ex­poundeth putte a little bagge into hotte water, and laye it hotte to the place diseased: puttynge into the bagge nowe and then an iron s [...]ise hotte, xxx whyles it lyeth vppon the place that is grea­ued, [Page 364] & sprinkling water lightly vpon it: therefore you shal haue .ii. slices redi, that while the one slis is put into the bag the other may be heated in the fire. In the disease of the necke called Tetanus, whiche is the stifnes of the sinnewes (saith Cel­sus) it is necessarie to haue a moyste and warme fomentacion. Therfore the moste part of men do pour often vpon the neckes much hotte thinges. That procureth presently ease, but it maketh the sinewes more apt to receiue cold: which ought to x be auoided. Therfore it were beter to anoynt the nek with some waxed moisture, then to laye Oxe bledders, or like thinges filled with hotte oyle, or some hot plaster of bran, or rounde Pepper with figs beaten But the best of al is to make fomen­tation with moist salt. In the same we red a mer­uelous fomentacion for the touth. To put wilde Minte in a Basin, and water to it, somewhat a­boue it: then to putte in hotte burnynge Flintes, the diseased gapinge with his mouthe receyueth xx the vapoure. I harde of a late of a woman deli­uered from a longe paine of the touth ache, why­che receiued gapinge the vapoure of a black flint, (wherewith the streates are paued (be sprynkled with wine. The same Celsus biddeth to vse fo­mentacions vnto sore nosthrils, only wt the vapor of water, out of a vessel wt a narow mouth. This appor also is ministred to hot & greuous Hērods. A certain woman that had ben long sick of a Pa­ronychia or whitflow, or ilgnawing sore vpō her xxx toes, nie ye nail, when now certain, litle bones wer [Page 365] out, and many medicines vsed in vaine, she laide vnto it a fomentacion of the mos of a walnut tree sod in wyne, so that she held the sore place a prety whyle in that vapour: then bound part of the mos hoat therupon, and was by and by made hoole. A fyer brand also brent, foulded in a moyst cloth is in stede of a hoat fomentacion in Celsus. I haue put Caret or Cumin sede beaten in a bag moyste­ned with burning water hoat, vnto the nauell of them that were sick of the colick, and haue had oft x good succes through the same burning water set on fyre, in a bath stouf or sweeting hous narowe and close euery where, the aire waxeth hoat, wherin the sinewes, ioyntes, and other partes couled, are proffitably fomentated, and if it be possible to be done they sweet also. To moue sweet and to warme the bathing place with the vapour of hoat water, the commun people set great caudrous wt hoat water in their sweeting places, with chaf to­gether (to keepe the heat longer) and sumtymes xx swiet herbes. Other haue a pot hoot without the bath, with water and other herbes or medicines put in it, from whence the vapour entreth into the bath by a pype beneth. This other do with other instrumentes and vessels, as they in Italy in the old tyme heated hoathouses. When the bathing place is alredy made hoat, a burning coole might be put into the pot, and dry medicines be strow [...]d in, the perfume wherof is desyred or [...]st, both o­therwyse & also chiefly for wemens vse, to diuers xxx diseases of the wombe, receiuing the perfume by [Page 366] a pype. Hyppocrates describeth a peculiar vessell for this purpose. Let them put out their head the whyle, which are to weake for to abyde it, or such as it is to be feared lest they swound or chaunce into ouer great thirst. &c. Sum in bathes power water or wyne, simple or mixte with medicines vpon reed hoat tyle stones or dros of iron, or sto­nes. Sweet in bed is prouoked with hoat tyle stones foulded in moyst linnen clothes and put in to the bedde, or with tinnen bottelles filled with x hot water: or with litle bagges wherin herbes sod are put yet hoat, and the better if a hoat tyle stone also be put in withall. Wull vnskoured suppled in wyne or vinegar, wherunto oyll is put, Dates beaten, Bran sod in salt water or vinegar, do both repres and mollifie together. Wyne and vinegar, do repres and coule and more yet ether bread or meel, or a sponge, or ashes, or woull vnwasht, or a linnen cloth, wiet in ether of thies, Celsus. Sum put hoat ashes, or burning cooles rather in a ves­sell xx of wood, filling it to the half, the rest they fyll with what herbes they list, as wormwod, mints, to comfort the stomack, ether by them selues or sprinkled with a litle wyne: then bynding vpon it a linnē cloth they lay it to ye part diseased, special­ly where it is nedeful to heaten, to dry, to discus & to drawe sumwhat strongly. It is conuenient for partes couled and to them that haue gouty aches to vse it with mugwort only or also chamemell, & vnto the diseases of the womb, with Matricaria. xxx This fomentaciō may be made with .ii. vessels to [Page 367] be laid vnto by cours. Celsus willeth men in sum place to lay about the places diseased wull perfu­med with the smoock of brymston. Hereunto may be referred all suche thinges as Fuchsius & other wryt of fomentacions, apposicions, embroches, litle bags and insessions. The greke word aeonein signifieth the water vpon and power vpon, whe­ther it be done bicause of fomentacion, that is wt heat, or other cause. Galen doth prayse ye perfume of the fyer stone or miln stone sprinkled with vine x gar, for the taking away of hardnes of ye fleshe as kirnels. Diuers perfumes for the french diseases which are al made with Cinabrio that is made of quitksiluer, sum also with orpmēt & Marchasita. &c shalt thou fynd in Nic. Mass. & certain other which haue taught ye heeling of this disease. The leeues dry of Tussilago made in perfumes so ye smok may be drawen in at the mouth vpō, doth help ye congh and Orthopnaeū, and breaketh the impostumes in the brest. The same operacion also hath the rout xx perfumed. Dioscorides.

Of certain iuices.

THe iuices of certain herbes wrong and prest out, are sod at fyer or dryed in the sun, as Bul­casis teacheth seuerally of the iuice of Hamsig, Plantain, Lettis, Singrien, Purselan, Rostrum Purcinum, or hogges snout, Scariola, Fenel, Smalage, Volubili, Sorrell, and other.

A maruelous waye to drawe out the iuice out of black Elleborum, whiche sum vse as a secrete xxx mystery, the commoditie whereof I also trying [Page 368] would not hyde, lest I should seme to be sory that our posteritie shuld haue any excellēt knowledge. who founde this way first I can not saye I lear­ned it of certain my moste secret friendes I mean that black Elleborum whiche communly all men in Germany name in lyke maner, lyke vnto Con­siligo, very many kepe it in their gardēs: but that whiche groweth vpon the moūtaines, to be found in our countrey Heluetia is best. A man may trye the same way in Colocynthida Esula, Laureola, &c. x Sieth lightly in water the routes of black Ellebo­rum cleen and washt, set infused in the same first a night or more, small cut. Thou shalt take hede both in this and in the other decoctions that thou skim away diligently al the foom that swymmeth aboue, as venemous. This water shalt thou kepe and again power other vnto it warm, and heet it a whyle moderatly, chaunging the water so oft til the routes retein none or very litle bitternes any more: whiche shall cum to pas when thou hast xx chaunged the water seuen or nyne tymes. But in the meane space whyle thou chaūgest the waters, destill the first euer with a Filtrum or through a brush: and at length sieth all with a slowe fyer, or with burnt cooles rather, so that they boyl not, yet let them be alwayes at the poynt of boyling, vntil they be as thick as hony in an earthen pot glased, or of bras tinned, the pot couered or litle opē. Whē as now a litle water remaineth, about the ende of the siething, stur it about gently now and then wt xxx a stick, that the iuice be not burnt too, and at the [Page 369] same time for a pound of rotes of Elleborum, thou shalt put .ii. drammes of Mastik pund, and cease not to sturre it, other continuallye, or by little di­staunces, til the iuice seme out and out sufficient­ly thickened, whiche wil chaunce sodenlye for the mooste parte: and that the matter may be the les burnt, the nere vnto the ende and to the thickning the iuice is, so much vrge it with les fyre: nor be not weary of the time: for thou shalt haue a most excellent and exquisite medicine againste diuers x diseases, speciallye melancholik diseases. It shal become of a darke red coloure, of moste bitter sa­uour, with a percing sharpnes, like as is in Asa­rum or Asaraba [...]cha, and Cloues, but stronger, ye burning as it semeth to the taster: yet is not bur­ning in deede, that is because of the tenuitie and sclendernes of the partes, as I wold haue tried. It is ministred an hour after supper, in the moū ­tenance of a pease, in all diseases whereunto Elle­borus is conueniente, and where it is good to lose xx the bealy. One pill of that quantity that I saide. wil make a man to haue .iiii. stoules. But I hear that certaine when they had taken to muche, as much perauentur as a beane, they haue ben emp­tied to ofte by the bealye and vomiting, and haue bene verye muche weakened: whiche I to take heede of, vsinge the counsell of a certaine learned Phisicion I woulde brynge to iuyce, not the Elle­borum alone, but infused and decocted with other diuers medicines, as I shall declare by and by. xxx I perceiue it skilleth little whether the rootes be [Page 370] taken grene or dry. But a man must take a poūd at the leaste of the rotes. Lullius and other (Car­dan) haue made mention of the quintessence of El­leborum, where vnto I thincke this iuice to bee nothing inferiour. This truelye is worthye to be wondred at, that the iuice so longe decocted is not onlye nothinge weaker but also muche stronger: for it seemeth, (that I may speake of coniecture) that one parte of this iuice to be tenne times and more stronger then Elleborus it selfe, and yet no­thing x more daungerous or hurtful: but the strēg­the withoute harme is encreased. And although I my selfe woulde haue remitted and asswaged his strengthe, puttinge to manye medicines, yet I can commende more this simple waye alrea­dye described, where as nothinge but a little Ma­stik is added at the laste, speciallye for more hard and greuous diseases, where necessitie requireth extreame medicines: and for Franticke persones and otherwise madde and dotinge, whiche when xx they can not be compelled to take anye medicins, they are the easier deceiued with so little a dosi in quantitye. Yea also withoute the bodye for vene­mous bitinges and sinnewes hurte, I canne be­leue that the vertue of it shoulde be mooste excel­lent. I finde no iuice made in this sorte in anye authors: the iuice of Acatia and of Berberies in Bulcasis. For the straininge of it onlye is decoc­ted, not that which is depressed oute: also the iuice of Galbanus and Licoris: but the water in them xxx is not chaunged.

[Page 371] Other iuices are made all by expression, and aresod til they gather into a Ielly, as of S [...]lan­dine, Poppy, Wormwod, nightshade, Vinae Acer­bae, Memithae, Agremony, Hypocisthidis, the bar­kes of the rotes of Mandrag. The same Bulcasis also, willeth to put to a little gum to certaine iui­ces that be prest out which are sod by them selues at the fire, that the partes of thē may better cleue together, as the iuice of wormwod & gasid, that is Eupatorium or nightshade: also of Centaury, and x Gentian (which is made of a decoction strained.) But Mastik is mixt with ye iuice of Elleborus, not onlye for this cause, but also to amende the vene­mous vertue therof and contrary to the stomak. Moreouer in certain other medicins, wher a mā list to encrease the strength and vertue of any medicin which is to be left and laid away in some li­quor, we chaung not the liquor, but the medicin: that is euer when the first is strained, putting in new medicin into the same liquor, as in many de­coctions xx and oyles: but here in the iuice of Ellebo­rus we do contrary: For keping the same rotes of the Elleborus, we chaunge oft the liquor. I maye tel the cause, because ye rote of Elleborus aboue all other things, hath most strōg vertues, not in ye su­perficial & other parts only, but in ye hole substāce imprinted vehemētly & fastly: wherfore it may be also kept most long of al other. I my self vsed it, when it was .x. yeares olde, in his full strengthe. And certaine common Practicioners bidde men xxx drinke for the lousinge of the belly the wine wher [Page 372] in a part of it hath sooked a nighte and the nexte daye is strained, and the rotes to be dried again: for they are nothing or veri litle weaker therwith although they be somewhat often repeated to the same vse and dried again. But of Elleborus it self and what we haue tried and experimented ther­of, perauenture we shal once haue an other place and occasion to wryte of.

Pils of blak Elleborus, or rather of his iuice, is to be taken euery seuenth day in the curing of the x French disease that is Melancholy, as Matthaeo­lus coūselith. Three drams of the rootes of blacke Veratrum or Elleborus fresh and new: Dauci or ye­low-Caret, Anisi, Peper, of euery one a dram .vi. grains of Mosth. ii scrupuls of Epithy mii or the harder time: let all theese be lightlye beaten: then when they haue stand to soke a day and a nighte, v. poundes of Malmsye (heare semeth to be som fault of the printer, for it is to great a measure of wine) let them be mightilye prest oute. Take .iii. xx drams of this expression: of the pouder of pils of Fumitory, Cochiarum, Aurearum, of euery one. ii drams and a half, knede them together, and then let them be dried. Moreouer when they are dry & made againe in pouder, thou shalt stiepe them a­gain in the same Malmsy, as before .iiii. tymes. The pilles thereof, muste be taken at one time, to the weight of one dram.

Oure iuice composed and made of Elleborus. Two poundes of Blacke Elleborus newe cutte: xxx Liquoris scraped and brused with a pestil a poūd [Page 373] stiep them a night in a good quantitie of water. The next day after sieth them an houre & a halfe with a slow fyer, or .ii. houres, power it out strai­ning it, and put in to it other water warm (which shalbe redy in a chafer by the fyr for this purpose. Repete this seuen tymes or more. Then castyng away the routes, take the hooll water streined or destilled by a Filtrum, and sieth it by litle and litle and when as yet a litle of it shall remaine, power vnto it this decoctiō: Seuen handfull of Betain, x Agrimony two handfull, Anisi. iii. vnces, stiep thē in water and sieth them till the consumpcion and wasting of the thirde parte: pres it out, strayne it twys or thrys, at the length put to fiue vnces of Agaricum elect cut smal: flower deluce two vnces and a half: Cinamon six drams, Ginger halfe an vnce: sieth them to the half, pres them out & strain the water as befor. Then power this decoction to the decoction of the Elleborus boyling moderatly: and let them be [...]od together to the thicknes of ho­ny. xx A litle before the ende put to .iiii. drams of the pouder of Mastick .ii. drammes of Scammonium: thies dissolued together in a litle of the decoction of Elleborus, that it may be lyke the substaunce of hony, not muche before the end of the decotion po­wer it in, (when the iuice shalbe moderatly thyck, or beginneth to be thick) and thou shalt stur it a­bout till the iuice be consumed. Thou shalt trye now and then a drop of the iuice, let it fall vpon a tinnen [...]rencher, and when it shalbe so thick that it xxx wil almost run no more abrode when thou leenest [Page 374] the trencher on the one syde or lifts it vp, then is the iuice perfect. But by the space of an houre or more before the ende thou shalt now and then stur it about with a slow fyer, lest it burn too. Of this decoctiō I had almost .xi. vnces of iuice: I thinck I should haue had skarsly ye fourth parte, if I had sod Elleborum alone. This iuice haue I vsed al­redy sumtymes: for I ministred it vnto a yonge man sik of the falling euill, with good succes, who now of long tyme God be thanked, is well: but x with many other medicines also ther with, as let­ting of bloud and sweeting. &c. And an other cer­tain person molested for .iii. yeares with the Asca­rides or litle round wormes breeding in the long gut, many medicines tryed in vayne, was resto­red with this iuice once receiued, and a few dayes after taking hartes horn burnt. Pilles of the big­nes of a pees, from .ii. to fiue may be ministred after supper, that is from half a scrupull or there a­bout to a hool. But a man may try thies better in xx proces of time. This doo I admonish physicions that be litle exercised, that thei vse it not rashly but with diligent consideration: for it is a vehement medicine. It semeth to be conuenient and good for the quartain ague, that is no more rawe, and for other diuers great and long diseases, & specially for the scab cumming of black choler. I gaue of la [...] to one sicke of a quartain fyue pylles of the bignes of a pees, whereupon he perceyued great anguishe, and was purged only by vomit: voyded xxx nothing downward, nether was eased of the dis­eases. I imputed the cause to the distemperaunce of the man. I my self taking two pyles lyke pea­sen [Page 375] after sopper, ye next day I felt no smal grief a­bout my stomak, I auoyded sūtymes downward, but I vomited not. A man may more safly giue it to thē yt be sufficiently ful of flesh or fat, of a moyst stomack, and a stomack of moo exquisite sence.

Again of the iuice of black Elleborus: and of the drawing out of the vertues out of purging medicines and certain other, as I learned of a certin friend.

THis drawing oute was inuented for delicate x perso [...]es and such as be of a weake stomack, for thē that can not abyde nor beare a great potiō of any lousing medicine, but ar loused wt the leest weight. The extractiō of black Elleborꝰ. iiii. poūd of blak true Ellebo. new & fresh, let thē be streight waies washt: thē cut smal power vpō thē this ma­ner of streining, ye iuice of Buglos, Borrage, of e­ther .ii. poundes: let thē be purified strained moste diligētly, y they may be as pure as gold, & let thē be laid or set vp for a tyme. Thē take fenel rootes xx Cichori, sperage, persely, of euery .iiii. vnc. Iuiuba rū, sebesten, of ether .ii. vnces. Melon siedes, cucu­mer siedes, gourd siedes, citrul siedes, of euery an vnce, sieth thē accordīg to art in. 16. poūds of rain water. Vnto this straining power ye forsaide .iiii. poūdes of iuice: let thē boyll a litle at y fier: after­ward put in y cut & beatē Ellebo. & sieth thē lightly by litle & litle till yt the rootes appeare aboue, thē pres thē out again, strain thē through a filtrū, sieth this strainīg to ye thiknes of hony wt xxx a slow fier, taking cōtinually hied lest it▪ be burnd to. Afterward take it of the fier & vse it, trying & experimēting in the dosior quātitie of ministra [...]iō [Page 376] from half a scrupul to a hool or further. It is mi­nistred to louse ye bely, folded or moulded in a litle moystned dow vnleuened, mixt with a drop or two of oyll of Anis.

The extraction of Rhabarbari. Cut a pound of the pieces of Rhabarbarum elect small, and beat it sumwhat gros, and power to it ye clarified iuices of Borage and Buglos, of ether two poundes, let them stande .xxiiii. houres. Afterward sieth them at a slowe fyer, till the Rhabarbarum appeare and x be higher then the rest. Then pres it out strongly and put the decoction prest out through a wullen sight, and pres it out, that the substaunce may re­maine in the sight. Sieth this sighting to the thiknes of hony, putting to it an vnce of yt best sugar. Sum sieth in Balneo Mariae till it be thick lest it should put to whiche is better, as lykewyse in a double vessell. In purging giue it to be swalowed doun mixt with a drop of oyll of Cinamon and A­nis, & foulded in vnleuened dow, making a triall xx in the quantitie of ministracion, from a scrupul to ii. Sum bicause Rhabarbarum by it selfe doth not purge greatly, do sharpen the hooll extraction wt a litle of the best Dacrydium, which hurteth not.

An extractiō of pilles. Take any lump or mas that yuo wil of pilles composed most diligently, & of the best medicines: when it is broken into litle pieces, stiep it eight daies in raine water iuice of Borage, iuice of Fenell, in equall porcions, as muche as suffiseth. Then sieth it in a glasen dou­ble xxx vessell a hool daye: then pres it out through a [Page 377] moste cleane wullen clothe, that will lose none of his heares, and sieth it againe in a bath and dou­ble vessel diligently to a conuenient thicknes, and frame little pils whereof thou shalt geue .ii. scru­ples or ther about. A matter drawne oute in this wise is most pure, very tender and melteth easily in a mans hand. In like maner may also the ver­tues of other purging medicins be drawne oute. But hede must be taken, that euer softening and slippery iuices be mixt therwith in the decoction, x such as they before are: and it shall be muche the better if all be sod in a double vessel.

A description of a purging Electuari extracted, whiche a certaine excellente Phisition at Norin­berg did vse .xiii. drammes of Colocynthidis, blak Elleborus, senae Alexandrinae, of ether an ounce, of mooste white Agaricum an ounce: Rhabarbarum Electum halfe an ounce, or if the Rhabarbarum be not very good, an ounce: xiiii. drams of Dacrydi­um: Turbirh, (if I rede right) Stichas Ara. of ether xx ii. vnces & a half: ii. drams of Cinamon: red Roses Lignum Aloes, Mastik, red Mirrh, Asarum, spik­nard, Styrax liquid, of euery .v. scrupuls. Pour altogether and digest or putrify thē, as they cal it .x. daies or .xiiii. in warm Aqua vitae thrise destilled. The iuice prest out therof shalbe ioyned and mixt with .iii. vnces of prepared Aloes. But the Aloes did he prepare in this wise. About apoūd of Aloes is put into a basen, caudron or pot, putting therto vinegar made with Rosewater, and Roosewater xxx as much as shalbe sufficient, but so yt ther be more [Page 378] of the vinegar of Roses, then of the water of Ro­ses. Let them boyle together with a slowe fire .ii. or .iii. boylinges: then straine them pressing them strongly. When it is strained, let it boyle againe with a slow fire to the thicknes of Aloes sturring it continuallye with a slise. When it is coulde, let it be kepte for vse. The species or particulers re­hersed are firste cut small, then beaten, infused in Aqua vitae, as muche as is sufficiente, they are let stande in the infusion warme in Balneo Mariae or sande .xiiii. daies, sturring and chafinge them in x the meane season oftentimes euery day, then are they prest oute strongly throughe a grose linnen clothe. Then are they put in a lembeck, and with the fire, is the waterye moysture drawne oute, till the consistence or thicknes of Diacy donion of the said medicin. If ther remain yet any moisture let it be put vpon burning coles in some vessel as much as is sufficient.

Of the iuice of the Flour De­luce xx and Rape. &c.

OVre Floure Deluce is more stronge in operation in the dropsy, as semeth me, then the Florentines: of the whiche o­pinion a frend of mine also a very wel lear [...]ed Phisicion is, who of late sente mee these hys experimentes and trialles of the iuice of the roote of Flower Deluce and Rape. Take a hens xxx egge, and pouringe oute the white, put the iuice [Page 379] of the Flower Deluce in place, and mixte it dili­gently with the yolke: and when thou hast a little warmed it in the ashes, geue it for a mornynges draught, which shall auoid downward aboue me­sure the dropsy water.

This also (saith he) haue I emongst my secre­tes for them that be sick of the dropsy and can not swete: take the iuice of a round Rape beaten in a morter and prest out, seasoned with Suger or ci­namon, that it taste somthing els then the Rape, x geue this in the morning to the sick well couered a [...]d he shall sweat.

The iuice of Purslan, Singreen or Houslike, Cotyledonis, and of other likewise that be slimye and Clammy, because of the clammines can not be prest oute alone: The herbe well punde wyth Omphacium is prest oute. Other when they are punde heat them at a flow fyre. Other beat them and let them stand in a colde place, as a wine cel­ler, put in a basket of wikars, to destill downe in­to xx a dishe set vnder: Syluius, in whome thou shalt reade moore of the preparinge and preseruynge of iuices, in his boke of the preparaciō of simples.

Of Lignum sanctum and anye other, we draw oute teares, whiche is moore precious then the woode it selfe, in this wise. The Lignum is cut in pieces, the thicknes of a finger, which are put in the fire: therby is gathered what tere so euer is in the Ligno. Cardanus.

Milk is gathered of Esula & Selandin, cuttinge xxx [Page 380] the highest bowes, and laid hielding in a vessell, pressing (milking or sliping▪ thē one by one. The liquor so gathered shalt thou dry in the sūne. But the iuice is gathered when the herbes are punde and prest out: Bulcasis.

Gummes that be purginge and other, (if anye refuse to swalowe in the forme of pilles) put them in boylinge water, let them bee dissolued, strayne them: and put in oyl of swiet Almonds, and geue it in drink with rob. x

Put any stronge purginge medicine in water or wine: Then in the same liquor stiepe drye pru­nes, or drye Figges, or Rasins till they swel, then washe them in wine. These frutes receiued with­in the bodye do maruelouslye and withoute grefe loose the bealye: Arnold in his booke of wyne. Sieth .iiii. ounces of Passularium with water of Violets half an hour, lift them through a siue: thē sprinkle in .ii. drams of Scammonium, lette them be dryed. Then when thou wilte geue .xxx. or .xl. xx and no mo with Panatella. Epiphanius Empericus.

Some stuffe a fat Goose with medicins, with well lykinge Kitlinges chopte small, with Salt, and roastinge it softlye vppon a broche, gather the liquor that drops therout, to annoynte goutie members therewith. Io. Goenrotus. I harde saye howe a certaine practicioner roosted a gose stufte with Mise, chopte smal, and ministred the liquor gathered there of to the annoynting of the croked vunche vpon the back. xxx

Of decocted thinges.

WE cal decoctions liquors, water, wyne, or vinegar: in the whiche any medicins be sod at the fyer, and then streined. &c. of the whiche for shortnes sake at this present we will speake nothing, sauing that we wyl admonishe, that whē they are beaten or chopt they ought to be first stiept whiche should be sod and decocted in a vessell diligently stopt and cloo­sed. x Of grien plantes, the decoction is more plea­saunt then of dry) wherfore dry thinges beten and stiept longar tyme then fresh, may be streined and prest out, then alone or with sugar or houy to bee decocted and sod. &c.

A decoction in vinegar against the pestilence. Sieth two handfull of the biggar Salandin, the herbe and root together, in .iiii. pound and a half of the best vinegar, vpon cooles in a glased pot wt a couer the mouth wherof shalbe fensed with clay xx for an houre and a half, till the thyrd part be con­sumed. Then straine the vinegar and set it vp in a glas. Giue .iii. sponefull of this to a man taken with the pestilence, and if he vomit it again, giue him again, and will him to sweet: One vnnamed in the dutche wryten booke. Other which Selan­dine, take as muche Rewe, and dres it as before, and to one taken with the pestilence thei giue one sponefull to drinke with a litle tryacle, by whose help both I my selfe haue holsum and helthful experience, xxx and also I haue hard it muche commen­ded [Page 382] of other. And of late I red almost ye very same medicine in a certain boke of a certayn practicio­ner, writen in frenche, and a few yeares past whē the pestilence was here, a certain friend of myne sent vnto me a lyke description. Many woulde haue the Selandine sod in the vinegar, but other put other thinges to: sum, as I saide, Rew only: other also Sage noble, Rosemary, the leeues of flower deluce, not the roote, Zedoaria and sieth it in a pot wel couered: therof they giue a few drops x for preseruacion: but to them that be alredy infec­ted, a sponefull with triacle, and bidde them too sweet. Sum stiep the same thing almost in wyne in a phiall well closed, they stur and chafe it sum­tymes, then they destyll it: they gyue it for preser­uacion or to the infected as before is specified, and when that is receiued, they bid them not to sweet, but to walke as far as is possible, and if it be nied full to be led of two men.

Otherwyse. ℞. Wormwood, Rewe, the yong­linges xx or shoutes of brēble, of euery one one part, Selandin. iii. partes. Sieth thē in whyte vinegar q. s. that is as muche as is sufficient in a pot cla­yed, till the third part be consumed, let it be giuen as sone as amā is infected, & after let him sweet.

Otherwyse. ℞. A pound of the rootes of Selā ­dine, Brimstone, Saffron, Turmentill, an vnce, Triacle .ii. vnces: pimpernel, Gentian, of euery an vnce and a halfe: Pilosella or mous ear, with the roote and all. Rewe, of ether an handfull, Sage xxx a handfull. Sieth them in a new pot well clayed, [Page 383] with .ii. quartes of whyt vinegar til the third part be consumed. In this decoction dissolue electuary of an eg (or triacle) to the quantitie of a been let it be giuen to the pacient as thou knowest.

Of made vvyne, and mixt with medicines.

LAst of all wee wyll teache and declare here certain thinges of made and coun­terfeit wynes, yet not of all of purpose, x whiche should be to long. Who so desi­reth mo kindes of made wynes, and their compo­sitions and vertues let him go to Dioscorides, Aetius in his last booke, and to the booke of Arnold Villa nouani of wynes. ¶ Wynes mixt with medi­cines are made diuers waies: first siething the medicines with the wyne whyle it is must and new, for the moste part to the consumpcion of the third part, skumming in the meane season & straining afterward. Sum sieth the wyne alone: other till ye xx third part be cōsumed, other much les: afterward they hang within the wyne in a litle bag the me­dicines sumwhat gros betē. And bitter medicines specially ought to be put in decocted and sod wyne (for so it waxeth swiet) in a litle bad, or els to be sod together, or both. So are wynes made wt worme­wood, with Zedoaria, with Inula, also wt Borrage and Melissa, in Arnold. Sum sieth a litle newe must and when it is couled, they power it vpon the herbes in the vessell. Secondly putting the xxx herbes them selues or the medicines dry in ye new [Page 384] wyne, before it be hoat, that by the heet of it in the vessel, the vertue of the medicin may be mixt with it: So the mooste men with vs prepare wyne of wormwood, and they let it stande a hooll wynter in the vessels, euer filling the vessels again, if thei draw any thing out of it, in the beginning of vere they take the herbes out: sum leue them in al sum­mer also, but yet it is easely corrupted, waxeth hoor and mouldy, and sower specially if the vessell bee not full. Sum set a plate of iron tinned boored x through with many hooles, within the vessell a­bout the tap or spigot, that it be not stopt with the medicines that are put in. A man may any tyme of the yeare put wormwood or other herbes in old wyne in a litle vessell, specially in cellers that bee sumwhat coule, or in a great glas well stopt: if so be it the route callet Cariophyllata dry be put to, y wyne shalbe preserued the lōgar. Other sieth sim­pely with wyne the medicine whose vertue they would haue to pas in the wyne, at any time of the xx yeare: but sod wynes for the mooste parte, breeth out and becum almoste sower: therfore I allowe rather the medicines beaten to bee stiept in wyne together wt clarified hony or sugar a fewe houres, and then after to be strained sumtymes through an Hippocras bag. So haue I made sumtymes wyne good for them that were sick of the dropsy, of the rout of flowre deluce, and for them that wer short wynded of Inula. &c. Wyne may also be mixt and streined with the iuices of herbes clarified: or xxx els the iuice of them whiche dry beaten, haue been [Page 385] hanged in a litle bag in it a few daies, to be prest oute and when it is strained to be mixte with the wine, and newe medicines to be put into the bag, &c. for if the matter be prest oute often and newe put to, the wine shall be the stronger, and we shall fil the vessel now and then for that that is drawn oute: for if not, the wine will become euerye foote weaker.

Wines medicined (as we haue saide) maye be made, leauinge the medicines put in a bagge, or x simplely in Must or new wine, that they ma [...] heat together: or in wine sethinge at the fire But the first way is preferred bycause by it the vertue of the medicines is not resolued, nor altered or we­kened. The hole of the conseruatiue vessel ought to be couered with a litle couer, that the heat may brethe out moderatly, and yet the odour fewm not out to much. Yet if ye thinke good to sethe them in wine at the fire, let the fire be made moste slowe, and continued without smoke, with the vessel co­uered, xx least it brethe out, and let it be sod a certain space (with a bigger or les fire, according as the substance of euery thing requireth, Arnold in his boke of wine. Such as a mā list to sethe, it shuld be best to sethe it in a double vesselor in Baln. Ma.

Aromaticall made wines or with spices maye be kept for .iii. or .iiii. daies clear, afterward they are troubled. Plinius teacheth the confections of wines of diuers simple medicines. 14. 16.

Wine of Wormwode howe it is made, I haue xxx alreadye saide before. Some make it with onlye [Page 386] Wormwode: other mixte with it other diuers her­bes, speciallye hotte: as Hyssop, Rue, Sage, Car­dnus Benedictus, Peny royall, Costus Hortensis, Phyllitides, the floures of Eldar, the Barkes of Ashe. I make somtimes in a glas forthwith, put­ting the leaues of Wormwode dry, into Malmsy and burninge water, thrise destilled of ether like much. This may be long kept: a litle of it put to a great deale of wine, doth season it holly with the qualitie of Wormwode. It is good for a cold sto­make, x it duscusseth winde, it healeth the fleuma­tik colik, and that is bred of wind: it healeth scab­bednes being annoynted vppon: Arnoldus in hys boke of wines. ¶ A better way of making it saith he, that the Wormwod grene or dry be beatē, and that the wine warme be straind vpon it certaine times, til it receiue the sauour and vertue of it, and to season it with Suger or Honye: this waye to make this wine is better then other, because all the strength of the Wormwod is in the superfici­all xx and outward parts of it, which by this menes is best drawn out: then is he long in rekening the vertues of it, Galangal or Anise maye also be ad­ded, or any other thinge as a man thinkes good. ¶ Wine of Mugwort is made in the same man­ner that wormwode wine is.

Wine of the kirnels of Alkckengi or Haliacaca­bus, is made the same way, straining the wine vp on them beaten, for one Dosis, of it thou shalt take from .v. to .x. it bringeth out stony matter frō the xxx rains and bladder manifestlye, and guideth oute the water that is reteined and kept in (see Arnold [Page 387] in his boke of wine) wherof I my self also made a trial of late, straining together Anise, the rote of Carlina, the kirnels of Peches, and y litle stones of crabs, wherupon the vrin holden now of long space, followed within an houre. Some put the graines of Haliacacabus hole into newe wine in a little vessel, that they may sieth together, and kepe it for their vse.

Wine of Betain is good for the griefes of the stomacke. Alexan. Benedictus, x

Wine of Buglos of the rotes of Buglos stie­ped in wine, is maruelouslye commended of Ar­nold againste the diseases of Melancholy, with a story of a certaine woman healed with the drinc­king therof, which through anger, became often­times a fole. Wine of Buglos, wherein the rotes of Buglos wel washt haue ben a day and a night or the syrup of it, it bringeth mirth and is good for melancholical persons. Certain mē haue ben cu­red by the vse of that wine from madnes, and the xx mixture & alienacion of reason: Arnold, of the cō ­seruacion of youth, the .iii. chap. ¶ An other wine composed with the rotes and floures of Buglos, with Sena or without it, shalt thou read in Arnold in his boke of wine, with this title. A maruelous wine for Melancholik persons and cardiacal. &c Wine of borage is made, if in new wine y flours of borage be put til the perfect fining: or els if Dia borraginatum or conserue of Borage be dissolued in new wine, and kept for the vse: Arnoldus in his xxx boke of the conseruacion of youth.

[Page 388] A composition of wine against burnt humors, and for Cholericke persons and Frenticke, indu­cinge mirthe. Take a pounde of the rotes of Bu­glos made cleane: Red Rooses. Flowers of Vio­lets, Borrage and Buglos, of euery a pound and a halfe: Been white and redde, of ether an ounce. When they are beatē together put them in a bag, and the bagge in a vessell conteininge .iii. bur­thens of good wine (newe I suppose) freshe and newlye prest oute white and clearest that maye x be founde. Let halfe this wine be sodde with the saide species, and the other half alone skimminge it well. Then straine that where the species be in to a vessell: fill it vp wyth the other, till the heate be gone, and it become sufficientlye cleare. The vse of it oughte to be continuall, Arnold, of the cō ­seruacion of healthe.

Wine made with Inula. The Rootes of Inula cut small as hearbes to the potte, sethe them in a new earthen potte glased in .ii. pintes or more of xx Must or new wine, til some partes of it be consu­med. Thē sieth .xx. sextars or more, that is about xvii. pintes of the best new wine swiet, in a kettle till it waxe swiet: afterward, poure vnto it the ro­tes of Inula together with the newe wine where­in they sodde, and when as yet they haue sodde a little while together, ye shall set it downe from the fire and keepe it.

An other waye. When the newe swite wyne is skimmed and sodde to the consumpcion of the xxx thirde parte, euen when it is sodde nowe inoughe [Page 389] put in y rootes of Inula. (for .xxv. congies or there about, whiche is about .xv. galons of our measur, take .ix. vnces:) and when the must or new wyne hath yet a litle boyled, take it of and whē it is cold kiep it, and hange the rootes of the Inula (the very same that were separated in the streining of the wyne) in a bagge within the vessell. The rootes should be gathered in October in the spring of the mone, or in the beginning of summer, & to be dried in the sun. This did I translate out of a certayn x dutch booke. Se Dioscorides, which nameth this wyne Nectarite.

Wyne Arceuthite. For .xx. congies or ther about of must, take half a fourth deell of Iuniper beries (a fourth deel we call of the measure of Heluetia, but that varieth also, the fourth part.) First thou shalt straw the bottom of the vessel wt thin chipes of hewed ashe, lest the beries may stop ye entrance of the tap: then strawe the half parte of the beries in vpon that: thirdly the rest of the chipes, furthly xx the rest of the beries, with a handful of Mugwurt together, and a half of the hartes tong communly so called: last of all thou shalt fill the vessell with the best and swiet new wyne, that it may heatē to­gether. The vse of this wyne is to preserue a man against poyson and many sickneses. A draught of it or two must be drunke at the beginning of din­ner, and one after supper before ye go to bed: The author is nameles.

Our contrymen make wyne in summer, with ye xxx black sower chery, which, they call Visula, putting [Page 390] them hool into the vessell, leuing the fourth parte emptie, powring in vpon them whyte olde wyne, whiche in short space will haue a reed colour, and soner if all the stalkes be cleen taken away, more slowly if they be so cut that part of them be left in, but yet thus, they kepe the colour lōgest. But they are wont when they haue drawen any wyne out, to fill the vessell again by & by. It strengtheneth the hart and stomack, asswageth thirst, couleth, dryeth, byndeth. Other put them not in holl but x pund, or els they hange them in a litle bag, by the whiche meanes the wyne becummeth more odo­riferous, bycause of the kirnles, and byndeth les, and more prouoketh vrine. It may be made at a­ny tyme of the yeare of dry cheries. Sum put the iuice of thies cheries alone in a vessell, and when it hath sod, thei stop it and vse it for wyne, ether by it selfe, or mixting a litle of it with a good deale of wyne. The same iuice with siething is made thick and the Cheries them selues are seasoned with xx Sugar.

Wyne of wylde Plums Bulies or Sloos, is made in the lyke maner in heruest, when they shal be now sufficiently tender and rype inough.

Wyne Raspoticium (dutche men call it rappis) Raspish wyne, that is, which biteth the tung with a certain sharp bīding, it prouoketh appetite byndyng the heares of the stomack. It helpeth the body dissolued with heat, chiefly in summer it is proffitable for Cholericke and Sanguine persones: xxx [Page 391] it is made in this wyse. Some sower grapes to­gether with the rype are put in the wyne pres to be prest out together. Or yt is better, let the grapes be kepte and brooken together with Raspaciis, & put into the vessell with the Must: That Must or newe wyne, by the iuice of this Raspacia (Scapos Frenche men cal grappes, our cōtrymen rappen, wherupon the wyne taketh the name) or kirnels in the grapes whiche are sower, dothe get a cer­tain ponticitie or tast lyke wormwood and byn­ding: x Arnoldus de Villa Noua. In our contrey they make it otherwyse, they fyll the wyne vessels with holl clusters well rypet, and power old wyn in to them, and as often as they drawe any wyne out of it, they fill it againe. Sum put in clusters and Sage leeues in cours. It refresheth the sto­macke, asswageth thirste. Nicolaus My repsus in the letter D. the. 85. Chapter, describeth the ma­king of a certaine Dysentericall drinke with good Raspe, or pure Marathratum, that is wyne made xx with Fenell, or Elelisphacatum wyne, that is wyn made with Sage. Fuchsius sayeth, for Rhaspe, perauenture ought to be reed Rhoites or Rhodites In the same author, the first preseruatiue is ma­de with good reed wyne or Rhaspe: and lykewy­se the last preseruatiue. I vnderstande that to be Rapysh wyne, whiche alwayes is made with Sage. &c. and reed alwayes.

Sum put spices also to the Raspish wyne, as Galangal fiue vnces. Cinamon, Cloues, of ether xxx [Page 392] two drammes, Zedoaria halfe an vnce, Coriander iii. vnces, make sumwhat a gros pouder therof.

Wyne of small raisins, whiche Arnold calleth honied, is made siething▪ the Rasins in wyne (in must) till it wax swiet, whiche is put furthwith in to a vessell, and the small rasins beaten are cast in to the same, which go to the bottom into ye dregs.

But the same Arnold, describeth an other also very excellent, which he calleth Passulatu or made of small Raisins, the Raisins sodde with Cinna­mon x in Must not much, which afterward is pow­red to the other Must put in the vessell alredy.

Of Aromaticall vvynes that is made of Spices.

ARomaticall wynes are wont to be made two waies, ether hanging the spices only in a litle bag, within the vessel which is let stand in a wyne celler: or also put­ting xx to hony, that so muche as we would so muche may be made out of hande, and the spyces beaten together, sighed & strained a few tymes through a streiner or Hippocras bag of wull, as they call it. This wyne may be called Mulsum or Melitum, they cal it communly Claret and Nectar and Me­licratium but improperly, with whyte wyne. If they put to sugar for hony, with reed wyne, they cal it Hippocras. There are made at the Apothe­caries thies spyced and aromatical wynes for the xxx moste part in that proportion, that .xiii. vnces of [Page 393] hony be put to .vii. drams of spices: and .iiii. poū ­des of white odoriferous wine. Or to .vi. drams of spices, half a pound of most pure Suger .iiii. poundes of red wine, or les: other put to muche more suger, and spices also. Sometimes halfe a dram of saffron or much les is put to, to couloure it, specially vnto Mulsa, that is such as are made with hony. But before ye wine be streined, it shuld be let stand in a hot place or in a stoue with ye spi­ces infused, certain hours .xxiiii. at the most. x

Wine called Hippocras is of the kinde of made wines, after an easye waye: mooste acceptable to the Frenche men, specially on this side the Alps. Cinnamon, Suger and Carpesium are beaten & brused in a bagge, through it the wine is poured, that in passinge throughe, it maye dryncke and soke those qualities. This is broughte forthe in principal feastes, with Escharite pane in steade of banketing dishes, the which fashion, but with an other kinde of wine, we read, was peculier to the xx Athenians. Hermolaus Barbarus Corollarii. libr. 5. in the chapter of the Grape of oenanthe.

An other. The inner barkes of Cinnamon. vi drammes: halfe an ounce of white Ginger hoole▪ Nutmegges elect .ii. drammes, Cloues, graines of paradice, of ether a dram: Cardamomum, Pep­per, Calamus Aromaticus, Coriander prepared, of euery one a scrupull, mixte them and beate them somewhat groose. Eight poundes of wine, clari­fied honye .xxvi. ounces, mixte all, and strayne xxx them accordinge to Arte. Some clarifye theese [Page 395] spiced wines with Almond milke.

An other for Cardiacall persons, described by Alexander Benedict, in his tēth boke. Take a pint of Austere and harde wine odoriferous, white [...]u­ger half a pound, cinnamon, Ginger, of euery one half an ounce, Galangall, a dram.

An other of the same mannes for weakenesse of the stomacke. Take Cinnamon half an ounce, white Ginger two drammes, Cloues, long Pep­per, Nutmegge, of euerye one two scrupulles, x when they are well beaten wyth halfe a pounde of white Sugar, mixt them together in a .v. pin­tes of pure white wine and straine it: for it is the chiefe remeadye for theim that bee dissolued in their stomacke.

An other. Take an ounce of Cinnamon, halfe an ounce of Ginger: Galangal two drams Cloues a dramme: Graines of Paradise two drammes: white Suger viii. ounces: of the best wine. q. s. xx

An other. Cinnamon an ounce and a halfe: Ginger halfe an ounce: Cloues .ii. drammes, Grames of Paradise, Galangall, of ether a dram Sugar a pounde and a halfe: Red wine .ii. mea­sures, (that is .viii. poundes,) mixte them, and it wil become Hippocras.

An other. An ounce of inner Cinnamone: White Ginger halfe an ounce, Graines of Pa­radise three drammes: Clooues. Moschocaryi, of ether .ii. drammes: Maces, Galangall, of ether xxx [Page 394] a dramme and a halfe, white Ginger halfe an o [...]nce, Graines of Paradise .iii. drams: Clooues, Moschocaryi, of ether two drammes, Macis, ga­langall, of ether a dramme and a halfe: long Pe­per a dramme: Spiknard, Folii, of ether halfe a dramme, make a pouder thereof. To euery ounce of these put .ii. poundes of wine, with a pounde of Suger, and Tornsoll (so called a kind of Purple wull,) to colour it. q. s.

An other that semeth to be ordeined for the de­faultes x of the breast a [...]d lunges. ℞. the best Ci­namon, scrapte from the groose barke an ounce, Cloues an ounce and a half: Anis, Fennell, of e­ther a dramme, Lycoris .iii. drammes: Maces. Cardamomum, Floure Deluce, of euerye a dram and a halfe, Suger most white .iii. ounces, when euerye one are diligentlye pund, let them be infu­sed with these that followe. Take Malmsye .ix. ounces, a pound of water of Borage, Rosewater an ounce and a half, water of Melissa. iii. vnces af­ter xx they are let stand .iii. houres by the fornace or stoufe, at length strain it oft through a Filter bag: and it shal becom cleare Hippocras.

Hippocras Laxatiue. A wine againste the Quartaine, Quotidian, and bastard Tertian, i [...] concocteth and prepareth the humoures and lea­deth the same by and by oute by the siege. Take a pound of Esula: Epithy mi. vi. drās, Polipodii, cinamō, smal rasins, of euery .iiii. drās, Mastik, gin. Zedoria, cloues, of euery one an once. Suger as xxx [Page 395] [...] [Page 394] [...] [Page 396] much as nedeth: Arnold.

Nectar in Arnold. For a pinte of wyne, take Ginger electe scraped, Cloues, Cinnamon scra­ped, of euerye .ii. drammes, graines of Paradise, a dram. Let it be made wine, or Grekish, which is better: and in steade of honye put Sugar, wyth a gran of Musk, and it is moste noble. A syrrup or Iulep is made of wine to conserue helth and you­the, puttinge into .iii. poundes of good wine, two poundes of Suger. Let it be made a Sirup, the vse wherof is with water. It may stand in steade x of meat and drink, and refresheth nature. Arnold in the boke of conseruacions of youth.

Wine made with Suger decocted, is good for olde persones, colde and feable, and in whom the naturall moysture and heate are diminished: for it norysheth, and breedeth bloude, and filleth the principall parts with spirits. Take the best wine of Vernacia, or Grekish, or like vnto them .iii. poū ­des: a pounde of white Suger Caffetini. Let thē be sodde with a softe fire in manner of Syrrup, xx keepe it and vse it with .ii. partes of water, or o­therwise as vse requyreth. This wine, (or rather syrruppe of wyne) Rabi Moysses in his booke of the maner of diet for olde men and such as are in recouering their helth, doth approue and allow.

Of svviet vvines spiced.

OF wine made with suger & spices it is alrea­dye xxx spoken, and also generallye of Mulsa or [Page 397] wynes made with hony and spices. A man may in all the forsaid composicions, both in steed of Su­gar put hony, and in steed of reed wyne, whyte: in those that followe contrary wyse. So of Hippo­cras wyne, maist thou make claret or clear: and of clear, Hippocras. Sum make no difference of the colour of the wyne.


The hony ought al­way to be sod first wt a litle water and to x be diligētly clarified. Sum put a litle hony also to those wynes yt are made with sugar, to make them more swiete: Other sum a great deale. See the spiced wyne in Diosc. Alchandicū is a wyne sod with spices & su­gar xx or Hony: and in certain places of Italy it is called cleare the description wherof is had in the booke of Simples of Ebenesis.

The spices of claret. Ginger, Galāgal, of ether an vnce, Cinamon two vnces, Cloues .ii. drams: Graines of paradis, long Peper, of ether a dram, Hony a pound and a half: Sugar .ii. poundes.

Whyte wyne .xvi. poundes. Other make it with only Hony, adding a litle Spike and nutmegges xxx and with the whyte of an egge they clarify it.

[Page 398] The claret that Philip Vlstadius in his Coelo Philosophorum describeth, the. 57. chapt. ℞. the best whyte wyne .iiii. poundes: whyte hard sugar iiii. vnces, Cinnamon an vnce, Coriander prepa­red .iii. drams, Cloues .ii. drams, Graines of pa­radis, whyte Ginger, of ether a dram & a half, lōg Peper .ii. scrupuls, Zedoaria half a dram. Al most fine betē & streined shalbe kept in a tinnen vessel.

A wyne for them that wax olde, proffitable for them that be melancholick and phlegmatick in x wynter tyme: it heateth the reines and the hooll body: it taketh away the swelling of ye hemrodes, it helpeth concoction, it maketh good colour, it cle­reth the sight, sharpeneth the wit, tarieth and dif­ferreth hoor heares, & worketh the same thinges that Hiera picra, sauing that it is not bitter, & lou­seth not the bely. Take Spike, Cinnamon, Car­pobalsamum, Xylobalsamū, Ginger, Gallangall, Calamus aroma. Macis, Asarum, Myrtilla, of eue­ry one a dram, Mastick .ii. drams, Licoris, small xx Rasines, of euery half an vnce, sugar as ye think good. It may be made by decocting, or without it lyke claret, putting the spyces in a large bag, and the bag in a streiner, & straining it so oft, til ye ver­tue & strength of the spyces be hooly past in to the wyne, whiche shalbe perceiued by tasting: Arnold in his boke of wyne.

An other. ℞. Ginger .ii. drams, Cinnamō half an vnce, Cloues a dram, whyt wyne .iii. mesures, that is .xii. pound, an vnce of hony, whyte Sugar xxx half a pound: make claret therof according to art.

[Page 399] An other laxatiue. ℞. Galangall six drames: Cinnamon an vnce, Turbit, Esula, Pilles, Hermol dactyla, of euery a dram & a halfe. Beat it & make it claret with hony and sugar.

An other. ℞. Ginger .ii. vnces, cinnamon, iiii. cloues .ii. Galangal, asmuch, Grains of paradis one. Euery one fiuly beaten & sifted, must be mix­ted: Then kepe by it self an vnce of easterly saffrō well beaten. When y wilt make thy claret, make hoot ouer the fier .ii. pounds of hony in a new ear x then vessel, & when it begins to boyll, take it frō ye fier, & pausing a litle whyle, skim it: Then take .ii. measures (about .viii. pounds of wine, which shal be so much the better so muche as it is more swiet and cleer) & mixt wt it .ii. vnces of ye spyces aforsaid and a dram or more of y saffron. Then shalt thou straine it through a bag, the vpper part wherof (almoste to .ii. third partes of the hool length) shalbe linnen, the nether, for one third part of ye hool bag or a litle more, shalbe wullen. When the wyne is xx inough streined, y maist power ye dregs into Hy­dromel, or Apomel, yt is, drinck made of hony, as it is cōmunly made, yt they may leue their strength yt yet remaineth in thē, in it. This wyne if it be for ye vse of any womā or delicate person, in steed of ho­ny take sugar, out of a dutch boke wryten.

An other, preseruing wyne in tyme of pestilēce. Take of the best wyne. a measur .iiii. pounds, half an vn. of Angelica, Bole Armeniae a drā: nutmegs ii. drās, Galangal, long peper, coriander, of euery xxx one a drā & a half, ginger a drā & a half, cinnamon six drams, sugar half a pound.

[Page 400] Certain composicions of Nectar of claret, out of a certain booke writen in Latin, whē a man would haue a greater quantitie thereof to be kept in his celler in a barill or vessell of wood. Lotum, as it appereth, is a name of certain mesure of wyne, in Spain perauenture.

Claret or good Nectar shalt thou make in this wyse. Cinamon a pound, Galangall, Ginger, Cardamom. Graines of Paradis, Cloues, Cubebae, Macis, of euery an vnce: Long peper, and black x if thou wilt, of ether halfe an vnce: Spick narde, Nutmegs, Schenoanthum, of euery one .iii. drās, Saffron a dram: Let all be beten very small and mixt. So hast thou spices for half a hors lood, yt is for one barell, (perauētur a. 128. poundes. The nectar shalt thou make thus. Put all the wyne in the vessell, then put the spices in sum linnen cloth large inough, and let the clothe with spices into ye barill wherin thou wilt make thy nectar, in suche sort that the sides of the cloth may hang ouer the xx mouth of the barill. After put .iiii. poundes of ho­ny in sum vessell, & mixt it strongly with the wyne so that the hooll be sufficient clear, then power in the wyne vpon the spices streining it, and at last the wyne with the hony. Then cloosing the bar­rill, leue the spices in it with the cloth for .ii. days. Then take it away and pres it with strength, and thou shalt haue very good Nectar. But if thou wilt make it for sum Prince or very ryche man, ad to the forsaid, Lignum Aloes of the best, Foliū, xxx of ether half an vnce a dram and a half of Musk, [Page 401] and in the stede of hony put suger finely beaten in a morter, then dissolued in the wine.

An other very good wine with ye same species, but in other weight. Take .xii. vnces & a halfe of cinamon, ginger, galangal, graines of paradice, cloues, cubebae, macis, Cardamomū, of euerye .ii. drās: lōg peper a scrupul: spikenard, Schoenanthū, nutmegs, of euery a scrupul & a half: saffron to ye weighte of a (Deranii) of Turona or a little more. Mixt al these together when they are most smal x beten, & thou shalt hauespices inough for a Lotū Nectar of the city Burgens. Then take a pound of hony wt a pint of springwater sod to the consūpciō of the water, & set it aside to cole. Thē take about a Lotum, of good wine and when the iuice wt the forsaid spices is put into the vessell, streining the wine through it, pour it in by little and litle, & the hony also mixt first with a litle of the wine shalbe poured in by litle and litle, so that the iuice be not prest together. If so be it ye wil make it more preous, xx take suger in steade of honye dissolued in the wine, likewise about a pounde waighte or more. Thou shalt strain it .iii. or .iiii. times, yt the wine may be strōger and better. Thou shalt put also to the forsaid things Agallochum of the best Folium of ether .ii. grains, & a litle Musk. ¶ Otherwise: hang the species in a bag wt in the wine mixt with hony or suger, & after .ii. or .iii. dais take it oute & pres it wel. But the former way is better & finer.

Three vvaies to make Nectar, xxx [Page 402] wherof the first .ii. are called Gratia Dei, the thirde Manus Dei, oute of a writen boke.

TAke cinnamon .ix. drams: ginger .iiii. drams nutmegs, long Peper of ether .iii. drās: Ga­lāgal, grains of paradice, Maris or Folii, cubebae of eueri .ii. drās: cloues a drā, spiknard a hole scrupul: saffron a half: suger a poūd or a pint of hony, yt hath boyled in a litle water til the water be con­sumed, wel skimmed. Mixt them in a Lotum & a half of wine. Some ad Cardamomum, and Carui x of ether .ii. drams. And this is the better Claret.

To the same. ℞. Aristolochia round, cinnamō, of ether an ounce, Ginger half an ounce, Galan­gall, graines of Paradice, Cloues, Cubebae, Ma­cis, Nutmegs, of euery .ii. drams: long pepper. iii drams: spiknard a scrupul: Saffron a half, Su­ger a poūd: wine a Lotum. If it be for the rich, ad Agallochum of the best .ii. grains, and musk halfe a grain. Or according to other. ℞. Cinnamon e­lect .ii. ounces: Ginger one: graines of Paradise, xx longe Pepper, of ether, halfe an ounce: Nutte­megs, cloues, Maces, of ether .ii. drams: Cubebae Cardamom of ether a dram: Spiknard, Schoenan thum, Calamus aro. of euery a scrupul. When they are pund mixt them together, with .iii. pounds of hony, and a Lotum of wine, as is said.

A drink named Manus Dei. ℞. Cinnamon an ounce and a half, Ginger .iii. drams: Cardamomū ii. drams, Folium, Galangal, of ether a drā, spik­nard, Carui, of ether half a dram: long Pepper or xxx blak .iiii. drams. If it be made for rich men, adde [Page 403] Cloues, Nutmegs, Maces, Grains of paradice, of euery .ii. drams, clarified hony a pint: a Burgēs Lotum of good wine. And if thou canst in steade of hony, put a pound of Suger. If this drink be rightly made, it shalbe profitable against manye diseases, specially cold, and in old men, and them that be somwhat weake & feble vnto copulacion. It shalbe conuenient for Fleumaticke & Melan­cholik persons meruelously, that not withoute a cause it may be called Manus Dei, that is the hand x of God. It putteth away dumpishnes & sadnes, and bringeth mirth. It openeth the obstructions and stoppings of the splene. It heleth the dropsy: & bringeth the stone out of the rains mightily, if a litle Saxifrage & of the stone called Lynx be added

Spices for Zedoartical wine. ℞. Zedoaria, ci­namon of ether half an ounce, Galangall .ii. drās mixt them and make them into pouder.

For the wine that is surnamed of Scapa or Rappish. ℞. Zedoaria halfe an ounce: Coriander .iii. xx ounces: galangal .v. vnces, cinamon, cloues, of e­ther .ii. drās, make a pouder therof sōwhat grose.

Otherwise, spices for Zedoartical wine, which shalbe inough for a mesure of wine that is called communlye at at Straszborovv. Cinnamone .iii. vnces, cloues, nutmegs, grains of pa. Cardamom of euery half an vnce: Zedoariae. vi. drams: Cube­bae, long Peper, of ether a .ii. drams. Beate them somwhat grose, mixt them for a bag.

For the same: cinnamon .ii. vnces: ginger half xxx an ounce, cloues, Longe Pepper, Cardamom, [Page 404] Cubebae, Zedoria, of euery one a dram: Galangal graines of paradise, of ether a dram and a halfe. When they are beaten somwhat grose mixt them for a little bagge.

Of spiced vvines vvith bur­ning water.

THat burning water doth drink in easily all ye odour and vertue both of other medicins and also of spices, if they stand to stiep in it a few hou­res, x first beaten, and a litle of it afterward be poured into simple wine, and that diuers wines both in sauour and taste may be made by this meanes forthwith, we did declare before out of Arnold in the descripcion of simple Aqua ardens or burning water. ¶ The confection or making of the wine which they cal commōly Hippocras. Put into (the name of the mesure is not exprest) of burning water, destilled .iii. or .iiii. times or more .ii. vnces of Cinamon, Ginger half an vnce, graines of para­dise, xx Peper, of ether a dram and a half: a dram of Cloues, half a Nutmeg. When they are al pund, put them into a vessel wel closed for .iiii. dais, and shake it about twise or thrise euery daye. At laste strain it and kepe it: it may be kept a longe time Put a meane sponefull of this into a measure, or iiii. pounds of good red wine, and put a pound of Suger to it. Yet if the wine be swiete, there is no nede of Suger. Furnerius.

A way to make Malmsy. ℞. Galangall of the xxx best, Cloues, Ginger, Maces of euery one a drā. [Page 405] Let al thies sumwhat grose beten stād. 24. houres in a vessell of wood wel couered infused in water. Then hang them in a linnē cloth by a thried into a vessell of a soom as they call it, (which is about the bignes of a hogshead) or half a Soom of clear wyn .iii. daies. And thou shalt haue wyne so good & strong as is the very natural Malmsy or Tra­minuum: A dutche writen booke.

A wyne that tasteth lyke Rhetish wyne. In a vessell of glas or of earth glased, hange a linnen x cloth full of the spices hereafter folowyng, and fill it with burning water, stop it diligently, & let it stande at the lest .xii. houres, when thou woul­dest vse it, wring out ye linnen cloth into sum gret glas, whiche the wyne shalbe powered into after­ward, so that the sydes of the pot may be wet with that spiced burning water, or els ye liquor crusht out into the bottom by lening and rooling ye glas a syde, may moystē the sydes euery where: Then power in the wyne, whiche shall haue the taste of xx Rhetish. The spices are thies: Cinamon, Ginger Cloues, of euery one half a dram, when they are sumwhat gros beaten let them be mixt, and after be tied in the linnen cloth.

After the some maner is the tast of Muscatello wyne made: take a Nutmeg with a litle Macis: mixt them beaten as is before said.

Cloued wyne. Beat half a dram of Cloues wt a litle Cinnamō & tie it in a linnen cloth, as is aforsaid. The tast of Elseter wyne: bynd sugar cā [...]y xxx in a linnen cloth as is before said. Or els mixt hony diligently clarified with burning water in a [Page 406] vessell well stopt, & when thou wilt vse it, wringe out a linnē cloth dipt in this liquor, into ye pot. All thies haue we borowed out of a dutch boke writē.

Of certain other Aromatical vvynes, specially such as are made by hanging a litle bag in the vessell.

CLoued wyne is made hanging the cloues in a litle bag within the vessel with must. It drieth x much, dissolueth, cōsumeth, draweth vnto it, it helpeth the old difficultie of fetching a mans breth, & cough in old men wt the corruption of the humors it is proffitable also in the falling sicknes & swou­ning, it strengtheneth the vertue of cōcoction and reteining it, maketh swiet breth. As for ye drynes therof, sugar & licoris do aswage it much. Arnold in his boke of wyne.

After the same maner any spyces (& medicins) both cold & dry, may be hanged in a litle bag & put xx in wyne or Must, whiche we would haue seasoned with their vertues & qualitie: In the same place.

An aromatical wyne is made to cōserue youth, if spyces be put in a linnen bag vnbeten, but cut in to partes, so that the substaunce of the spyces be wandering in the litle bag, and let it be put in the wyne, the mouthe of the wyne diligently closed. Arnoldus of the conseruation of youth.

An other way of aromaticall wyne, for the con­firming of the temperature, and youth. Cubebae, xxx Cloues, Nutmegs, small Rasines, of euery one [Page 407] iii. drams, let them boyll in a litle bag in .iii. pound of good wyne, tyl the cōsumpcion of ye third part: put to Sugar, and therof morning and euening gyue an vnce or other about at euery tyme to drinke. Or elles let it be made lyke claret: Arnoldus in the same place.

Saffrond wyne bryngeth mirthe, and taketh a­way Melancholines: Arnold in his booke of con­seruing youth, the .iii. chapt. The maner of making it teacheth he in the second tretise of the same booke, x with thies wordes: Put a litle Saffron well dryed in a large bag of very fine linnen clothe, and let the wyne be powred vpon it (or also Oyll for Oyll of Saffron) after the maner of making Lye, and let it be repeted till the colour and taste lyke you. There may also other spyces be mixt wt it as ye think good

Of Artificiall vv [...]nes vvhiche resem▪ ble the tast of strange wynes, bycause of the spyoes hāged in a litle bag within the vessel. xx

HOw diuers Aromaticall wynes be made and a counterfet tast of certain straunge wynes with burning water and spyces, it is shewed before: Here will we ad howe witty men may inuitate certaine straūge wines without burning water: not to thin­tent coue tous men may learne disceit thereby, but that physicions may both gratify sumtymes & prof­fit also the sick specially suche as be sumwhat deli­cate. We haue taken al y folow out of a dutch writē booke. xxx

Grekish wyne is thus made. Ginger, galāgal, of ether half a poūd, grains of paradis, cloues, iii. vnc. [Page 408] hang thē in a litle bag in a vessel of wyne of a mene bignes, a pype. Malmsy. ℞. moshe, Agallochū of ether a dram: cinnamō, Cardamō, (if I read right) cloues, of ether .ii. drās: half an vnce of sugar cādy.

Wyne of Romania. ℞. Succi, lycoris, cinnamō, of ether .ii. drams, anis a dram, macis half a dram, su­gar .iii. drams. Muscatello wyne. ℞. Polypodiū, ly coris, anis, of euery one .ii. drās, nutmegs .iii. drās, calamus aromatick, one dram. Red Muscatello shalt thou make thus. The slowers of Sambucꝰ, iiii. vnc. x cinnamon half an vnce, let them boyl in reed Must. All such thinges ar thought to make ye smel of Mus­catello, that do resemble Muske in their own odour, and such thinges as are surnamed of Muske, as the nutmeg, and the bark of it that is called Macis, also the flowers of Sambucus or elder chiefly, and Co­riander. Many also hang the herb called Sclar [...]a, in wyne, the flowers with the leeues: whose sauour is vehement & not vnpleasant yet sum thinke it to be vnholsum, and to greue the head. But such compo­sitions xx without number may be made, and it is suf­ficient for a man of wit & actiuitie, skilful in the na­ture of simple medicines, spices, & sauces or seaso­ninges, to haue a certain few formes, as it were prescribed, which he many wayes as occasion & diuers circūstances shal serue may vary & alter at his pleasure. We geuing thankes to the immortall God, vpon whome dependeth all the succes of me­dicines, do here conclude & make an end of this booke for this present. xxx


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