¶ A discourse of the na­uigation which the Por­tugales doe make to the Realmes and Prouinces of the East partes of the worlde, and of the know­ledge that growes by them of the great thinges which are in the Dominions of China. Written by Barnardine of Escalanta, of the Realme of Galisia Priest.

Translated out of Spanish into English, by Iohn Frampton.

Imprinted in London at the three Cranes in the Vine­tree, by Thomas Dawson. 1579.

❧ To the right woorshipfull Mai­ster Edwarde Dier, of the Court esquire, Iohn Frampton wisheth encrease of woorship and of all felicitie.

THere was brought mee not long agoe right woorshipful Sir, out of Spayne, a discourse in the Spanish tongue, of the Nauigation that the Portu­gales haue to the kingdomes and prouinces of the East [...] partes of the worlde, and of the intelligence of the same Portugale Nation, which they nowe of late haue gotten in those partes of the greatnesse of the Dominion, and politike gouerne­ment of that Famous Countrey China: And finding in the same discourse a verification, by newe, late, and present ex­perience, of this our age and present time of many things, written long agoe by Paulus Venetus, which woorke of Paulus I did translate, and about a yeere past dedicated to your worship: I became the more desirous also to translate this into the English, & the rather bycause this worke see­med to haue a certaine affinitie in matter, and also con­teyned great varietie of thinges, not conteyned in the woorke of the sayde Paulus Venetus: And fynding now in England many excellent men in the Art of Nauigation, & as well able to endure extreame heate, as extreame colde, and to crosse the burnte lyne, as also able to passe the [Page] colde Zone, and frosen Sea, and with all youth and frye of the Realme, bothe infinitly abounding: and also ex­ceedingly inflamed with desire to attempte newe disco­ueries, I the rather decreed the translation heereof, and was fully perswaded that the great Almightie GOD hath wrought the one and the other, to the ende that hee woulde haue his sonne Iesus that hath brought salua­tion vnto the worlde, knowen to nations not yet disco­uered. For what more pleasante Sacrifyce can wee offer in this life, vnto our GOD, then to labour in all that euer wee may, to bring the Barbarous to Ciuilitie, the Rude to knowledge, the superstitious to the true & liuely wor­ship of his name, to win them from darknesse to light, frō crueltie to curtesie, from vanitie to veritie, from death vn­to life? If wee bee not borne to profite our selues, but to seeke the aduaūcemēt of Gods glory, how commendable an enterprise is that? how highly to be wished? how much to be furthered, which not onely encreaseth the profite of our countrey, but augmenteth the nūber of the faithful. Therfore God hauing decreed to make himselfe knowen as well by our Englishe Nation in some quarters of the vnknowen worlde, as he hath of late yeeres beene by the Spaniarde in West: and by the Portugale in the Easte. And beeyng mooued to take in hande this small transla­tion, by personnes of sundry callynges, and especially by diuerse moste excellent Pilottes, Maisters, and to­wardly young Marriners, muche exceedyng in knowe­ledge and godly lyfe many of that profession that haue been heretofore: I haue, other needful busines set aparte, perfourmed theyr requeste: And the thing that I much desired, for the loue I beare to good discoueries: And now dedicate the same to your woorshyp, as a speciall fa­uourer of all good knowledges, and of all enterpises tending too the glory of GOD, the honour of your Prince, and the publike benefite of your Countrey, be­seeching your woorship too take the same this my tran­slation [Page 3] in good part, as a poore shew of a mynde willyng to requite some parte of your bountie and benefite recei­ued at your handes, not doubting but that this maye geue lyght to our Nation and woorke in many respectes benefite too all suche, as shall by the Northeast, or by the Northwest attempt discoueries of Dominions and Territories, wtihin the circle Artike, or with out the same to the Tropicke of Cancer▪ And thus wishing vntoo your woorshippe the fauour of Almightie GOD with encrease of all knowledge Diuine and Humane, I take my leaue and ceasse to trouble you.

Your worships in that he may, at commaundement. Iohn Frampton.

To the excellent Lorde, Don Chri­stopher de Roias, Sandouall, Archbishop of Seuill, Barnardine of Escalanta, wisheth all honour. &c.

MOst excellent Lord, the haughtie and high purposes, and the won­derfull enterprises of our Spani­ardes haue beene so great, that they haue not well neere suffe­red in all the compasse of the whole worlde, any Seas, any Islandes, or Territories, that they haue not runne vnto; and whereof they haue not woone some knowledge, against the opinion of the olde Philosophers, and Cosmographers: wherein they haue founde such diuersitie of people, and so many differences of lawes, and superstitiōs, and so many sorts of gouernmentes, and such diuersitie of manners, that they haue no small admiration to thinke of the same; and namely of that which they doe reporte, of the Maiestie and po­wer of the king of China: who being a prince geuen to idolatrie, and that way most vaine; As also his subiectes, in the obseruati­on of the Gentiles lawes, are notwithstanding endued with so great wisedome and discretion in naturall thinges, and in the go­uernment of their common wealthes, that no other nations (bee they neuer so politike) seeme to passe thē, or haue therein the ad­uantage of them, nor yet to haue the like wittes, for all maner of Artes▪ Which haue beene the causes that mooues me too write the thinges of this realme, (which haue beene knowen as well by relation of persons of credite that haue beene in it; and also of some of the naturall people of that Countrey of China, that haue been brought into Portugale) and to dedicate the same too your excellent Lordship, acknowledging my selfe in all thinges moste bounde vnto you my Lorde. I desire your lordship to ac­cept of this little seruice supplied with good will, as of a poore token of my good gratefull minde, which onely hath beene but to geue all honour to your name.

[Page 4] A discourse of the Nauigation which the Portugales doe make to the Realmes and Pro­uinces of the East partes of the worlde, and of the know­ledge which they haue of the great thinges that are in the Realme of China.

¶ The first Chapter sheweth of the beginning that the kingdome of Portugale had, and of the successe it had from the time that the king Don Iohn the fyrst did conquer Cevta in Barbarie.

AMongest many knightes of the states of Almane, Flaunders, and France, whiche came vn­too the longe Warres that the kinges of Spayne had with the Moores, which had conquered the greatest part of Spaine, af­ter the ouerthrow of that vnfor­tunate king Don Rodrigo, there continued in the time of the king Don Alonso, the sixth of Castile, and Leon, whiche gote Toledo, the Earle Don Ramon, sonne to Williā earle of Burgondie, and Don Ramon Earle of Tolosa & S. Gill in Fraunce, & Don Henry of Vezancon his cosin, according to the opinion of some writers, as Christian Princes desirous of honour and fame that came too serue him, with many other knightes in those warres that he had against Lucef Abende­sim, king of the Amorabides, who at that time had past from Affrica, and had made him selfe Lord of the Moores of Spaine which were resident in Andaluzia, and too shew him selfe thankful to these Lords after they had shewed theyr vali­ [...]untnesse and vertue on theyr meetinges and fightes that they had with the Almorabides and to binde them to greater enterprises, and to allure other straunge Princes, & knightes also to come to his ayde, hee ioyned him selfe to them in mar­riage [Page] and affinitie, Mariyng the Earle Don Ramon of Burgondie with the Lady Vrraca his legittimate daughter and inheritour of his Realmes, geuing hym the title of the Earle and Gouernour of Galizia, and the Earle of Tolosa, and Don Henrie, with the Lady Elvira, and the Lady Tere­ [...], his bastarde daughters whiche he had of Lady Ximena muuez de Guzma: geuing to Don Henry certayne lande which the king Don Fernando his father the firste king of Castile, and other kinges his predecessours had gotten of the Moores in the bor [...]ers of the Realmes of Leon and Galizia, which were the Cities of Coimbra, Viseo, and Lanego, with the Prouince of Vera, and the Cities of the Porte Braga and Guimareus, and all that precinct which is betweene the two Riuers Duero and Mino [...] with title of Earle of Portugale, because hee shoulde be a defender of them, making to him a firme gift of the right of the inheritaunce too him and too his succession descending of this Matrimonie: With condition that they shoulde bee bounde in knowledge of Superioritie, to go to the Parliaments of Leon, (into whose precinct that Countrey doeth fall) and at all times when the kinges had warres with the (Moores) that they shoulde be bounde to g [...]e and serue them with three hundred horsemen, which was at that time all the power that might be in Portugale: and th [...] they shoulde also pay certaine yeerely Tribute vppon paine, and that yf they fayled any thing of this, they should loofe the state, and that it shoulde be returned backe too the kingdome of Leon.

And although that all these burdens were set at libertie byAnn. 1279. a gifte that the king Don Alonso the wise made in Seuil, against the will of the Earle Don Nunon de Lara & of other knightes beyng Spaniardes, to the Infante Don Dionis, sonne to the Ladie Beateris, his naturall daughter which [...]ee had by the Ladie Mayor Guillen de Gusman, and of Don Alonso the fifth kyng of Portugale, which married with he [...] and had in dowry the Countreis of Algarve which the kyng Don Alonso, and the holy king Don Fernando gate, al­wayes [Page 5] the king Don Dionis and his successours, as Catho­lique and true. Princes, continue [...] the Warres against the Moores of Spayne, finding thēselues sometimes in the fauor of the kings of Castile, and particularly the king Don Alon­so, called the▪ Braue, when he gaue the battel neere to Tarifa, vntyll that the king Don Iohn the famous, being the first of this name, by the battel of Aliuba [...]ota, and by other subtil practise [...] worthie of his name▪ hee determined as a most war­like Prince to passe into Affrica, & to cōquer the Townes of the Sea Coast nere adioyning to him on the West side, car­riyng with him in his companie the Infantes Don Edward his [...] sonne▪ and heire apparant, and Don Peter Duke of Coimbra, and Don Henry his other sonnes, and many other Lords & Knightes of his Realme, where withall hee might get the Citie of Cevta, standing in the Streighte, where the two Seas do meete, the Ocean and Mediterrane, and where Affrica & Europa are deuided, right ouer against Gibralter in the distaunce of foure leages ouerthwart.

¶ The seconde Chapter sheweth of the diligence that the infante Don Henry did vse as well to knowe of the Moores, of Cevta, and the Prouinces of the blacke people of Ialofe, as also for his armed ships which he sent in the discouerie of the coasts of Ginea euen vn­to his death &c.

HE that did best shewe himselfe for the getting of Cevta, was Infant Don Henry with the Knightes and Gentlemen of his bande. And as hee was a Prince [...] religious, and destrous to augment the Chri­stian faith, with his valiaunt­nesse: So hee did much inde­uour to enquire of the Mores, [Page] the Proinces and Nations, nearest adioyning to them wher­of hee came to haue knowledge, and specially of the Moores nearest adioyning to the Desertes, which they call Sahara, and of the Azeneges with the blacke people of Ialofe, and hee did it with the better will, because hee woulde haue his name spred abroade in the world, by so great an enterprise, so taken in hande, and also by sending shippes in the discouerie of the Coaste of Ginea, whereof he had some knowledge by Geo­graphie, to the which he was affectioned. And so in returning the kyng his former victories to Portugall hee went to bee Resident in Algarue in a small Towne of his owne to geue order for this Nauigation, for the which certaine Captaines of his did continue there for certaine yeeres, and durst not passe from the Cape Boiador which lieth in twentie seuen de­grees and a half of height on the North side, East and West from the gran Canaria, in thirteene Leagues ouerthwarte, and for to come foorth of the sight of the Coaste, which they leaue behinde them more then fortie Leages into the Sea, in the West course, with a certaine pointe vnder that water which doeth come foorth in length of sixe Leages that by reason of the Tydes that rūneth there, the water is so moued & in such sort, that it seemeth to leape and to seethe, which did put them in great feare, thinking that they had ben shouldes and then it was a newe thing for them, and difficulte that they had so gone from the land for to [...]bble it, wherewith all they returned without hope to passe forward, making some entraunce into the habitations of the Moores that dwelt in the Sea Coaste for to satisfie the infant.

In one of these voyages they discouered in foule wea­ther which did open vnto thē from the firme land, the Ilandes which are called Puerto sancto, and the Madera, whiche Ilandes the infant dyd commaunde to inhabite, because hee was certified that they were temperate and fruitfull, and for that they were not inhabited with the people that were Bar­barous, as the Ilands of Canaria wrre. The which Ilands▪ [Page 6] they had knowledge of, how that they were discouered by a Frenche knight, called Iohn de Betancur, which had con­quered them with the licence of the Tutors of the king Don Iohn the seconde of Castile, whiche were the queene Ladie Caterin his mother, and the infant Don Fernando his vncle of good memorie, who came to bee king of Aragon, and fa­ther of the kinges Don Alonso of Naples, and Don Iohn his brother, which did succeede in that of Aragon, and Sici­lia, and Grand father to the king Don Fernando the Catho­like. These Ilandes stande in the thirtieth three degrees of height Northeast and Southwest, from the barre of Lishe­bron, in one hundred and fiftie Leages trauies, & be distant frō the Canaria, at the least 80. Leages North Northwest, and South Southeast. The Infant caused the discouerie of them to bee knowen to Poope Martin the fifth, who at that tyme was president in the Catholike Churche, and too other Princes of Christendome: of the which there was restrainte for certaine yeres, vntil y one Gill Yannes being borne in the towne of Logos wold passe y cape Boiador, being a feareful thing in the opinion of Saylers of that time, who was cause from that time forward that Nauigation was continued the longer, and other Captaines comming to the Riuer which is called of Golde, because they brought from thence the firste that came into Portugale, and it standeth vnder the Tropick of Cancer, in the twentieth three degrees and a half of height and the Cape of Blanco, and Ilandes of Arguin standeth in twentie where the king Don Alonso, his Cosin did com­maunde after that, to builde a forte, and beyonde the Riuer which the naturall people of the Countrey do call Obedec, & the Portugales do call Sauage, which doeth deuide the Coun­tries of the Moores Azeneues, and the Ialofes, euen vntoo the Capeverdes, which is of the moste knowen places in the West Ocean in the fifteene degrees of the North side, and to the Weast part of him are within one hundred Leages of Trauisim, the Ilands which are called of Gill Yannez and threescore Leagues beyonde, that is the Great Riuer [Page] and eighty beyond that of Nunno, and in seuen degrees and two Terces the mountaine Lioa, whiche was the laste time that any discouerie was made in the lyfe of this moste Christiā Infant; leauing to the king his Cosin, & to his succes­sours the open way for the great Nauigations and roades which his subiectes haue made, and doe make by all the East Countries with great prayse and estimation of the Portu­gale Nation.

The thirde Chapter of the discouerie which was made of the coastes of Ginea in the time King Don Alonso vnto his death, & of the persons that the King Don Iohn his sonne sent by the Sea Mediterran, wherby they myght bryng relation of the states and trades of India; and of the Embassage hee sent to the kyng of Aethiopia.

THE Infante beyng dead, it did seeme too the King Don Alonso, that it woulde bee a let to him if hee shoulde vnder­stande farther in these disco­ueries, by reason he minded to conquer Tanger and Arzila, & other forces that were neere to the Streightes, which with great courage hee gote of the Moores: and for the pretence y he had of the Realmes of Ca­stile, for his Cosin the Lady Iane daughter to the Queene his sister, the second wife of the king don Henry the 4. with whō hee minded to marry, hee gaue the discouerie for rent to a subiect of his called Iohn Gomez dwelling in Lisbon, for two thowsande fiue hundred Ducates, for fiue yeeres, with condition that hee shoulde bee bounde to discouer within the sayde time fiue hundred Leagues of Coaste, beyond the moun­tayne [Page 7] Lioa, This man which was so bound▪ did accomplishe his [...]ande very well, discouering all these Coastes which they call the Mina, whiche stretch in length in the course of the East and West vntyll they came to the Cape of saint Cathe­rin that standeth in two degrees & a halfe of height, towards the South side: so there remaineth behinde discouered, the ilandes of the Prince, and of Fernando, and those of Sancto Thome▪ being vnder the lyne Equinoctiall.

In this time died the king Don Alonso, and Don Iohn Ann. 148▪ the second his sonne succeeded him, who sent foorth a Cap­tain of his called Diego de Acambina, with a great number of shippes to this Conquest, who caused to bee builte the Ca­stell of saint George with consent of the Prince. Caramansa Lord of that Countrey. Other Captaines of his, discouered the Realmes of Congo, and of Beni, and the rest of the same Coaste, whiche is to bee vnderstoode from the North too the South, vntyl they passe the famous Cape of Buena Esperan­ca, being the first, Bartholomew Dias one of the officers of his house. Of some Embassadours of these blacke kniges which they sent to Portugale, and particularly of those of the king of Beni, the king Don Iohn had knowledge, that farre within the countrey, there was a mightie Prince, vnto whom some of them gaue obedience, and by the maners and tokens that hee declared of him, it seemed that hee was a Christian, whereof it came to bee agreed vppon that hee should be Pre­ster Iohn, of whom then there was knowledge of, and of the trade and riches of the India, by meanes of certayne religi­ous men Spaniardes that had beene at Hierusalem, and like wise of other that were come into Spaine. And for to certifie him self the better of the Trade and Nauigation, and Portes of the India, and of the power of Prester Iohn, and of his re­ligion, of whom he minded to fauour himself, for the trade of the Spicerie, hee sent one Peter de Covillana seruaunt of his house, and also Alonso de Paiba by the way of Italie that he might bryng him a true relation of all▪ These men went to Naples, and from thence they imbarked them selues for the [Page] Rhodes, and from thence to Alexandria and too Cairo which at that time was a Royall seate of the Soldans of Aegypt, vntill a fewe yeeres after, in the yeere a thou­sande [...]nno. 1516. fiue hundred and sixteene. Selim Emperour of the Turkes ouercame and slewe in a battayle neere to Damas­co, the Soldan, Campson Gaurio, and made himselfe Lorde of all those Realmes, and from thence they went too the Citie of Adem whiche standeth at the entrie of Sinus Arabicos, whiche is called the redde Sea, in the part of Arabia Foelix, where they departed, one from ano­ther: The Paiba towardes Aethiopia, and the Covillana to­wardes the India, where they agreed togeather to returne and ioyne themselues againe at a certaine time in the Citie of Cairo.

Covillana did embarke himselfe in a small shyppe of the Moores, and came to Cananor; and from thence to Ca­licut, and Soa, the moste principall Portes of that Coaste of the India, and hauing well enfourmed himselfe to the states, Trafficke, and riches thereof, he returned from thence to the Mine of Zofala▪ which is in Aethiopia, aboue Aegypt, in nienteene degrees of the height of the Southside, betweene Musambike and the Cape of Buena Esperanca, and from thence he returned too Aden, and to Cairo, where hee vnder­stoode that, Paiba his companion died a fewe dayes before in that Citie.

And beyng readie to departe for Portugale hee met with two Iewes of that Realme which went to seeke after him, with the king Don Iohn his order, because that one of them had beene in Babylon which are called Bagodad amongest those small Riuers of the riuer Euphrates that doe run ioint­ly with that of Tiger into Sinus Persicos, hee shoulde re­fourme him of the Trade and Traffike of the Ilande of Ar­mos, which was in the entrie of it in twentie and niene de­grees of height of the North side, where hee saide, that thy­ther came all the Spices and Riches of the India, with ex­presse [Page 8] cōmaundement to Covillana, that if hee had not [...] Prester Iohn, [...]ee shoulde not returne without knowledge of him, and that with the other Iewe hee woulde sende him re­lation of all that hee had seene, and vnderstoode in his voyage the whiche hee did very effectually, and when hee had dispat­ched hym, hee returned with the other to Adem, where they dyd embarke them selues to returne to Ormos▪ And the thinges of that Ilande beeyng noted, he left him there, that hee might returne by lande with the Cafilas▪ which are Car­riers that carried Spices from thence to the Cities of Alex­andrie▪ Damasco in Suria, [...] that he should continue goyng vppon his iourney vntill hee came to Portugale. Hee re­turnyng to the red Sea▪ and wente towardes the Courte of the Emperour of Aethiopia called by his owne people Alex­ander, of whom bee was receiued with countenance of great contentinent esteeming much the embassage because it came from a Christian Prince from the partes of Europe. And although that with all speede Covillana returned, yet he had not in this good hay▪ For that within a fewe dayes died the Emperour Alexāder; And Nant [...] his brother which did suc­ceede him, kept him there by force; wherewithall he loste the hope to returne anye more too Portugale▪ And by the aduice and relation hee sente with the Iewes, and with others by diuers wayes, the king Don Iohn determined too sende some Shippes by the Nauigation of the [...] of Buena Esperanca vntoo the Trade of the Spicerie of the In­dia. Ann. 1492.

And because that in this time which was in the yeere of one thousande foure hundred nientie and two: they be­gunne too discouer the Weast Indias by Christopher Co­lo [...] beyng a [...]inoues [...]orne who was the first that durst take so valiaunt an enterprise▪ in [...]ande by the commaundement of the Catholike kinges Don Fernando and Ladie Elizabe. These kings for the auoyding of differences, made s [...]te to the [Page] high Bishop Alexander the sixth (who then was President in the Catholike Church) that it woulde please him to appoint out and confirme to them theyr discoueries. And the Pope be­yng informed, did graunt too the kynges of Castile, the con­quest of the Indias, Ilandes and landes, that should be disco­uered in the West parts, and to the kings of Portugales that of Affrica, and the Countries of the Caste partes in equall portions: so that it might bee vnderstoode the Nauigation from one hundred leagues, more too the Westwarde of the Ilandes of Cape verde: whereof the king Don Iohn found him selfe agreeued, because he gaue him no more space or Circuite towardes the West. And so it was graunted with the will and consent of the Catholike kinges, other three [...]undred and sixtie leages more towardes the West. The king Don Iohn not vnderstanding at that time, howe hurtful it would be to his successours for the pretence of the Ilandes of Mal [...]cas, and because his life is waxed shorts, it fortuned not in his time this. Nauigation should be begun▪ but was re­serued by a diuine prouidence for the king Don Emanuel his Cosin that shoulde succeed him in those Realmes.

The fourth Chapter how that the king Don Emanuel, sent by the way of Cape Buena Esperanca, Don Vasco▪ de Gama with an embassage to the king of Calicut, & of the successe he had vntil he returned to Portugal.

AND although that the King Don Iohn had prepared ships for the Nauigatiō of the India▪ Whē he died, yet y king Don Iohn Emanuel, coulde not see forward this iourney vntil the 2. yeere of his raigne, wt was in the yeare 1491 when as he sent, (although that they of his counsell were of contrarie opi­nion, [Page 9] yet thē I say he sent Don Vasco de Gama, a knight of his house and other twoo captaines in three shippes with am­bassadge vnto the king of Calicut, too the ende be might bee in league with him and with other kings of the same coast of India, to obteine of them, that hee and his successors might haue the trade of the spicerie graunted vnto them. Nowe you shal vnderstand that the said Don Vasco departed with these shippes, leauing the king and his court and al others very sad, bicause he went vpon a voiage, so long, so daungerous, & so vn­knowen. And hee was fyue monethes in the Sea before hee coulde get as farre as the cape of Buena Esperanca by rea­son in those daies the Portugales sailed not by the Bowlyng in the hye Seas, in such sort as they do now, but alwaies wēt neere to the coast of Ginea. For although that in the tyme of the king Don Iohn, they had knowledge of degrees, and of the Astrolobe: yet the Pilots which they caried with them, durst not put themselues into any gulfe as they now do, which doo runne from the tyme that they departe from Lishebron towards the southwest, vntil they passe the Ilands of Puerto Sancto and the Medera, and from thence towardes the south southeast to the sight of the Ilands of Canaria, and then south passing betweene the firme lande, and the Ilands of Cape Verde, and South and by East, vntill they put themselues in the height of the lyne, and although that the cape of Buena Esperanca do fal Southeast of them, they cannot make their way good, by reason that in those Seas are many leuantes which are Eastsoutheast and Southeast windes, that doeth cause them to fal ouer, neere too the coast of Brasil, and there­fore they go by the Boweling running towardes the South Southeast, South, and Southwest according as winde and weather do giue them leaue: vntill they put themselues intoo thirtie and six degrees, sometymes in sight of the Ilandes of Tristan de Acunna, which lye from the West parte of the cape Buena Esperanca, foure hundreth and fiftie leages, and at other tymes they runne into fourtie, & fourtie fiue degrees, vntil they [...]nde Westerly windes, wherewith they returne [Page] and runne towards the East, and Eastnortheast too seeke the cape. When Don Vasco de Gama passed he ran towards the Northeast along the coast; and bicause he would put himselfe into the Sea, when hee came to the cape of the currentes or tydes, for feare he should put himselfe intoo any baie, or shal­low place, and bicause he woulde passe along the coaste with al the van [...]age hee could, he past and had no sight of the inha­bitantes of Zofala, betweene the Iland of Saincte Lorence and the firme land, vntill hee came too Moscanbique, which standeth in fifteene degrees of height of the South side, sixe hundreth leages beyonde the cape of Buena Esperanca, which place is nowe themoste principall porte that the Por­tugales haue in all those Seas.

Don Vasco taried a smal tyme in this place bicause it was then inhabited with Merchauntes of the secte of Ma­homa, which were come thither in the trade of merchan­dize, and so hee ran along the coaste and touched in Mōbasa and in Melinde, where he was well receiued of the king, al­though hee were a Moore, with whome hee concluded a peace and amytie in the name of the king Don Emanuel his Lord and maister. And hauing well enformed and instructed himselfe of the coast of the India, hee tooke experte Pilotes for the Nauigation, and went along vppon his voiage, pas­sing ouer a gulfe of seuen hundreth leages in twenty and two dayes vntill hee came too the Citie of Calicut put in eleuen degrees and a quarter of the North side, with greate ioy and gladnes, too see himselfe at the end of his iorney. And beeing at Anker without, hee sent woorde too the king of his com­ming, where hee was in a place fiue leages from the Ci­tie, who sent him woorde that hee was very glad of his com­ming, and of his Embassadge; & tooke order that he shoulde passe his shippes too the Porte of Capocate, a place moste sure, where they might ryde at Anker by reason that it was in the Moneth of May, which is in that Coūtry the col­dest and hardest tyme of Winter in the yeere, and when hee thought good he would aduise him to come to the Court.

[Page 10]This region that commonly is called India, is the Coun­try with in which is conteined the two famous riuers, Indus and Ganges, which doo spring in the twoo mountaines Da­languer and Nangracot, so being ioyned one to thother, that they are thought to be one and the people of that Country do thinke that they spring out of one common vaine, and so runne into the great Ocean Seas. The riuer Indus of whom al this Prouince tooke the name by the realme of Guacara­te which commonly is called the west part of Cambaya, and the riuer Ganges by that of Beugala towards the e [...]stparts lying East and West, vnder the tropike of Caucer▪ [...]trauise of threehundreth leages from one mouth to thother, from the which commeth out a point of the lande, farre in to the Sea, and sheweth it self very sharpe, euen vntil it come to the cape Camori, which lieth Noorth and South, from the fountaines of these riuers in distaunce of 400. leages of length in seuen degrees and two terces of heigth, of the North side. And al­though that amongst the Princes of these Countries are but twoo differences of lawes, Idolaters and Mahomets, al the Coūtry is deuided in to many realmes & states. For although they are very warlyke and of littel fayths: yet the height and sharpnes of the hilles and mountaines, and the greate nūber of fearce bests which are not to be made tame; & the riuers & the entering of the Seas do make it inuincible, & is the cause cause that al this region is not brought subiect to the Prince which is of most powre, and principally by reason of a long tract and rowe of mountaines, which the natural people of the Coūtry do cal Gates stretching from the North to the south, in the length of 200. leages, from one coast to thother, as doeth the high mountains Apenino in Italie beginning at the west part at the riuer Caruants, & passing vnto the mountain cal­led Delij, very wel knowen of the sailers of that coast, which standeth in xii. degrees and a halfe in height of the North side; where is a plaine peece of ground ouerflowen with wa­ter of sixe or ten leages, as it seemeth by the bayes neere ad­ioyning thervnto, which may bee eightie leages long, and [Page] the natural people of the Country do cal it Malabar, where standeth the realme and Citie of Calicut: this king beeing the greatest of powre of those of this prouince and therefore hee is intituled Camori which is asmuch too say as Empe­rour.

Two daies after that, Don Vasco had placed his ships in the port of Capacote, there came for him a seruant of the king to bring him too his presence whome they cal their Ca­tual, accompanied with 200. men of his garde, who put him selfe into his iorney, carying with him onely xii. Portugales and one Moore called Monzaide▪ This Monzaide was of the realme of Tunez, who did him greate pleasure, by reason hee was a faythful interpreter: of whome he vnderstood the se­crets of the land, and the gouernement thereof: and in the way came to receiue him another Catual of higher degree, who did accompanie him vntil he came to the king, who when he should receiue him, put himselfe for Maiestie at the ende of a great chamber in a bed which they cal) Catel appareled with a certaine kind of fine cloth made of cotton wool burnished, & set with roses of beaten gold, and on his head a long high cap of cloth of gold, of the fashion of a close mytre, ful of pearles; & on his legges and armes he had great store of bracelets of golde and stone, hee had his head lying vppon a Pillowe of plaine silke wrought with golde firisied: & there was leaning to the bed a Gentleman which helde a plater of golde in his handes with the leafe of Betely, with which kind of leafe they vse to comfort the stomack. And Don Vasco entring into the chamber there rose very neere vnto the king, a man of great yeeres with whyte garments, representing great honor, who was his heigh Priest, being the chiefe of the religious men of his gentilitie, and tooke him by the hande and caried him to the kings presence, who receiued him with a mery counte­naunce and with a shewe of greate and seuere Maiestie with­out mouing himselfe more then lifting vp his head a little frō the Pillowe, and when he layed down his head againe, hee made signes to the high Priest that he should cause him to sit [Page 11] downe by the bed side▪ And hauing spoken certaine generall woords with Don Vasco, and receiued the Letter of Don E­manuel, he saide that he woulde see it, and woulde heare him when he was at more leysure, and for that tyme he shoulde go to take his rest, commaunding a Gentleman to haue care too lodge him & see him wel vsed with good entertainemēt. The next day Don Vasco would returne to speake with him and declare his embassadge, but the Gentlemen which kept him company kept him backe, declaring to him that the Embas­sadors which came to that Country were accustomed not too go to speake with the king, but when it pleased his Maiestie to cal them: but the Moore Monzaide, as one which knewe wel the order that was vsed in these causes, said vnto him, that the most certaine order and custom of that Prince and of the other Princes of those Countries was, too heare no man if they did not first giue and present him with some present, and the more straunge the Embassador was, the longer tyme they caused him to tarry, and if hee wil be dispatched shortly that he should vse that way which hee had tolde him, giuing some gift to the Officers which had moste authoritie, and especially in businesse of the estate: the which he foorthwith put in prac­tise excusing himselfe with the King and with the nobilitie, that by reason of the vncertainty of the voyage and long Na­uigation the thing which he offered too them were not of esti­mation or valewe that he wished; but in the end, they were ta­ken as sufficient, and were caried to the king and hee was re­ceiued with more familiarity and gladnes then the first time, signifying too him that by the Letter of the king Don Ema­nuel he had vnderstoode the cause of his comming, and there vpon he should speake what he would. Then Don Vasco, begā with great discretion and wisedome asking the libertie, and trade of the spices and the entercourse of the trade of Mer­chādize from one realme to thother. The king answered with showes of gladnes, that he would dispatch him wel & in short tyme.

And although that this Prince were an Idolater▪ yet hee [Page] did suffer in his Townes too dwell people of the sect of Ma­homet, and especially in the portes of the Sea coaste where came many for the trade of the spicery from Meca and other portes of Arabia foelix as wel from the redd Sea, as frō the Sea called Sinus Persicos, which people were much agree­ued at the Embassadge and pretence of Don Vasco, vnder­standing the hurt and losses which woulde ensue vnto them in their trades; if that the trade of merchaundise shoulde re­remayne established as the king was purposed and resolued to haue it.

Wherevppon they made many consultations with order too kill the Portugales and too sinke their shippes, but they durst not, gyding it by the most sure way, giuing bribes too the Catual, who was a Gentleman that had the charge of the Portugales, that with false reasons and deceites the king might bee angrie and displeased with them. Yet this Gentle­mā vsed the matter so discretely, that (although that the king was very wyse, and vnderstood wel the profit that might fol­low by this trade, for the dispatch of the merchandise of his realme) hee was persuaded too beleeue this Catual and too take the Portugales for spyes.

And heerevppon the King commaunded too cal Don Vasco general of the Portugales too bee called before him, & so hee asked him many questions; and although hee had sa­tisfied him, of all that was demaunded him; yet there was no remedie, but in fine hee counseled him that hee should foorth­with go aboord his shippes, leste he should receiue any hurte of the Moores pretending that they were ready too make an insurrection against him, and promised that he woulde sende him too his ships the answere of his Embassadge in a letter too the king Don Emanuel his lorde and maister. Wherein hee saide that the cause wherefore his Embassadour departed so discontent from his Countrie, was by reason of the olde controuersies that were betweene the Moores and the Chri­stians, and that hee woulde receiue greate contentment with [Page 12] his friendship and with the trade of the merchaundyse of his realme so that it might not bee done with reproch, considering that he tooke the Moores for natural people of his Country, and that ordinarily they came too his portes in the trade of spicery; wherevppon foorthwith Don Vasco made sayle towardes Portugal by the same way that hee went, where he arryued at the end of twoo yeeres, and a fewe dayes after he departed from Lishebron, beeing receiued of the king Don Emanuel with great honor rewarding him, and his greate seruice.

The V. Chapter sheweth howe the king Don Emanuel did send a greate fleet of shippes to the Indias with a knight called Pedraluarez Cabral, and howe hee discouered in this voyage the coast of Brasil, and of other armies of ships, which are sent after vntil the tyme he gate Malaca, and had knowledge of the realme of China.

AND the king Don Emanuel being enformed by Don Vas­co de Gama, of all thinges which happened to him in his voyage, he determined to send too the India thirteene sayles of shippes so well furnished and prouided both of men and munition, that if it happened when they should come too the king of Calicut & to the rest of the Lords of those Coūtries, that they should be defended frō their ports, that thē his powre & force should be shewed, & that [Page] Pedraluarez Cabral, a knight of great wisedom, and valiant shoulde go for general of the saide fleete of shippes, who de­parted from Lishebron the nienth day of Marche the yeere 1500. Too whome there happened betweene the Ilandes of Cape verde such a vehement storme, that one of the ships de­parted from the reste of her company, and returned backe a­gaine, and with the rest he toke his course and sailed farre in­too the Sea, bicause hee woulde flye away from the calmes which are accustomed too bee vppon the coast of Ginea, and that he might with more assurance double the cape of Buena Esperanca, running towards the Southsouthwest as neere as the Eastsoutheast and Southeast winds would giue them leaue.

And at the end of one Moneth rūning that course, they foūd themselues so much to leewarde, by reason of the tydes which runne towardes the Northwest, that they came to discouer an other coast of firme land towardes the West: and according to the iudgement of the Pilots, it seemed to them that it might be distant from the coast of Ginea foure hundreth and fiftie leags, in ten degrees towards the Southside, and to put them out of doubt, if it should be any great Ilande they ranne along by the coast all one day, and finding a place for their purpose, where they might cast ankor, they caused one boate to be hoy­sed out for to discouer what lande it might bee: and immedi­atly did appeare vnto them by the Riuer where they were, many naked people, which did differ from those of Ginea, in colour, haire, and faces, and they procured to speake with thē, and to knowe what people they were, but they could not, for they retired all to the mountaynes, and so the Portingales re­turned to their shippes without any knowledge, and depar­ted the same night, being forced with a storme which caused them to departe without order: and sayled along the coast to­wardes the South, vntill they came into a Bay, where they harbored them selues, which they named, Puerto Segnero, and is asmuch to say, The sure porte, or hauen, which standeth in seuentie Degrees and halfe of height, and forthwith Pe­draluarez [Page 13] commaunded to hoyse out the Boates, and he went a lande in them, where he caused seruice too bee sayde at the foote of a Tree with great deuotion of them all, geuing thankes vnto GOD that they had departed from that vn­knowen Countrey where they were before. And the Barba­rous people of that Prouince did not maruayle too see the Portugales, as they of the other Coūtrey did: but rather, whē they sawe them kneele on their knees in the time of seruice, they kneled downe after the same maner, making the sayde shewe of prayers. At the which sight the sayde Pedraluarez, and all the rest of his people marueiled muche; and were ve­ry glad to see them offer themselues to receyue their doctrin of saluation, if they had had any to instruct them, & because he coulde not remaine there, nor let to follow his iourney, he di­spatched foorth with the Captaine Gasper de Glemos, that with his small shyp hee might returne backe too Portugale, to geue newes to the king Don Emanuel, of the discouerie of that Countrey, which he had named Sancta Crus, whiche nowe is called the Brasill by the name of the Woode that is brought from thence. And when he had taken in fresh water, and sawe the weather fayre, hee determined to departe from thence towardes the Cape of Buena Esperanca, and there hapned to him in the Goulfe so great stormes of wether, that in his sight, the Sea did swallowe vp foure of his ships with out the escaping of any of the people of the same: and with the rest hee ran many dayes without bearyng any sayle, vntil the sixtienth day of Iuly he found him selfe onely with sixe of his shippes, a great way beyonde the Cape in the Coast of Zofa­la, so beaten with weather and spoyled of theyr Masses, yards Sayles, and Tackles, that they were more likely to returne then to passe foorth vppon their voyage. But the General be­yng a man of so great courage, did set little by all these incon­ueniences, & so they came to Mosambike, where they did re­payre them selues of the hurtes whiche they had receiued in the tormentes of wether, as also they were better receiued of the king then Don Vasco de Gama, was.

[Page]They continued frō thence their voiage, touching in Qui­loa, where they fel out with the king, who was a Moore, and that greeued to see any Christians in that coast. But the king of Melindes, who was their friend receiued them with great contentment, confirmyng anew the friendship and the trade that Don Vasco had agreed vpon with him: and from thence they ran at whart ouer the gulfe, vntill they came to Calicut. And although they were well receiued of the king, yet things did happe in such sort, that Pedraluarez fell out with him, and in the ende there were staine certaine Portugales whiche were a land: and for to reuenge their deathes, he set fire on al the shippes that he found in the Port, shot at the Citie, and killed many of the people, threw down many houses and buil­dinges▪ & so made sayle towardes Cochin, which was xxx. leages distant from that place, lower in y course towards the South: where he was well receiued of the king, who offered to him all the Spicerie which he had neede of for to lade his shippes. Also the king of Cana nor sent him the like worde, because these Princes were enimies to the king of Calicut, who was a greater Lorde than they were, and they did ac­knowledge vnto hym superioritie. And because they thought that the trade with the Portugales woulde bee profitable for them, Pedraluarez did lade his shippes of as muche as they coulde carry, wherewith he returned into Portugale by the same way that hee came, which is different of that as is nowe vsed. For that they do returne among an infinite number of Ilands of Maldiuia, and those of the seuen brethren running to the South southwest, Southwest, and to the West South­west, hauing sight of many other Ilandes which are in those Seas. And so they come along towardes the Cape of Buena Esperanca, leauing the Ilande of Saint Laurence North, of the side of the land. And when Pedraluarez came to Portugale, the king had sente the Captaine Iohn de Noua a Gallego borne with foure shippes vnto the same trade of the Spicerie. And from that time forwarde they continued more and more in the saide Nauigation, hauing alwayes [Page 16] shipyes of warre in those Indian Seas against the Moores of the streight of Mecha, and the rest of the Ports of Arabia, and against the king of Calicut, who came and made warre with him of Cochin, for the frendship and trade hee had with the Portugales, and the Captaine Edward Pacheco shewed himselfe very valiant in his defence, who was left therewith certaine souldiers for that purpose, & Alonso Alburquerque the most valiant knight, and of most wisedome, of as many of the gouernours as haue gone out of Portugale to that coun­trey. For he being captaine general of the shippes of warre of that Sea, did conquer the Citie of Ormos, and many other places as well of those which are in the Coaste of Arabia as of Persia: and made the king Zofadin too pay tribute who at that time was Lorde of that Realme: and he burned and de­stroyed Calicut, and gate of the Moores the Citie of Goa, which is now the most principal place that the kinges of Por­tugale haue in the India, whiche standeth more towarde the North then Calicut in the same Coast in fifteene degrees of height▪ and Malaca standeth in that famous point, in two de­grees and a halfe of the Northside, the whiche Prolome and the rest of the ancient Geographers did intitle Aurea Cher­sonesus, in respect of the Ilande Samatra which is neere too him, and one chanel doth deuide them, vnderstanding that they were ioyned in one, yeuen as the Morea is with the firm lande.

The longest part of this Ilande lyeth Northweast and Southeast, and the Equinoctiall Line standeth ouer the middest of it. And there remayneth behinde towardes the Weast neere to the Cape Camorie in the same Coaste the Ilande called Zeilan, and by Prolome named Taproba­na in distaunce of foure hundred leages from the one to the o­ther according to the opinion of Portugale sailers, and not by situation Geographicall by reason that the course lyeth East and West. Betwene the which there is a great bay which is called the gulfe of Bengala, which is the realme that Ganges doth run through al alōg the coast, frō the cape Canori foure [Page] hundred & ten leages towards the Northeast vnto the mouth of him, and from them it returneth running towardes the South vnto the poynt of Malaca, where Alonso de Al­burquerque had knowledge of the Malucas, and of the rest of the Ilandes and Realmes of that Sea, and particularly of the great Realme of China, which standeth in the same Coaste, beginning his limits fiue hundred leages more for­warde towardes the West, and there remaining in the mid­dest of this precinct, the Realmes of Siam, Cambaia Cham­pa and Guachinchina.

¶ The sixth Chapter sheweth of the discription of the lande of China, and the notable Prouinces and Realmes that are in it conteyned.

THis great kingdome whiche the natural people of the coun­trey doe call Tame; & they are called Tangis, is a Countrey which lyeth moste Easterly of all Asia, those of the India, Malaca Samatra, Sian and Pe­gu, and the rest of the Ilandes and Realmes of that Sea, are called China, it is sayde that in respect of that Realme of Guachinchina, which is neigh­bour to it on the West side, and payeth Tribute keeping in all things theyr lawes and customes, and the greattest part of it is washt ouer which the Easterly Ocean Seas; begin ning from the Ilande Aynan adioyning to Guachinchina, which is in the nienteene degrees of the Northside, shewing it selfe by the South part in the course of the East Northeast gathering it selfe towardes the North, vnto a point which is most Easterly that it hath, where standeth the Citie of Nim­po [Page 15] which the Portugales doe call Limpo, and from thence it returneth towardes the Northwest, and to she North, ma­king a great bay farre into the lande, and carriyng on high vpon it selfe, and other Coaste set vpon that which standeth aboue; and the higher Countrey remaining vnder the colde clowdes of the North where the Tartars doe dwell, with whom they haue continuall warres.

By the West part it bordereth, as it hath beene delated, with the Realme of Guachinchina, and higher towardes the North, which the Loas Osioens Maos, and with the Brame­nes which are a multitude of people and very rich of golde & stones, and especially of Rubies.

These are approued people, valiant, and tall of body, and sometime haue warre with the people of China, but it is not ordinarie by reason of the great hilles and sharp mountaines that is betweene them.

Then followeth foorthwith the Patanes and Mogores, whose Realme is very great, and innumerable of people, and of suche as be very warlike, they fight with Bowes and Ar­rowes on horsebacke, they weare Murrions and other things of defence.

The chiefe of that Realme is the great Samarcan, they be the true Massagetas, by whom it is affirmed that no other Nation haue had them in subiection. They are a tall people wel proporcioned, and white for the most part, by reason they dwell in a colde Countrey. And from them forwardes you turne to meete with the Tartares, which people are tawnie and not white, from the waste vpward they goe naked, they eate▪ rawe fleshe, and they annoint them selues with the blood thereof▪ because they would make themselues, to be wondred at: And therefore commonly they haue such a filthie smel that when they warre against the people of China, yf the winde come of theyr side, they are discouered by the smell, they fight on horsbacke with Bowes, Arrowes, and Speares, as the Massagetas do. In all this description of the Countrey which hath beene spoken of, without doubt it is as great or greater [Page] than Europe. There in are conteyned xv. Prouinces, that eue­rie one of them is greater then the most kingdomes that wee know. They name some of thē vnder the name of Metropoli­tana, where theyr Gouernours and Presidents are resident: they are named, Cāton Foquien, Chequeam, Xanton, Nan­quij, Quinquij: these are bordering vppon the Sea Coaste, Quichen, Iunna, Quancij, Sujuam, Fuquam, Canslij Xi­anxij, Honan and Sancij, these are in the Countrey with­in wel neere all these Prouinces and particularly those of the Sea Coaste are compassed about with Riuers verye deepe, large and Nauigable of the fiesh water, and also replenished with small Riuers and Brookes whiche doeth maintayne the Sea, with the entraunce of them into it, and they runne fatre within that Countrey, and because the Countrey is plaine it semeeth as though it were ouerflowen, but it is not.

¶ The seuenth Chapter sheweth of the temperature of the Countrey, and the notable thinges that it brin­geth foorth.

THe temperature of this Coun­trey is diuers: by reason that it doth stretch far frō the South to the North, so much that the Ilandes Ainan doe stand in nientene degrees of height. It is also knowen that some Pro­uinces doe stande in fifteene degrees, and others muche more aboue, in the borders of the Tartares: and this is well too be seene by the difference that is of the Inhabitauntes of Canton, and of the reste of the places of that Coaste, which are base people, as those that are in Barbarie, and doo runne the race that they doe. And the rest of the people of the Prouinces of the lande within are white and red, as in Almanie, although that generally there is not in all of it, extreme heate, nor cold, because it is shut vp [Page 14] within the region which the Geographers do cal temperate, and it standeth vnder the same Climate that Spayne, France, and Italie doe stand in▪ whereby the fruitfulnesse of it may be vnderstood, that without all doubt it is the greatest and most abundaunt that is knowen in the wide worlde, by reason that the naturall people of the countrey do procure to liue by their owne industrie, and continu all labour: not sparing Moun­taines, Ualleis, nor Riuers that is not all planted and set with sundrie sortes of Fruites, and with great sowing of Wheate, Barley, Rise and other thinges according too the commoditie and situation. And it is easie to them, by reason that they inioy freely of their owne substance; without any mo­lestation of impositions and tributes. And also they doe not suffer nor permit in the Countrey any Uacaboundes, nor idle people, nor they suffer any of the naturall people of the Coun­trey to goe foorth of the Realme, there are an infinit number of people [...] all kinde of Artes, and offices. And because they are inclined to eate and drinke well, and too make muche of themselues, and to haue their houses very gorgeously dreste, and repaired, they geue them selues to labour, and to procure it, f [...]eeing from infamie, and shunning little estimation, the thinges wherewith idle men are there reproched withall. This realme doth bring forth as great abundance of al kinds of fruites, and garden hearbes, as Europe, and as sweete and with as good tast as those of Spaine & better: for in the sweete Orenges, there is three differences of marueilous tast, and a kinde of plumbes that are wel neere round which are called Lechias, which are of an excellent taste, without geuing any lothsomnes, & without taking away the desire of the stomack, and without doing any hurt, although you eate many. Of the mellons, & of a certaine kind of aples, they report wonders, & their chestnuts they prefer without any cōparison to be made of ours with them. They haue great store of sugar, and great store of wormes wt breede silke, which is one of the greatest trades y is in that realme, & great store of flar to make linnē cloth of diuers sorts for their wearing. In y dry coūtries they [Page] sow Wheate and Barley, and in the moyste and ouerflowen groundes they sowe Ryse, and they are accustomed to gather it three or foure times in the yeere, and so it is the moste ordi­narie and common meate they haue. The high Countries which are not good for Wheat, they set and plant with Pine apple trees, in such sorte y no grounde remaineth vnlaboured that is able to geue fruite, the rest of the fields, are most faire to the sight, and sweete by reason of the great store of Roses, and of other sweete flowers which they bring foorth, and it maketh the Orchardes pleasant whiche standeth by small brookes and riuers, and the gardens and houses of pleasure, which are spred abroade by the sayde fieldes, whiche they vse muche for theyr recreations. There are also certaine bushie mountaines and wooddes where doeth breede great store of wilde Pigges, and also Deare, Hares and Conies, and other diuers kindes of Beastes, of whose skins they haue maruey­lous plentie of Furres, and especially of the Martirnes which are many in number of a certaine kinde of beastes as great as Foxes, they make the muske wherof they haue great abundance they beate them with strokes vntil they kil them, and afterward they lay togeather the skin, the fleshe, and the bones all to beaten, in little hillockes or Molehilles vntyll they bee all rotten, then they cut them, and in this sort they sel them to straungers. The Portugales do cal them Papos, and they take it for better and more fine Muske then that whiche they bryng from those partes in powder. The moste com­mon and ordinarie cattell which they eate are Kine, Hogges Mutton, and Goates, of the which there are great abundance, in the Mountaynes and Meddowes. The foule is so muche and specially that which was brought vp in great standing waters and riuers, that they account it a smal matter to spend ordinarily euery day in onely one of the least Cities of that Realme which is the Canton ten or twelue thousand duckes not accoūting any other sort of birdes.

The abundance of fishe, aswell of shell fishe, as also of all other sortes of fishe is most great, not onely in the Sea caosts [Page 17] but also in the Prouinces that are in the further most parte of inland, bicause the riuers are al great nauigable or portable by reason of the greatnes. Of all kinde of drugges there are great abundaunce and particularly of Rubarbe, and many mynes of siluer and golde, of the which is gathered greate quantitie in the riuers, and likewise of Copper, Iron & other metales, in such sort that they haue great plētie of al things▪ and lacke nothing that is necessarie for the common vse of the life of man.

The VIII. Chapter sheweth of the greatnes of the Cities, Temples and buildings that are in it, & that be in al the Countrie of China.

THere are in this realme many Cities & very populous, inso­much that in a Card Geogra­phical made by the said people of China, which was brought into Portugal to the powre of Iohn de Barros a moste lear­ned historian of that Nation, there came marked two hun­dreth fourtie foure famous Cities, and they are numbered and noted out with this sil­lable fu, which is asmuch to say, as a citie like to Canton fu [...] Panquim fu: and the Townes (which are very many in nū ­ber) with this sillable che [...]. The Uillages are innumerable, & of great husbandrie, and some of them are of more thē three thousand inhabitauntes and the difference which they haue, is that they bee not compassed about with walles as the townes are. Al the Cities for the moste parte are set & plan­ted by greate riuers which are nauigable and compassed a­bout with deepe and broade marrishe groundes which doe [Page] make them most strōg. The walles are made of great stones the height of a man, & from thence vpwardes of brick made of the same clay that the earthen dishes that they bring from thence is made of; which is so stronge, that with greate diffi­cultie it can bee broken with Pikaxkes. In some Cities they are very heigh and broade, in suche sorte that there may marche foure or six men in a ranke or front vppon them. They are beawtified with many Bulwarkes and Towres from one side to thother, couered with most faire and beawti­ful coueringes and compassed about with galleries, where their Gouerners and Ministers are accustomed to go too re­creat themselues with the sight of the fieldes and Riuers & of other great buildings which from thence are discoue­red. And there is a certaine space of grounde betweene the walles and the marrish ground, vpon which vi. men on horse­backe may march: and in the innermost part of the walles on thother side there is asmuch more voyde grounde vntoo the houses, that they may passe the watch without any imp [...] ­ment, the walles are so whole & without clifte or rift or shew thereof, as if they were but then newe made: and yet ha­uing in many Cities memorie of twoo thousande yeeres since that they were made: and the cause thereof is that in euerie Citie and towne the king hath an Officer with great wages whiche doeth not occupie himselfe specially in any thing, other than in continuall surueying of them, and to cause them too bee renewed. And therefore they haue order that hee which is Tresurer and receiuer of the Kings rents in such Cities and in the lyke places, doeth giue too him all that is necessarie and needfull for the reparing of them. This is so precise a matter that the lyke officers are visited and chastened if they haue not fulfilled all things which they are bound vnto in their office. The entraunce of these Cities are sumptuous, and of greate shewe and Maiestie▪ with three and foure gates most stronge, and all things too them aperteyning, of Iron.

[Page 18]The streetes are wel paued with stone, and stande right without declyning too one side more then too the other: where you may see from one gate too thother, and in the moste of them may passe in a frunt ten and fifteene men on horsebacke one by the other, and yet there remayneth in one side and thother greate windowes, and stawles for the seruice of them that keepe shoppes of merchaundyse: they bee so broade that there is buil [...] in them triumphant Arches of greate beawtie and shewe, whereby the Ci­ties bee much detked and adorned: and the sayde Arches are set some vppon timber and other vppon free stone, which are much painted with gallant shewes couered with Tiles, made of the earth, which the fine whyte dishes are made of. And by reason the streets are so broad they make them with three gates and those which are in the middest are greater thē those which are at the ends. The Arches are so broade & so farre out intoo the streets and so made that the people are defended from the rayne & the Sun: and vnder them is sold much fruite and other fine trinckes, and Iewelles of all sortes.

The houses where the kings Officers are resident in, are sumptuous and of a straunge buildinge, and so broade that some of them haue more roome thē is in a good Town. And the cause therof is the great gardens and parkes which are compassed about that is within them, wherin is greate store of deare and of other game of diuers sortes, and all kinde of wilde fowle.

In Townes that are neere the Sea coast, all the houses for the moste parte bee lowe, and within the lande they reise their Chambers alofte; & of faire buildings. They haue generally at their dores trees of beawtie set in a rowe, one by an other in order, which are set with equall distance, and by line, which are greene al the yeere, bicause they should yeld them shadowe and also beawtifie the streetes.

There are in that Countrie some Cities in which [Page] the Barkes may sayle with in them lyke as in the towne of Brudges in Flanders: in the which riuer do Barks passe la­den with al kind of vitailes and merchaundise, and the streets stand on both sides of the Chanelles where they sayle and come to the Wharfes and Bridges of goodly building & spe­cially at the going out of the Cities, for to passe the fennes and the riuers. Whē they be so great and deepe that none cā go ouer them, they make bridges vpon many boats or barks after the fashion of the bridge of Seuil tied with strong chaynes, and when the freshe waters are very great, they vn­do thē, & then they take barkes which they ro we with oares, and doo vse them to passe the people and al other things they haue to passe at the kings cost, this order is in all the Coun­try, although it be in places not inhabited.

In the hilles & mountaines where people cōmonly doo ior­ney, there are made Cause is that are heighest in the middest [...]ausies very [...]otable. and wel repayred, which is one of the most notable buildings for common vse that is in al China. The villages are for the most part al compassed about with trees, which doo hyde them bicause the houses be lowe, vnlesse it bee the houses of some rich farmers, whose housen are very high & decked with towres, & which are to be discouered far of, by many partes, bycause the Country is much replenished with villages and houses of pleasure, of great recreation, where they haue gar­dens & parkes of deare and wildfowle, and ponds of fishe of al sorts. And by reason they are blind in Religion and without light of the knowledge of the true God, and of feeling of e­uerlasting life, they indeuour the rather to passe the temporal life with great ease and contentment, reposing their chiefe felicitie in things temporal and in things of most pleasure in this life.

There are many other buildings of great admiration in those cities, & specially in the prouince of Fucheo; & certain Portugals wt were caried prisoners thither, do affirme that they sawe a tower before the house of the kings Tresurer in that Prouince, built vpon 40. whole Arches, and euery piller [Page 19] of the Arches had in length fourtie pawnnes, & in cōpasse xii. and the rest of the building was so sumptuous and faire that therewith they were amazed, and it seemed too them that in respect of that, al was little which they could see in all Eu­rope.

And bycause you may better vnderstande the maiestie of this Empire and the riches and greatnes of it, the Portu­gales doo make particular relation of the Citie of Canton, which is one of the least of that realme: of the which Cytie they haue moste knowledge, by reason of the ordinarie trade of shipping that they haue too that place and porte with their merchaundise, which in respect of the rest is as the Cytie of Cadiz in respect of the rest of the great Cities of Spaine: and they say that this Citie of Canton standeth before the Iland called Ainan in the same ooast in twenty seuē degrees skarce of heigth of the North side in a playne fayre fielde, and delec­table to the sight; for the trees and fruites that it hath, and all kinde of husbandry being placed among the smal riuers, be­ing brāches of a great riuer which goe [...]h spreading in breath twoo hundreth paces, and in deepth from three to seuen fadō, and by the sides of these riuers are planted many small villa­ges & faire houses of great pleasure; vntil you come to the sea which is neere vnto it. At the entrie in towards the Citie, are certain Ilands inhabited with husbandmē, wt only do liue by husbandry▪ It is compassed about on the parte & side where the riuer is not with a brode deepe diche or trench▪ wherevnto commeth great store of water which maketh it strong, & it is nauigable, the walles are built with stone, lyme, and bricke, vppon the face of the earth without any foundation▪ but filled vp ful of earth and broade. There are in the walles eighty three bulwarks. Iohn de Barros doth say that they are nien­tie of a greate shewe, and compassed about with galleries, which doo beawtifie the Citie very much, it hath in circute twelue thousand three hundreth and fiftie paces, besides the suburbes which are great and much inhabited, the walles are hole and sounde, although that they do affirme that it is one [Page] thousand eight hundreth yeeres they were built by reason of the great care they haue too repayre them. The good fashion that the streets haue, do cause the Citie to shew very faire, by reason they are long and straight. And the said Citie hath se­uen gates, and they are seene from the one to thother, by rea­son the streets are so broade, that ten men on horseback may passe in front one by an other, and there remayneth at the one side and thother, shops where they sel merchaundyse and all kinde of vittailes. The said streetes are very wel paued, high by the sides, and lowe by the middest, that the water may auoide away and beeing so long they haue throughout great number of triumphant Arches made very sumptuous as be­fore is declared. At the going foorth of the gates to go ouer the marrish ground, there are Bridges of free stone, very broade where is solde many thinges too bee eaten, and o­thers.

The houses where the Presideuts are lodged, that doo go­nerne this Prouince, are the kings houses, and are of great Maiestie, and doo occupy much roome with the courtes, and gardens and great houses where the Counselles doo sit, and determine causes, and doo prouide thinges for the Gouerne­ment of the rest of the Cities, and those for the estate of the warres and for the kings rents.

This Prouince and that of Cansie by reason they be least; & the rest are prouided with one onely Gouerner which they cal Tutam, & is asmuch to say among vs as Uiceroy: & for this cause he is Resident in a Citie called Doucheo, which is in the borders and precinet of them both. The ordinary & common houses of this Citie are in outwarde shewe of small beawtie because they are lowe, by reason of the heate which is great in that place, but within they are very beawtiful & goodly to be seene; bicause they are made as whyte as milke in such sorte that it seemeth as if they were set foorth with shyning paper burnished: and the floores of the ground are made of stones foure square.

[Page 20]The timber that these houses are made of is smootheTimber died very equall and well wrought, died with certaine waters which sheweth as if it were the collour of Damaske well neere of the collour of golde, and it hath a beawtifull shewe, and in all houses at the entrie in at the doore, and in the paue­ment or court are flowres set, and greene things for their re­creation, and a small pond with fishe, and a lynen cloth foure square according too the measure of the court or Pauement that is wichin the dore wrought al vpon as though they were counting houses, & vppon them are set many Idoles of their gentillitie made of clay or of wood more or lesse very curi­nus, according too the abilitie of euery one. In all the other square places, or lodgings they haue things painted and di­uers other curiosities. The rooffes of the housē are very wel built and couered with tyles, made of the same clay that the Porcelanas are made of, those which receiue the wa [...] are broade and shorte, and those which lye vppon and do shut the Canelles are narrow and long. In the endes towardes the streetes the tyles are garnished with very fine thinges and gallant made of lyme, and they haue no neede too tyle themTyle not ga­thering filth. anewe in many yeeres: For the tyles bee not brittle as oures are, nor sharpe but smoth that they doo not breede any filthie thing.

At the gates they haue trees set, which serueth them for shadowe, and it beawtifieth the streetes. There are in the Citie many Temples of their Idolatrie, very great and sumptuous; and chiefely one that is in the middest of the Ci­tie with many Towers and Pinacles, which doo shewe ouer all the Citie. At one side of the part of the Riuer there is a greate Towre harde by the wall, and thither goeth theA Tower. Presidentes and other Officers too make merry, and to see the Cytie, the fieldes and the Riuers. The suburbes that it hath are very greate by meane of the trade of the Sea, and by reason that the moste parte all the straungers and men of trade and of businesse doo lodge in them.

[Page]They haue also the streets very broade with some trium­phant Arches, as well in them, as within the Cytie, there bee a great number of places for men too lodge in, and Uit­tailing houses, where they haue meate drest, whereas is great plentie of fleshe and fishe, aswel shellfish as other fish, and fruites and Wynes made with confections of greate deli­catenes, that it bringeth greate admiration to note it, and it is all needeful, according too the greate trade of bying and selling that is there. They do affirme that making enquirte of the things which ordinarily is eaten, euery-day it was founde that there was from fyue too six thousand [...]ogges, and from ten to eleuen thousand ducks, besides a greate number of Kyne, and an infinit number of other Byrds and hennes and also Conies and fishe, aswel shelfishe as other fishe, and fruites and frogges, and also dogges, which they stay and skin or scalde lyke Pigges, and the base and poore people do eate them, so as easilie they do confesse that this Cytie of Canton is much greater then th [...]r Lishebron the [...]hiefe Ci­tie of Portugal, which is esteemed and taken for one of the greatest Cities of Europe.

The IX. Chapter sheweth of the countenaunce and apparel of the People, and their conditions and manners.

AL the people of the China ge­nerally haue broade faces, smal eyes, playne noses with very little hayre in their beards; and some there are that haue their faces well made and proporci­oned, with great eyes, & with their beards wel set: but there are fewe of these. It is though [...] that those comlier sort did des­cend [Page 21] of strange people that in old tyme matched themselues with them, when they went foorth of the realme and were conuersant with other people. In Canton and al other pla­ces of that coast, they are tawnie like vnto those of Fetz, and Marruecos, but al within the lande are of the collour lyke to the people of Spaine, Italy, and Flanders, whyte and red & of good growth. The noble people of the lande, and those that serue in the warres, doo apparel themselues with silkes of diuers colours, and the poorer sort of people with blacke, and with serge, lynen cloth, and cotton wool, died, bicause they make no woollen clothes, although they haue greate store of woolles. They haue their coates made of such fashiō as other were in olde tyme, with many pleits, long fawles, & broade sleeues, and they make them fast vppon the lefte side, and doo garde their saide apparell with that that their gar­ments are made of, according to the degree and abilitie of e­uery one of them. They that bee of the blood Royal, and also such as be placed in the chiefe offices at honor and au [...]tori­tie, differ from al other in apparel: for they go al beeset with golde and siluer round about theyr wastes, and al other Gen­tlemen doo cary their eares garnished therewith. Their ho­ses are very wel made and stitched, and their Bootes and shooes are made of silke very curious and fine. In the winter season they fur [...]e their apparel with furres of beastes, as of Marterns and Sables, and do bring them ordinarily about their neckes. They suffer theyr heare to growe long, wherein they haue great superstition, saying that they shalbee caried thereby to heauen: and they collour it lyke as women doo, and do gather it togither in the highest part of the head with a string, wherin they put through a naile of siluer. Those that are not maried are different from them that are: wherefore they weare theyr heare curled vppon their forehead, & weare on theyr head certain high coyues, & rounde, made of small stickes very fine, and wrought vppon with blacke silke. The women are commonly very fayre, except those that are dwel­ling at the Sea coast, of the parte that is towards the south, [Page] and those that dwel in the hilles and mountaines: the reste are very whyte and fayre in their fashion, & some with good­ly eyes, and their noses very slender and comely. All are appareled with silke, & the poorest sort with serge and lynen cloth. The coates wt they vse, bee of the fashion of them that are heere, and the Petty coates with broade sleeues. They dresse their heare with most great care, they cary it gathe­red togither on the higher part of the head, fast bounde with a broade lace of silk garnished with stones & peeces of gold. They paint themselues with the lyke curiositie as they do in Spayne: & they hold it for a gallant thing, to haue their feete very little, & therfore frō the tyme that they be little childrē, they bind their feete very much with clothes, for bicause that such as haue little feete are much esteemed. They liue very closly in there houses, for they are littel seene, their husbands willes is that they should so doo, for they are very iealowse. Whē they go forth of their houses, they are caried in chayres with courtines compassed about, with seruants and familier friends that do carie them, and that do accompanie them, in suche sorte that none are seene by the streetes, but people of low and base degree. The men doo buy the women whē they marry them, and pay for them to their fathers, much or lit­tel money, according to theyr degrees. And although that it be lawful for thē to haue as many as they can maintain, yet they dwel with one alone which is the chiefest in reputatiō, and the rest they lodge in diuers houses. And if they be men of trade and merchaunts that are traders, they do place them in such Townes where their busines & trade lieth. They doo not suffer within the Cities, that any common women should inhabite, but in the suburbes where is appointed vntoo them publike streetes for their habitation. All these for the moste parte are slaues bought from the powre of their moothers when they were children, for bycause it is permitted by law vntoo widowes that doe remayne poore, when they haue not where withal to sustein them to sel their children for their re­liefe: being oppressed with necessities, they go to riche mer­chaunts [Page 22] and offer their daughters that they may buy them. The which merchauntes moued with couetousnes do teache these yong maides too play of the Uirginalles and Git­torns and other such instrumentes: and after growing to ripe yeeres, they put them intoo the streetes too reise a gaine of their whoredomes. There is an accompt taken by an Offi­cer of the Kinges, which is appointed for this cause; vntoo whome the maister of these maides doth pay so much by the yeere, after the manner of tribute, and they to their masters euery Moneth asmuch as they doo agree vppon: and those which doo play of the Instrumentes and sing well, bee more esteemed & of greater pryce. When they are olde they make them looke young again, with ointments oyles, waters, and with collours, and when they are olde and of no more pro­fit, they remaine free without any longer bondage vnto their maisters, or any else, mainteyning themselues of that which they haue gotten in their youth, with their naughty trade. And the boyes do serue al kind of seruice in theyr houses, vn­til they be of yeeres to marry, & thē their maisters are bound to seeke then wiues, and to prouide them houses, and to giue them trade or order how they may get their liuing, and these seruauntes must geue their maisters euery yeere so much in knowledge of their bondage, but the children of these slaues remaine free. They doo celebrate all their holy dayes in the night, and principally at the tyme of the newe Mones, as people that walke in darkenes, with great shewes and many inuentions, and with much Musike. And specially they doo solemnise the first day of the yeere, which is amongst them at the tyme of the newe Moone of Marche: and therfore they trim and decke vp their houses and doores with many car­pets and clothes of silke, and of diuers kinds of roses and flowres planting in all the streets trees most high with their bowes cut off, wherevppon they hang many lights, and also of the triumphant Arches which in these dayes they decke with bowes, paint them, and hang them with clothes of Da­maske, & other diuers silkes. The Priests do assist in these ho­ly [Page] daies being richely appareled, and doo offer sacrifises too theyr Idolles, singing according too theyr fashion, and they are al ioyful with the musike, they sing very vnlyke one ano­ther in theyr voices, and diuers kind of instruments lyke too Gittorns, Uiolls, and Uioles of the bowe, Claricordes & Fluites. And although they be not of the selfsame making as oures are here, yet they are much like to thē, and are very cu­rious, & their voices do agree with the Instrumentes mar­uellously, & they make a maruellous accorde in the sounde. They haue many shewes or playes very pleasant of great en­tertainement for such as do vnderstande them, they do them very naturally with great preparation; and very lyke to the matter, which they do present them for. And al the tyme that these festiual dayes doo continewe, they haue their tables set ful of meate of diuers sortes, as well of fleshe, as of fishe, and of al kinde of fruites, and of most riche wynes of maruellous raste, and they and their Priests doo nothing else but eate & drinke at discretion vntill they can not stande: and in that point neither the Fleminges nor Almans do passe them.

In the principal dayes or feasts that euery one doth keepe as in the day of his byrth, they doo conuite their kinsfolkes and friendes, and bidde one another, and they send delicates and thinges too helpe them make their feastes. There are greate expences in these bankets, and those which make thē for their pastymes, they spende frankely theyr goodes in them, they are serued with maruellous policie, and with straunge order, and if there be one hūdreth guestes, euery one eateth alone, or by twoo and twoo, vppon littel tables moste gallant, so gilded, and painted with wildefowle, deare, and al other sortes of byrdes that they couer no table with clothes, but onely compasseth the table with a border or a frontall of Damaske in euery one that reacheth to the grounde, in the endes & sides. Rounde about the tables they put many little baskets very curious decked with flowres with diuers diffe­rent fruites, and in the middest the meate very orderly, and prepared as wel of fleshe as fishe, brothes of diuers sorts ser­ued [Page 23] in rich dishes made of fine whyte clay called Porcela­nas, or of siluer. They eate very cleanely, for they touche not their meate with their handes, but with smal stickes gilded that they holde betweene theyr fingers, and with forkes of siluer: they drinke many tymes, but little in quantitie, & they drinke it out of little cuppes made of the whyte fine earth that the Porcelanas are made of, too the end that they wold drinke very littel at a tyme. Women do helpe to serue in the meate and drinke, and too wayte at theyr tables: and when the tabels are serued the saide women do the office of iesters too make them merry and ioyful. They haue musitions in all these bankets and players vpon diuers Instrumentes, daun­cers and representers of comedies, wherewith they bee re­created as people without care, and without light of the glo­rie of heauen, not directing too any other ende but too the contentment and felicitie of this world, whereof they enioy the ful. The Lordes and the people of estimation are serued with much more Maiestie and curiositie, for they giue to thē at euery tyme they chaunge their meate, cleane napkins, knyues, forkes, and spoones. They vse great courtesies, and good behauiour one with thother in their quaffing and drin­king making much one of an other. And they are so ielowse, that they suffer not their wyues to eate with them in these feastes and assemblies: but they agree and eate togither in some other place apart from them: and there goeth no man into the place where they are but certaine blind men that are musicions to make them merry. They vse a certain courtesie at their meeting very strange, they shut theyr lefte hand and couer it with the right, and hold them vp many tymes vpon theyr brest, in token that they haue them fast shut vp in their hartes, and to this mouinge of handes they adde vnto words of courtesie. And amongst the commō people that which they commonly speake when they meete any strange friends, that haue not seene one the other many daies before is, that they doo aske them, if they haue eaten? and if they doo answere, they haue not, they carie them to the vittailling houses, and [Page] make them great cheare, and doo banquet them at their dis­cretion: For as I haue saide, in all places and streetes, as well within the citie as without, there are a great number of vittailing houses, where they sell meate and drinke aboun­dauntly of many sortes of meates: and if they saye that they haue eaten, they carry them to other houses, where only they are serued with Conserua and fruites and shellfish, and sun­dry sortes of wynes, wherewithal they banquet and recreate themselues. And if there come any guests, newly forth of any other place to theyr houses, if they finde them not with theyr best apparel that they vse to weare at a festiual tyme, they speake not vntoo them, nor make any reckening of them, vn­til they come in the most rich apparell they haue, and in ap­pareling themselues so, they receiue thē with great myrth & gladnes, & great courtesie. For they haue an opinion that it is not lawful, nor that they are not bonnde too receiue any guestes, which weare their common apparel, but such as doe come with their festiual apparel, and the best they haue, too shewe them that they haue caused with theyr coming, great feasts and gladnes in theyr houses. They vse too make very much of them at theyr comming, and theyr kinsefolk, neigh­bours and friends come too see them, and carrie them a wa­ter made of certaine hearbes sodden that is somewhat bitter and of a redd collour which is very healthful, and suche as they vse, ordinarily for too preserue them in health. All peo­ple in general giue themselues too labour, aswell in tilling the fieldes' as in other sciences and artes, and in the trade of merchandise, not permitting any ydle men. Neither is there [...]o Beggers. any poore people that doo begge among them, nor they giue them any almes, for they will that all get theyr liuinge with theyr labour. And therefore they haue this order if there bee any that are lame, & criple, or of greeuous diseases, and haue of theyr kinred that are able to susteine them, and doo it not, the chiefe Tresurer of the king and other Officers in that place doo force them too doo it, and so they giue them what they haue neede of, according too the abilitie that euery one [Page 24] hath: and if they haue no kinse folkes that are of wealth, then they commaund to prooue the same before theyr Officers or Ministers of Iustices, that they may commaund them to bee receiued into Hospitalles that the king hath to this ende in euery place, with ordinary Officers that doo minister and giue to euery one what they haue need of aboundantly, which coste proceedeth of his rents, and for the most parte al these are incurable vntil they die, they haue their names set down in their rowles and they themselues & the chiefe Treasurer, & keeper of the accomptes of the kings rentes doo visit the of­ficers and doo take accompt of the charges and prouision of the sick people. And if they find that they haue not done theyr dueties as they are bounde too doo in seruing and cherishing them, they are chastened without any forgiuenes. And for the blinde men beeing poore, they ordeine that they labour and work, and get theyr meate in grinding of wheat and Rise in milles, in place of moyles. And the blind women which are strompets they appoint other women too gouerne▪ trim, and decke them, which haue theyr sight, and haue left this kinde of naughty liuing. They are al very ingenious & fine of witte too doo any thing with theyr handes and chiefely they which vse too paint pictures; for they are maruellous painters of al kinde of byrds, as it is wel seene by the bedde [...], tables, win­dowes targets and other lyke which they bring from thence to Portingal, and very quicke of natural vnderstanding, & to finde out all kinde of artes▪ They haue many Co [...]thes, and Waggons, carried with horses. They vse abroade in Townes and villages Waggons that are caried vnder saile with the winde, and they gouerne them as easily as barkes in the water. I sawe many Portingales that did affirme this which had beene in that Countrie, and it prooueth to be so, for in some linen clothes are painted, which they bring from thence that I sawe in Lishebron there commeth painted the fashion that they are of. They haue such discretion and cunning in the trade of merchaundyse, that such as [...]oo vse it, are commonly false lyers, and full of mischiefe, for they [Page] doo not indeuour any thing, so much as too deceiue thē with whome they trade, as people without consciente, & clothed in deceipt. There are many that go rāging frō Prouince to Prouince with their merchaundyse carrying frō one to ano­ther, the things which they want, and goe down to the ports of the Sea to sel to straungers of the Ilandes and Realmes neere adioyning too thē. Others there are which lyue conti­nually in the Cities and Townes, where they haue greate lodges in the publike streetes vnder those Arches, and at the gate a table set, wherein they haue written all the merchaun­dise they haue. That which cōmonly they sel, is cloth of gold & peeces of silke of diuers sortes, and very curious, whereof are many crimsons, Damaskes and Taffetas, of so high a price, that the Portingals dare not giue for them that which they are worth, although it be a merchandese that most of all others they buy to carry to Malaca, and to other partes and realmes of that Sea coast, and to the India, and too Portin­gal. Theyr merchauntes of lower degree▪ do sel f [...]e & course [...]erge, of all collours and peeces of lynen cloth, and cotton wool, wherof the poore people doo apparell thēselues. They which haue simple medycines haue theyr signe set at theyr doores. Within the land is great store of Ru [...]arhe, but it is brought to Canton sudden, & not rawe. They sel the Porce­lanas which is the fiue dishes made of whyte clay at the gates of the Citie, there are of diuers sortes: those which are most fine, are not commonly sold, nor they are not brought in to these partes: for the gouerners, and presidents, and Lordes are serued with them, they are redd, green, gilded, some yeal­lowe, they are made of a white softe stone, and some are red, but the red is not so good, bicause it is of a more strong and base clay the which being ground is layed in certaine ponds of water which they haue made of free stone, and some▪ l [...]ked vppon but very cleane: and after they haue it well wet and turned two and fro in the water, of the creme or skimme that remaines vpon the water they make those which are moste fine, and the lower they go, so much the more course, and of [Page] that which remaineth lowest, they make the grossest or cour­sest, whereof the common people are serued, and they are fashioned euen in the sorte and maner as our earthen dishes are made heere, and they dry them in the sonne, and after they paint them, as they liste, with the inke of Anil which is fyne, as by them you may perceiue, and when they are drye they glase them, and they bake them. In the Prouince called Saxij are made the beste: and the greatest Fayre and sale of them, where they are moste sold, is in Liampo, which is a Citie of the same Prouince. The artificers and craftesmen are dwelling in the open places and streetes as they are here. There are goldesmithes that woorke vppon golde and siluer curiously, and maruellous gilders and grauers of gold which haue great shoppes full of counting houses and pain­ted & garnished Chestes, and many Chayres gilded with gold, & some with siluer of such as they cary theyr gouerners and other chiefe Officers of theyr common wealthes on theyr shoulders, which are very rich, and of great pryce, and specially one sorte of them which are made very high, and couered with windowes made with a lattesse of Iuory, that they which are within may see those that are without, & they not seene. These do serue to carry women when they passe in the Citie. They haue many rich beddes, tables, stooles, smal chestes so gilded and curiously wrought and painted wt gold, and other materialls, that it is wonderful to our great arti­ficers that we haue here. I [...]ad in my custodie a small coun­ting cheste, and I shewed it in Lishebron where I bought it, and in Seuil vnto the most curious men, and of most know­ledge in al artes that were in those Cities at that present, & with great admiration they saide to mee, that in all Europe was none that would take vppon them to make the lyke nor vnderstande the woorke that was in it. There are many woorkemen of laten which doo woorke an infinite number of al sortes of vesselles, of the which they serue and prouide al the Ilandes of those Seas and of other vesselles of Iron whereof they are great and cunning artificers; and they melt [Page] them according as they melt the latten in Norwey, but it is more lyke too glasse, for it breaketh easilie. There are more shoemakers then of any other science, bicause it is a thing that is much vsed and spent. In the Cytie of Canton there are twoo greate streetes of them without any other person of any other occupation that dwel amongst them, but there are many scatered abroade in other places of the Citie. In one of these streetes are solde riche stuffe, wherewith they make bootes and shoes that are couered without with silke of coullours with riche stringes, which is made very gal­lantly. There are Bootes of ten Ducats price; and of a Du­cat according to theyr goodnesse, and shoes of two Ducats and so downewarde, vntoo a maruedie which is the vi. parte of a pennie, and are of strawe, that the riche and poore may weare euery one as he listeth and as theyr abilitie serueth. In al other artes, there are a greate number of craftes­men very curious and of all thinges greate abundance. And they are so giuen too theyr owne profit, that of dogges bones and of other beastes, they serue themselues therewith in steede of Iuory, and of olde ragges and rindes of trees, and of canes they make paper and of small peeces of silke: of this they serue themselues too wryte vppon, and the rest for too rolle peeces of Damaske and Taffetas and other silkes in. They buy the dung of the houses for theyr grownd in the fieldes and especially for theyr garden hearbes. They bring vpp byrdes too singe, and they teache them too make visages; they apparel themselues of diuers fashions. They make all these inuentions and many other too get mony, wherewithall too passe theyr life. The mony that is among them is of copper, but that which most runneth amongest them is golde and siluer, which is chaunged for the valewe in waight, as it is in the Peru. All of them bring theyr Bal­launce and broken siluer too buy meate, and the reste of the thinges which they haue neede of. And when they buy any thing of greate quantitie, they haue Ballances in theyr houses, and greate waightes made iust and marked. They [Page 26] bring their siluer commonly full of drosse, too make it in­crease, whiche is the cause that although they haue many mynes, they carrie it as merchaundise from Iapaon, and much golde out of the Ilandes called Lechios. These I­landes are one hundreth leages more towardes the East from the Citie of Chincheo which is in the Prouince of Foquiem. The first Ilād standeth in xxv. degrees of heigth, and there are many other folowing in the course of the East Northeast, towardes the North; they are all fruiteful, and temperate and of meruellous good waters: the people that dwell on them are more whyte then tawnie, and well appa­relled and vse armor. They were subiect in the olde tyme too the people of China, and therefore they are much of theyr manners: but nowe they are of themselues; and beeing in the middest of the Sea, yet they giue themselues little too naui­gatiō. Of the fruites that the people of the China do gather and the merchandise which they trade, in they paie too the King a tribute very easie. The greatest burden they haue, is that they which keepe houses by themselues doo pay for e­uery person of theyr housholde the valewe of three score maruedies which is here xi. pence. And with this all theyr goods and landes are free too do with them what they list, and too leaue them to theyr children, and childrens children after their deaths, which is the cause that they labour so much as they doo too encrease them.

The tenth Chapter sheweth of the nauigation that the people of China haue in the Seas, and also in the fresh Riuers.

THere are in this Realme an infinite number of Shippes and Barkes, wherein they sayle by the Ilandes and coastes of the same, which are large, and by those great riuers, which do run through many partes of the same, in such sort as it is thought there doe dwell fewe lesse people on the water than on the lande, the great store of tim­ber that they haue doe helpe them much therevnto, and the mineralles of yron, and other necessarie things for the arte of nauigation, by the abundance whereof it is easie to make their Shippes and Barkes with verie little cost. The grea­test shippes they haue, are called Iuncos, which are verie [...] descrip­ [...] of the se­ [...] all sorts of [...], barkes, [...] gallies. great, and are made for the warres, with Castels very high in the poope & prore like to the Shippes of Leuant. There are so manie of these▪ that it is easie for any generall of the Sea to ioyne together in little time a nauie from fiue hun­dreth to a thousande of them, of the same making and great­nesse. They haue others for loading, but they are lower of poope and prore. Other smaller Shippes they haue, which they call Bancoens, which doe carie three great Oares in euerie side, with foure or sixe men to euerie Oare, and such serueth them much, for to go in, and come forth of the barde, hauens. And others there are called Lanteas, that row with seuen or eight Oares. These two sortes of small Shippes (although they bee for lading) yet the Pirates and theeues vse them, for there are manie in all these coasts, and Ilands, by reason they saile well. Also they vse other small shippes, [Page 25] that are long like to Gallies, wherein they lade great store of marchandize, to carie vp and downe by the riuers within the lande: these drawe little water after the fashion of Flan­ders Hoyes. There are an other sort of small Shippes and Barkes, different to these, and such great numbers bee of them that is wonderfull, but the relation thereof is knowne notoriously, and all serueth to carie marchandize from one place to another within the saide realme, bicause it is forbid­den that any man shall go foorth of it for any forraine place, although that in olde time they sayled much abroade, and conquering the Ilandes and Realmes of that Sea, vntill they came to the India, and at this day there is memorie of them in the coast of Coromandell, which is ouer against the Realme of Narsinga, on the side of the Sea of Bengala, where Saint Thomas built his house, where by report re­maynes to this day the reliques of his bodie.

There is a great Temple of Idolles, which serueth for a marke to such as do saile in that Sea coast, which is loweThe coast of China is low like as Flaun ders coast is. Shouldes an [...] flats perilous to strange fleetes. as Holland is, and is called the coast of the Chinas, bycause the people of Chinas built it in times past. And in the realm of Calicut be trees of fruite, which haue bene there of long time, and the naturall borne people of the Countrey [...]o say, that their Nation planted them. And in the Shouldes of Chiloa, which doth extende vnto the Iland of Ceilam to­wards the west part of Coromādel, it is affirmed by those of the land, that there was lost a great fleete of their Shippes which came vpon the India▪ by meane they were not perfect in the nauigation of those Seas. And it is also sayd that they were Lordes of Laoa, and of the Realmes of Malaca, Siā, and Chapaa, as commonly it is affirmed. And it semeth to be so, by reason that all the people of these Realmes are in ma­ners and conditions like to those of the China. But in this point as it seemeth they had more wisdome then the Grekes, Oarthaginenses, and Romaines, the which for to conquer o­ther straunge Countreys farre off, went so farre from their owne, that they came to lose their owne Countreys at home. [Page] And considering this, they woulde not so experiment their harmes and hurts any longer: but seeing how the India did consume them much people, & also great riches of their owne Realme, and that they were much troubled and tired of their neighbours, at such time as they went abroade conquering other kings landes, and hauing in their owne Countrey golde, siluer, and all other metall, and much naturall riches of their owne Country, and such great store of marchandize, that all other forraine nations did profite by, and themselues not profite of the benefites of any other Countrey. Al the go­uernours of these Prouinces, determined to consult herea­bout,A pollitike [...]aw that pur­ [...]haseth insi­ [...]ute benesites. and to bee humble sutors to their owne king, which at that time wast, o yeeld a remedie in this case. Who did esta­blish by law, and at this day it is kept verie precisely, that no subiect of his should sayle forth of his Realme vpon paine of his life: and that neither by Sea nor lande, no straunger should come to his lande, without the expresse licence of the gouernours of the Countrey where they ariue. With this or­der and maner the Portingales which go thither doe nowe trade. And when the naturall people of the Countrey will go from one Prouince to another, they giue sureties to returne within a certaine time which is appointed them. And they suffer them not to carie with them any shippes aboue the burthen of one hundreth tonnes, or one hundreth and fiftie, bi­cause they should not go farre of. And to the ende the shippes of the realme, & other strange ships that come thither in the trade of marchandize, may go safe & come safe; for that pur­pose the king hath great shippes armed and warlike, whichThe kings na­uie to cleare the coastes frō enemies and pirots. runne by all these coastes and Ilandes, to seeke out theeues and pirots, and within the Riuers they haue for this purpose many smal armed shippes verie good of sayle: and especially those that runne by the Prouince of Cansi, which standeth right ouer against the Laos, and the Bramenez their ene­mies, and also by other prouinces where need is, for to assure in safety such as are traders with their goodes and marchan­dizes. And bicause they may haue good dispatch in the ports, [Page 28] they haue established by law of the realme, that the first shipdispath at th [...] portes. which shall come in, shall first be laden and dispatched, and the rest as they come in by their order. They carie in allGalleries. these shippes galleries verie curious in the poope ouer the helme, and by imitation whereof the Portingales doe vse the like now in their galleons & ships that go for the India. AndA pitch of lime and oyle of fishe. also they vse a kind of Bitumen or pitch, which they learned of them, which they call the pitch that is made of lime and oyle of fishe, and common sort of pitch, made very smal and so incorporate, which is put betweene the sides of the shippes, and an other newe lining of boordes, that is made vpon the olde, vnto the place where the waters do ordinarily come, which is as much to say, the lading marke, when they are laden: and after that in place of pitch they turne to couer the newe liuing with the said newe kinde of pitch, which isThis pitch is defensiue a­gainst the wormes. so profitable to the boorde or table, that neuer after entereth into it any worme, and within short time it is made so hard with the water as a stone. And with this the ships of China endure a long time, in such sort that they haue put to some of their shippes called Iuncos, the same kinde of pitch foure or fiue times, that their side is as hard as a wall, but they re­maine with this kinde of fortification verie heauy to go withDiscōmoditie of the pitch. Pumpes arti­ficial. the saile. They vse a certaine kinde of pumpes made of ma­ny peeces, like to Anorias of Spaine, put a long by the shippes sides within, so artificially, that one man sitting and moouing his feete continually as one that goeth vp a paire of staires, pumpeth a great shippe in little time, although she make verie much water.

The great store of Barkes that are for seruice in Ri­uers,Barkes innu­merable. Multitudes of families al­wayes liuing on the water. are innumerable, and it is to the Barkemen an inheri­tante and continuall habitation. They carie in them their wiues and children in one side of them, coueved like a house, and in the other side they haue made a place for the ease of their passengers. And as the Riuers are verie great, and broade, and nauigable, there are in them continually manie Barkes, like to vittayling houses▪ where is to be had meate [Page] and drinke verie delicious: and there are like wise to be solde all fiue sortes of marchandize that are to bee founde in the great Cities. Also there are manie poore people of the villages which are sitting at the Riuers sides, they dwell also in Barkes in the water, without hauing any other place to goe vnto, the men their wiues and children, they bring their couerings for to defende them from the raine and from the Sunne, and they breede in them hennes, Geese, Pige­ons,They breede [...]oultrie and [...]oule in the Barkes. Gardens. and in the outside they make a little Garden, wherein they plant flowers, and some garden hearbs. These get their liuing in going to worke in the Countrey in the small villa­ges at all kind of worke. And the women they passe ouer by Barke the way fairing men, if any come, and they also go vp and downe the Riuer with great long canes, & certaine smal baskets made of twigges tied at the ende, where withal they catch shell fishe, for to susteyne themselues. In other greater Barkes goeth people of wealth, and some Barkes do apper­teine to riche men, where their seruants are, they haue in them certaine great cages made of Canes as long as the Barke, wherein they are accustomed to bring vp three or foure thousande Duckes, which they feede in this manner, when it is day they giue them sod Kise, not so much as mayWater foule. fill them, and immediately they set open the doore where they are, that they may cast themselues into the Riuer, by a doore that is made of the same Canes: And it is a maruellous thing to see, the haste howe they goe out one vpon another, vntill they come a lande, where they goe feeding all the dayRosiers. Rewardes. vntill night, in the places where Roses doe growe. The ow­ners of the Roses do giue to the Barkemen rewardes, by­cause they make cleane the places where the Roses growe of the grasse that growes among them, & at night they makeThe foule re­turne by noise of the drum. a signe or noyse with a small drumme, and then they come all home. And although there are diuerse Barks togither, they knowe to which Barke they should goe▪ by reason of the sounde, and they returne into the same Barke with the like furie they went forth. And bycause there may be moued some [Page 29] question after what sort they raise and breede such great mul­titudes of Duckes and water foule, you shall vnderstand thatEgges hat­ched by [...] perate hea [...] of d [...]urg, a also by warmth of fire. in the Sommer time they put two or three thousand egges into dung, and with continual warmth, and gentle heate thereof and with the time, there commeth forth this broode, as the Chickens doe in grand Cairo in Aegypt: and in the Winter they make a great hearth, vpon the which they put a great number of egges, and vnderneath they make a soft, mtid [...], and gentle fire, and so it continueth in one sort for cer­taine dayes, vntill these broodes come foorth: and this is the cause that there are such multitudes of them. The Barkes of these fishers, as well in the Sea as in the Riuers, are innu­merable, for the which cause it is manifest, that it is the best prouided Countrey of fish that is in the whole world For as I haue sayde, although it be 500. leagues within the lande, they eate euery day fresh fishe of the Sea. And for bycause this shoulde not seeme incredible, I will referre mee to theThe politik increase a [...] breeding o [...] fishe. order that they haue therfore euery yeare in the month of Fe­bruarie and March, & part of April, when the great Freshes do come. The fish of the Sea doe come to cast their spawne, or egges, at the going forth of the Riuers, which is the cause that there doth breede great store of small fishe in the creekes thereof, to which places all the fishermen doe come that dwell along the coast, with their Barkes and nettes with them, they fishe of this fishe, and they cast them into certeine pondes, which they make in the water after the maner of a rounde circle, vpon great roddes and course nettes, where they liue and are susteyned vntill the fishing be done, which dureth certaine dayes. In this time there they vse too come downe a great multitude of Barkes of all the Prouinces of the China, of the innermost part of the lande, in the which Barkes they bring manye Baskets made of twigges, and lined with Paper layde vppon with Oyle, that the water maye not come foorth, and euerie one of these doe buy the Fishe that they haue neede of, according to the Baskettes that they doe bring, and forth with they returne a­gaine [Page] into the lande, moouing them euery day into other wa­ter, for too sell them where best they may be payed for them. And al men that are of abilitie doe buy of these baskets for the storing of their pondes, which they haue at their houses, and places of their inheritances. And they are made to growe and increase in short time with the dung of Kine. And in all the ditches of the Cities there is cast in, and doe breede after this sort great quantitie, the which the gouer­nours and officers of the King doe enioy: whereby is vnder­stoode the maruellous industrie which they vse for to enioy the great abundance thereof. And the king hath for these fi­shings in all the cities which are built vpon the Riuers sides, [...]acrowes to [...] fish with. many sea Rauens, or Cormorants putte into cubbes, where they breede and multiplie: with the which Cormorantes there is made a great fishing. And the Barkes that are ap­pointed for this fishing do come togither, and are put in com­passe in the middest of the Riuer, and they doe binde fast the gorges or mawes of these birds, bicause the fishe should not discende downe to the guttes, and they cast them out to fishe, and to swallow downe vntill they fill theyr mawes of small fishes, and if they meete with any great one, they take him out of his bill, wherewith all they returne into the Barke to cast out all he hath taken. After this sort they continue theyr fishing vntill they haue what they will, and then they vnlose them, and do returne them to their places, that they may fill themselues at their owne will, and so they put them into their cubbes as before. Some part of these fishes the king doth giue to his officers, and the rest is distributed for the proui­sion of the Cities for to encrease his reuenues. The Barkes wherein the gouernors and the officers do saile in, haue their couerings high, and theyr cabans verie well wrought, and gilded both without and within, with theyr windowes, & case­mentes adorned with fine shewes. And the Barkes of the of­ficers of lower degree, are well neare built after the same maner, and with as much gallantnesse. There are so many Barkes of the one sort and of the other, that they say com­monly [Page 30] that theyr King maye make a bridge vpon Barkes,Astraung [...] thing wor [...] the noting that will reach from China to Malaca, which is fiue hun­dreth leages distant.

The xi. Chapter, sheweth of the letters, cyphers, and figures of the people of China, and of their studyes in generall.

THe people of China haue nō number of letters in their A B C, for all that they write is by figures, signifying the hea­uen which they call Guant, by one onely figure which is this. And the king which they

[figure]

cal Bontai, which is this. And in like order the earth, the Sea, and the rest of the Elaments, and names, vsing more than fiue thousande ciphers or figures, different one from the other, which they make verie readily. I saw a China doe it, and I requested him to write certaine names, and he shewed to me the numbers that they doe account withall, and they were easie to vnderstand, and to summe and rest any maner of ac­count by Arithmetike by them as well as by those of our ci­phers: they make the lines throughout both aboue and be­neath, verie equall and wich great order, beginning contra­rie to vs. After the self same order they haue in their impres­sion which they vsed many yeares before it was vsed in Eu­rope. Of their printed bookes which doeth treate of theyr Histories, there were two of those bookes in the power of the most excellent Queene of Portugale, the Ladie Kathe­rine that now liueth. And that which seemeth most to be mar­ueyled at, is, that they speaking different languages in the most part of theyr Prouinces, and the one vnderstande not the other by speache, more than the Gascoines doe vnder­stande [Page] the Valencianos, yet generally they vnderstande one another by wryting, for one maner of figure or cipher doth serue euerie one of them, and to signifie to them any maner [...]traunge ef­ [...]ct in their riting. of name. And although they declare one to another of them any worde that is straunge, yet they vnderstande that it is the selfe same thing, bycause they see plainely that it doeth signifie a Citie which is this,

[figure]

and some doe call it Leombi, and others Fu, the one and the other doe vnderstand that it is to be vn▪ derstoode a Citie, and the like followeth in all other names. And in this sort they talke one with another in writing, those of Lapaon, and I­landes of the Lechios, and the Realme of Guachinchina, without vnderstanding anie woorde the one with another when they speake. In all Cities the king hath generall [...]ree scholes. Schooles at his owne cost, and to them doe come an infinite number of Scholers to be taught. A Frier named Gaspar de la Cruz, being a religious mā of Portingale, of the order of Saint Dominicke, that was in that Countrey in the Ci­tie of Canton, and that wrote plentifully the things he saw, and that which happened to him in the voyage, sayeth, that they teach in these their Schooles onely the lawes of theThe lawes [...]aught in Schooles. Astronomers Realme and no other science. But there bee some learned men that haue knowledge of the course of the heauens, wher­by they know the Eclipses of the Sunne and of the Moone, and these teach to particular parsones, of their owne free wil. And Iohn de Barros doeth say, that beside the teaching of their owne lawes, they also teach naturall Philosophie, and that they be great Astrologers, which he knoweth by rela­tion of others, and by a booke they brought him from thence of the scituation of the Countrey, with a Commentarie vpon the same after the maner of an Itinerary, with a Mappe orA not able [...]all. Carde Geographicall, made by the sayde people of the Chi­na, wherein is mention made of one wall, which beginneth from the Citie of Ocoioy, and standeth betweene two verie high mountaines, euen like vnto a way, passage or gate that passeth through that whole Region, which doth runne from [Page 31] fortie three to fortie flue degrees from the West to the East, and vntill it meete with another great hill which runneth out into the Easterly Seas, after the maner of a head lande, or Cape, and seemeth to be in length more then two hundreth leagues, which the kinges in times past did commaunde too buylde, for to defende the incursions of the Tartares from his Countrey, their auncient mortall enemies. And all those Mountaines, Rivers, Cities, and Townes, with theyr names, which Carde or Mappe did answere well to the booke, after the maner as they vse there, is after three sortes, that is by stature, league, and iourney, and wee vse the like. And the first and least distance they call Lij, which haue so much space as in a plaine grounde, and a calme day the voyce of a man may be heard, and ten of these Li [...]s doe make one Pu, which doe answere little more then a leage of ours of Spaine, and ten Pues do make a dayes iourney, which they cal Ichan. And it is not to be marueyled that they do not scituate the distance of the lande with degrees answering too the celestial Orbe, seeing that at the time of Ptolome it was not vsed of the Geographers, notwithstanding that hee sayth they haue this vse in their Oroscopos when they vse their Astrologie.

The king doeth sende to these Scholers euerie yeare vi­sitorsVisitours of Schooles. to examine the students, to see and vnderstand if they profite in learning. And those which are able and learne wel, they honor with woordes of commendation, and do animate them that they go forwarde in theyr studie, offering them to increase theyr liuings: and those which do not profite in lear­ning, they commaunde to be put into Prison, and they whip them: and when they are altogither vnprofitable, they dis­patch them away euery three yeares. The visitors vse this kinde of examination, when they come to take residence of the Iudges, and the Kinges Officers: and they bring power and authoritie to graduate such as are able men, and of sufficient knowledge in the lawe, which is to make them sufficient for to serue the king in Offec [...]s and gouernements, [Page] as it is more at large declared in an other Chapter follo­wing.

The xii. Chapter sheweth howe that of all this great Realme of China one onely Prince is King and Lorde: and of his Councell and Maiestie, of his house, and Court.

AL this great Realme is sub­iect to one onely king and mo­narche which doeth gouerne & reigne in it. And there doth succeede in the Realme from fathers to sonnes, and for lacke of them it goeth to the next in kinred: but, as they marry ma­nie wiues, according to the maner of the Turkish Empe­rours, verie seldome times they lacke successours. The first child that is born of any of his diuerse wiues is of force inhe­ritor of the Realme: & to the rest of the children after they are maried, there is appointed to them Cities, wherein they shall liue priuately, where they are prouided of all thinges that are needfull for them, according to their degrees, with expresse commandement that they go not forth of them, nor euermore after to come at the Court, vpon paine of losse of theyr liues. And when in olde time the kings maried their sonnes, they made a solemne banquet vnto all the knightes and principall Lordes of his Court, and did commaunde to carie with them their sonnes and daughters richly appara­led, and trimmed; and in this congregation came the Prin­ces, where all the Ladies were ioyned in companie, and there they choose for their wiues such as to them seemed best and fayrest, and the yong women did the like of the yong men, but nowe they marie themselues with those of theyr owne kindred. This same selfe rigor that is vsed of shetting [Page 32] them vp, all the rest of the kinges kindred doe suffer the like, being resident for the most part in the Citie of Cansi, with commandement that some do neuer go forth of their houses too auoyde all manner of occasion and suspicion, of alte­ration.

The dwelling houses where these Princes dwell are ve­rieAmple hou­ses with Princely plea­sures. great, for within them they haue all the pleasure and con­tentmēt that is to be thought, aswell of Gardens, Orchards, Pondes of fish of diuerse sortes, as also of Parks, where they haue diuerse kinde of deare and foule, such as may be had in Mountaines and Riuers, all compassed about with walles, which maketh more compasse than a great towne. And as they vnderstand in nothing else but in making much of them selues: they are commonly fat, of good conditions, peaceable, and liberall with straungers. They giue themselues much to Musicke, wherewithall they passe the time, and in other quiet exercises. The gouernours and the kings officers are bound to visite them in all their festiuall dayes, and if they ride along by their doores on horse backe, they alight downe, and if they be caried in Chaires they descend downe also, and they passe by making little noyse, as men that make no shew of their authoritie, nor ordinarie pompe as they are accusto­med to doe. And for this cause they haue their gates of these houses painted with red oker, bycause they shal be knowne. There is not in all this Realme any Lorde that hath sub­iects, or iuristdiction, or other title, than of an Off [...]eer, which is the most honourable title they haue, and it doth signifie in their language, as much as if we in our language should say Lord and knight. It is gotten by studie, and sufficiencie in the lawes of the Realme, and by worthinesse in the field, and by particular seruice made too the king, or to the commonPainted gates. wealth. Those wt are chosē for the lawes of y realm▪ & for men of warre, are extolled according to the desertes that euerie one doe▪ vntill they come to bee Presidents and gouernours of the Prouinces, and▪ generall Captaines in the Sea▪ and in the lande: and they are occupied also in other offices of the [Page] house and Court of this Prince, and to be of the kings coun­cell, which is the highest office that is. Those which they make sufficient in learning, they choose in this maner. The king doth sende euerie three yeares a Chaen, which is as one should say a Iudge of residence to euerie Prouince, that hee may visite the gouernours and officers thereof. And this vi­sitation being ended, hee dooth commaund that in the chiefe Citie there be ioyned the most learned studentes of the most Cities of that iurisdiction, & with the most learned lawiers, and of most authoritie, they are all examined, and such asGraduating. they fynde sufficient, they doe graduate with much solemni­tie, and with great ceremonies, making themselues merie in these feastes certaine dayes with much musicke, daunces, Comedies and banquets: where withall hee sendeth them to the Court, that they may receyue the signes of men of lawe, which are certaine Coyfes with eares, and also hat [...]es, and broade and long gyrdles, and there they remaine vntill their letters patients of their Offices be giuen them. And such asChoise of the Captaines. are made for the warres, first they choose the Captaines ge­nerall, exalting the valtauntest souldiers with honourable & profitable roomes: for they do not let to esteeme all such as doe valiantly, and to rewarde them with great liberalitie, in­creasing theyr giftes according to theyr deserts. The rest of the Offices are giuen by the king himsefe, but these rise no higher in degree, but to haue this title of Captaine generall, for to enioy many liberties, freedomes and gaine, which is an ordinarie thing to such.

This Prince seldome or neuer goeth forth of his Pa­lace, for the conseruation of his greatnes, and the authoritie of his estate, but when hee goeth to the warres, or do remoueRare cōming of the king abroade. with his Court. And he hath within the compasse of his house all the pleasures and pastimes that may bee deuised for the content of mankinde, and the lodginges of his sonnes and kinsfolkes are so great, as it is before sayd, whereof the Ma­iestie and greatnesse of his house may be imagined. And that it is not to bee marueyled that it is so great, as some doe say [Page 33] the Citie of Paquin is, where he is resident for the most part, by reason of the greate warres hee hath with the Tartarres, that in one day from Sunne to Sunne, a man cannot rideBetwene & gate [...] than a d [...] iourney [...] horsebac [...] from one gate to another. And besides his Palace, the houses are verie great which apperteine to those of his Counsell, and the rest of his gouernours and captaynes, and of manie other men of lawe, that are alwayes resident in the Court. The same is sayde by the Citie of Manquin, where in olde time the kinges were accustomed to dwell and haue theyr Courte, by reason it was set in a fruitfull soyle, freshe and calme. And in remembraunce that he hath beene continually resident there, they haue in that Citie in the house of the trea­surer of the kings rentes in that Prouince a table of Golde,A table o [...] golde. wherein is written the name of the king that then reigned, couered with a riche Curteine, and they goe to it and reue­rence it, as though it were the king himselfe. And so all the Officers and Lawyers, and chiefe Gouernours are bounde to drawe the Curteine aside in all festiuall dayes, that is, in the time of the newe Moones, which amongest them is the first day of the Moneth. And in the rest of the Prouinces, there are other Tables like to this, but they go not to them to make anie reuerence, but when they doe discouer them: whereby you may vnderstand [...] the veneration that they giueThe kings title. to their prince. And they giue him title of the Lorde of the worlde, and the Sonne of heauen. The seruants and suche as serue in his house are gelded men, by reason of the num­ber of wiues they haue, and so are the most part of his chiefe Counsaile bycause that with more assurance they may go in to him, & consult with him in the businesse of the gouernment of his Realme, and estate of his warres: and no others doe speake with him but those. His Realme is so large and long, that for to goe by iourneys from the Citie of Can­ton, An argu [...] of a larg [...] dominion. to his Court, is foure or fiue monethes iourney: and yet there are other Cities further. Hee hath knowledge euerie Moneth, and relation of all thinges that doe happen in eue­rie Prouince, aswell touching the state, warres, and rentes, [Page] as of al other successes, with ordinarie postes that the Gouer­nours do dispatch to him for this effect. The same order of the poste is as we haue among vs. Barros doth write, that they runne with collers of Belles, and others that haue beene in that Countrey say, they vse to blowe with a horne to aske hor­ses, and to giue knowledge to Barkes to passe Riuers. The Embassadours of Princes beeing his friendes or enemies, are receiued with greate veneration: they lodge them, and prouide them of all things needful with great liberalitie: and when they come where the king is, al the Lords and knights of the Court go forth to receiue them, & they giue them great gifts and presents, and honor them with the title of Lawiers. Some kings being farre of from him, as the king of Aua, Siam, Melitij, Bacham, Chabam, Varagu, which fell to the north partes of Pegu, and do acknowledge him obedience, in remembrance that in olde time they were his subiectes, they send him ordinarily their Embassadors with some present, & for the great iourney they haue to this kings Court, they al­wayes send with the embassage foure or fiue persons, euerie one with like authoritie, that if it happe some of them to die in the way, or vntill they be dispatched from thence: and if they die not of anie disease, they alwayes poyson one or two of thē in some banket, vnto whom they make verie sumptuous Se­pulchres, with Epitaphs conteining what they were, and the cause of their comming, and by what prince they were sent: and this is for to continue the memorie and greatnesse of the renowne of his Realme. The Embassadors of the rest of the Princes are so priueleged in such sort, that those of his coun­saile hauing condemned too death one Bartholomew Perez, and all the rest of his companie that was sent to this coūtrie, by the gouernour of the India as Embassadour of the king Don Emanuel of Portingal, surmising that their embassage was false, and that they were spies, by reason of a certaine relation giuen against them by the embassadors of the king of Malaca, and the king himself vnderstanding of the matter, did commaund, that their Embassage being false or true, it [Page 34] was sufficient that there should be no hurt done to their per­sones, seeing they were entred within the realme with the title of Embassadors. Other there are that come for some common weales, which are Lordes that do owe obedience to him: they make no enterteynment to such, but vse them with a strange kind of Ceremonie. When they say to them that they shall go to see the king, they appoint them the day and houre, and they cause them to goe on foote, or on horsebacke, with bridles of strawe for humilitie. And in comming too a great place that is before the kings house, they stay vntill there come vnto them an Officer of the kings, who doth the office of the maister of Ceremonies, and doe commaunde them to passe forwarde. And at a certaine place they kneele downe, & hold vp both theyr hands togither, as though they prayed to God, & they beholde one quarter part of the houses of the kings palace, where they tel them that the king is, & at times in equall space, they make other fiue times their pray­ers, and without turning their shoulders, they returne backe­warde with the like Ceremonies: and this being done, they send them away. This say they, is to go to see the king. If they giue them licence to say what they will, they remaine in the last prayers on their knees, vntill there come to them an other officer which is the Secretarie that writeth downe all that they aske, and with saying to them that they will consult of it with the Lord of the world, they are sent away for that time, vntill they bee dispatched with the determination and opinion of his chiefe Coun­saile.

The XIII. Chapter sheweth of the Presidentes and Officers, which are in euery Prouince, and the or­der which they haue in the Gouernment of them.

THE King doth prouide Of­ficers for the Gouernment of euery Prouince, besides ordi­narie Iudges, which are in some prouince more thē three [...]. officers prouince. thousande; as also fiue Presi­dents; and euery one of them hath his iurisdiction by him­self, of diuers causes: the chief of them is called the Tutan, which is a Uiceroy or gouerner of al the Prouince, vntoo whome they come generally with the knowledge of al great griefes and smal offences. And al the penalties thereof, the ordinary charges being taken away, he sendeth to the court, and with the relation of al the newes that doeth happen eue­ry moneth. His aurtoritie and maiestie is so great, that he is not resident where the rest of the Lawyers are, bicause hee wil not be visited and frequented of them. The second in dig­nitie is the Ponchasi, which is asmuch too say, as the chiefe gatherer of the kings rents, and President of the Counsel of the kings reuenues. This office executeth he without the coū sel of any Lawyers. There are many other officers that doo serue to recouer the kings rentes with the which they come to the Tutan as afore saide, and it is at his charge too com­maunde too pay al mens wages, ordinary and extraordinary charges, & to take accompt of them, as head Gouerner of al inferiour Officers. The thirde in dignitie is the Anchasi, which is the President of the ciuil and criminal Iustice who doth see and determine withal his hearers and Officers all wightes and buzines, which goe in degree of appellation to his tribunal frō the rest of the ordinary Iudges of that Pro­uince, [Page 35] & all other thinges which are conuenient for the good gouernmēt & expedition of iustice. The fourth is the Aytao, who is the purueiour general, and President of the Counsell of warres, too whome doth aperteine the liuing of men and prouiding of shippes, vittailes, and munitions for the ships of warre, that goe to the Sea, and for armes by lande and for ordinary garisons of the cities and frontier Townes, and to know what straungers do come, and from whence they come and what they wil. The fifth is the Luytisi, which is the Cap­taine general that doth put in execution that which is ordei­ned by the Aytao and those of his councel. And whē there is giuen occasion of any warres of importāce with any migh­ty Prince, then goeth this President in person too rule or gouerne in them. Al these Officers are of great auctoritie, and such as are officers vnder them, are wel taken & of great estimation. Euery one of them, excepte the Luytisi, haue ten hearers or Iudges in his councell, which doo assist him, ordinarily for the dispatching of his buzines, which are men of great auctoritie and estimation: and when they be in coū ­cel, fiue of them doo sit of the right side of the President, and fiue of the left. Those that sit on the right side be of more pre­heminence then the other fiue, in that they weare girdelles of golde, and yellow hattes: and they of the lefte side, do weare gyrdelles of siluer, and theyr hattes are blewe. And it is not permitted that any other Iudges of the Lawe weare these gyrdelles of golde and siluer and hattes of these collours, vnlesse they bee such as are Capteynes or other officers of the men of warre. And if by chaunce the Presidēt dye, there doth succeede in his place the most auncient Iudge next too him. And when there is any need to go to visit the Prouince, there goeth one of them with the auctoritie that euery one of them haue too put order in the thing that is conuenient to be reformed. These Presidents and the other Iudges do bring in theyr shoulders and brestes the kings armes, and they are a certain kind of serpents woeuen with threed of gold. They haue many other inferiour officers: and although they be but [Page] Lawyers they alwaies speake too them kneeling on theyr knees, except onely the head keeper of the prisons which is an office amongst them of much estimation. This mā when he commeth in kneeleth down, & ryseth vp again whē he spea­keth to thē. And when these Iudges come newlie too the pro­uinces, there go forth to receiue them al the men of the warre with many banners and other souldierlyke shewes, and all the rest of the Lawyears and officers with great myrth and ioy. They haue on these dayes al the streetes very much dec­ked with diuers sortes of silkes, and with bowes & branches and with dyuers sortes of flowres of most sweete smel, and they accompany them vntoo the streetes where they muste lodge with much musike and diuers sortes of instrumentes, Lykewise the king doth commande to prouide with the opi­nion of al his counsell al the rest of the ordinarie Officers of the Cities and Townes of his Realme, with consideration that they bee not of the saide Countrie whether they shal go to minister Iustice, that they bee not moued by affection too doo what they ought not, nor behaue themselues with inso­lencie, nor yet that they bee not made mightie, with the auc­toritie in commaunding, in suche sorte that they may cause some insurrection and alteration. This Lawyers nor the rest of the officers that are appointed too them, of these supreme offices, do make any maner of preparation when they depart from the Court too the place of theyr gouermentes, but onely of apparel and a fewe seruauntes that serueth them, for in al places where they shal passe through, the King hath at his cost, houses appointed and officers, that shal lodge and serue them with al thinges necessarie, and doo prouide for them Horses, and barkes if they haue neede of them. And for theyr meate it is appointed what shal be giuen to euery one of thē, according to his degree and office. And this liberality they vse with al the rest of the Lawyers, generally although they go not prouided of offices. At such tyme as they come, they aske them if they will haue theyr stipende that is appointed for them, in meate or mony: if they wil haue it in meate, they [Page 36] serue them very daintily, as too men that haue auctoritie to commaunde too whippe those Officers if they doo not theyr dueties. And when they wil lodge in the house of some of their acquaintance or friendes bicause they wil be at more liberty too bee merrie, then they giue them that portion as is apoin­ted too them in mony. Al these houses are very wel prouided for, by such as haue the charge of them: it toucheth the Pon­chasi of the Prouince, for that hee must take accompte of such as are officers, of the expences that is made of all these vittailing & lodging houses. In al these houses they lodge al the ordinarie officers that they may exercyse theyr Offices, as Notaries, serieants, porters, euen vnto the executours of Iustice, vnto whome the king doth giue meat & wages suffi­ciently and are payde euery Moneth, bicause they should not carrie nor take any bribes of any person. And for this they haue an order that none of these Lawyers can prouide or cō ­maunde any thing in Iustice, but that it must passe before al these officers, and in publike audience which is done in this maner. The Iudge is set downe in his tribunal, and at the entery in of the hal stande the porters which declare with loude voice the persons name that cōmeth in to aske iustice, and what hee demaundeth: who falleth downe on his knees a good way frō the Iudge, & doth propoūd with a lowde voice his cause, or telleth them by wryting what hee woulde haue. And this petition one of the Notaries doeth take and reade with alowd voice: and being seene and heard, hee doeth pro­uide and commaunde Iustice to be done therevpon, and doth signe it with his owne hand with red Inke, and if he doo not so, then hee doth remit too an other inferiour Iudge that he may do it. This maner of order is kept so precisly that by no meanes they can bee brybed, vnles the officers shoulde vn­derstande it, and as they shal bee by them absolued or con­demned in their residences they feare them, all these are ve­ry presise too execute that which they are commaunded as wel Notaries as Serieantes and the rest. And if any of thē do make any fault in theyr office, euē at the very howre there [Page] is put in their hands a littel banner, and so doo holde it in theyr handes kneeling vntil all buzines at that audience bee dispatched and concluded. And foorthwith the Lawyer doth commaund the executioner that he giue him as many whips as too him seemeth good, which are such as heereafter shall bee declared: in such sorce that all those Officers go alwayes for the most parte with plaisters and markes, and this is so ordinary among them, that they take it for no shame too go in that sort: When one of these Iudges doo walke in the Cy­tie, he goeth accompanied with these ministers. Officers, & other people among them▪ and there goeth before him eight Officers by both sides of the streetes: the twoo foremost goe with maces of siluer made as oures are, put into certain long staues, and they signifie that these Iudges and Lawyers are in theyr office in place of the King: the other twoo that fol­lowe, doo carry twoo long canes in theyr handes on high; which do represent the trewe and rightful iustice they ought too doo: and thother twoo that followe after these doo carrie other twoo canes, haling them vppon the grounde, and knit to them certaine long red gyrdles, and in the point of them certaine tasselles which are the instrumētes of iustice where with al they whippe. And the twoo porters go with certain tables listed vpp after the fashion and making of a target: wherein is written the name of the Iustice, and the charge and Office that he hath: and those that go before these do bid with a lowde voice, that they giue place, bycause it is not per­mitted that any man of what degree soeuer hee bee shoulde passe a thwart the street nor walke, as long as these Iudges passe, vppon payne too bee whipped without remission that shoulde doo against it. This Prince hath so great care, that his Iudges & Officers as wel the Gouerners as Presidents & al the rest should vse theyr offices wel, as they ought to do, that although he do send from three yeeres, to three yeeres of­ficers which are called Chaenes to take accōpt of the Iud­ges, yet besides that, from vi. Monethes to vi. Monethes, or from yeere too yeere, hee doth dispatche with all secret other [Page] extraordinary Iudges which are called Leachis, & are men that he hath great trust in, and those that are very familier with him, that they may visit those Prouinces with so great iurisdiction and autoritie, that without returning too him, they may chasten al maner of offices be they neuer so great, and put out of office al Iudges & Officers at theyr wil. And bycause they shoulde execut [...] this with more Iustice, there is taken of them an othe of theyr faithfulnesse and secresie, giuing them to drinke three tymes of the wyne, they vse com­monly to drinke of, which is the maner of theyr othe. And bi­cause hee may goe with more secrecie, the Secretaries doo make the letters pattents without any name of him that shal goe, nor whether hee shal goe more then to shewe in the letters patents that in what place soeuer that Lawyer shall come and present those letters patents, [...]e bee obeyed as the king himselfe, vnto whom he sheweth by worde of mouth in secrete, the Prouince whether he shall go. And so hee depar­teth vnknowen without knowing vnto any other whether he shal go. And in comming too the place hee seeth, and vnder­standeth al things that are vsed there, and no man knoweth what hee is, nor what hee pretendeth, and in what sorce all officers do minister Iustice. And this not geuing knowledge of any thing what his comming is, hee staieth vntill a day that the Presidents doo ioyne togither with the Tutam, too make a general consultation which is once euery Moneth. Then he goeth in to present his letters patentes, & presently they aryse euery one of them and goe aside with greate hu­militie to heare iudgement against themselues, and foorth­with they are executed. And if there bee any suspencion, then he doth prouide in theyr places other newe officers: and if hee finde that they haue serued wel, hee doth honor thē much & doth remoue them to better places & of more trust. These are woont too visit the Schooles & examine the Studentes: and such as doo not learne, hee commaundeth them too bee whipt and too bee put in prison, and the vnprofitable are put out of theyr places, & such as are vertuous hee offereth them [Page] fauour and promiseth them hope of exhibition. There is an other office or dignitie aboue all these, which is that of the Quinchai, and is asmuch to say the sell of gold. This man goeth not out of the court, but when any great matter doeth concerne the king, & of the good gouernment, and quietnes of the whole realme. In all causes as wel ciuil as criminal, the Iudges doo proceede orderly in theyr causes, and doo make theyr actes and doo examine the witnesses in publike before theyr officers and ministers, bicause there shall be no falsehod nor deceipt vsed in the as king of that which they know, nor in wryting therof. They examine euery witnesse by himselfe, and if they doo agree in theyr declarations and depositions they put them aside, and doo aske thone and tho­ther, vntil they come to differ among themselues, bicause by reason that thone and thother doo alledge they may come to declare the trueth the better. And when they can not vnder­stande the certaintie, they whippe them, and giue them tor­ment in such sort, that by one way or other, they may declare the trueth effectually. They haue great respect in these cau­ses too men of estimation of whome they presume that they are not persons that wil lye. In causes of great importaunce and that doeth touche graue personnes, the Iudges doo not trust theyr Notaries too wryte the informations, but they with theyr hands do set down al the acts. Of such as are prisoners for debt, there is a tyme appointed wherein they shal pay them, and if they performe not, they commaund that there bee giuen too them many whippes, and they turne and commaunde a newe. Another tyme, and if they pay not, they returne too whippe them againe: and in this sorte they pro­ceeded with them vntil they dye with strypes, if their kinse­folkes doo not pay for them. When any dweller wil passe to another habitation in some other street then where he dwelt before, or go too some other Towne, they haue a custome too ring vppon an emptie Bason by all the neighbours with a common crier which shal say that such a person doth remoue, and too what place, that if he owe any thing, that they come [Page] to demaunde it before bee depart, bycause no person shoulde loose any thing dewe too them: if this person doo absent him­selfe without making this diligence, the Iustices do compel al his neighbours too pay al the debtes that he owe, bicause they were so negligent and did not aduise the Iustice of his remouing. Those which are Prisoners for thefte or murder, are kept perpetually in the prisons, vntil they dye by whip­ping, or by hunger or cold. For although they be condemned too death, they doo execute the Iudgement with such delibe­ration, that many yeeres after they come to die for necessitie, as before is declared, or of theyr natural death. And for this cause there are a great number of prisoners in euery Cytie and Towne. And it is affirmed that only in the Cytie of Canton are accustomed too be more then 15. thousand. And by reason there are many people, and there is littel almes giuen, the poore people doo giue themselues to steale. There is in this Cytie and in all the reste which are of the Metra­politan xiii. Prisons, and in euery one of them a wall of a great circuit very heigh, & so large, that they haue within thē lodges for the head keeper, and his officers, and for the soul­diers of the watche, and ordinarily there are gardens, and streetes and courtes within, where the prisoners doo walke by day, and there are many vittayling houses, where they dresse meate, and doo hire beddes, and Taylers shoppes; and other artes, that the prisoners doo vse, too sustaine and maintaine themselues. Of these thirtiene prisons there are alwaies occupyed six of them with men, which are condem­ned too death, and in euery one of them are a hundreth soul­diers and more with theyr Captaine, too keepe the saide pri­son. Euery offender doth bring hanging at his neck a borde which commeth too his knees and a spanne broade, wherein is written the facte wherefore hee was condemned, they go with fetters, but in the day tyme they are taken of, by reason they may woorke too get wherewithal to sustaine them, ouer & aboue that which the king dooth giue them, which is a cer­taine measure of Rice euery day, vnto such as are condēned [Page] too dye, they shut them vppe in the night in certaine lodges, which are neere too the courts, and they make them ly vpon theyr backes, and vppon them doo runne certaine Iron chaynes past through certaine collers that are betwene pri­son and prison: wherewith they are so fast made, that they can not escape. And they laye vpon them certaine couerings made of timber, that there remayneth to them no more space but theyr length and breadth which is a most painfull impri­sonment. They neuer execute the Iudgement that is giuen vppon them, that are condemned too dye, but when the Chaenes and Leuchis doo go too take residence & doo make a secret visitation. Then these Iudges do aske for the roules of them that are condemned & the causes. And although that theyr sentences are confirmed by the king and of those of his chiefe Councell, they returne too see againe theyr factes, with the rest of the Lawyers that doo gouerne: and beeing seene, they chose among vi. or viii. of those that doo seeme too them too bee most culpable. And they commaund the head keeper of the prisons, that hee giue order too carry them too suffer execution. And this beeing done they turne too see a­gaine anewe the factes, that by any meanes or waies they may suspend the execution of some of them. And if they finde any not so woorthie of death as the rest, they commaund that hee bee put aside from the reste, and that there bee shotte of iii▪ peeces of ordinaunce which is a signe or token that they take out of the prison such as shal dye. They turne to cōsult again to see if they can deliuer any other, & when they come not, then they commaunde to shootte of other three peeces, that they may bee caried out to the fieldes: and before they go foorth of councel they returne too see theyr causes a new. In this tyme they are set vppon a heape of asshes and they giue them meate, tarrying for the last resolution, wherin they are accustomed to deliuer or relieue some. And bicause execution shoulde bee made in such as doo remaine, they commaunde too shoote of other three peeces of ordinance, which is a signe that they shoulde dispatch them: foorth with there are [...]oung [Page] all the Belles, and there is through all the Citie a great ru­mour, as though they were all amased, bicause it is a thing which is seldome tymes done. In these daies they shut vppe theyr shoppes, and no body doo woorke, nor they sell any thing vntil [...]unne set, which is when they take the bodies af­ter execution done vppon them out of the fieldes for to burie them. And from that tyme they doo any buzines, and doo o­pen their shoppes. Also these Iudges of residence doo see the roull of the theeues which still remayne in prison & in recom­pence of correction they commaunde them alwayes too bee whipte. And they vse in this cause so much rigour, choler, and haste, as they vse charytie and clemencie with such as they put too death, for there is no facte so much abhorred as that is. The whippes they geue them are most cruel & they giue them vpon the calfes of theyr legges, theyr shoulders tur­ned downe warde and theyr handes tyed behinde them with canes as broade as a hande, and of thickenesse of one finger which they keepe in water, that they may worke the grea­ter effecte, in such sorte that at the firste stroke the blood cō ­meth out, and the executioners doo whippe them togither, one vppon one legge and thother vppon the other and they do it with such dexteritie and cunning, that of only two stripes, I knowe not who is able too suffer them: and of fiftie or six­tie it happeneth that there dye many, bycause theyr sinewes are all loosed and vndoone. Some Portingales doo affirme that had beene in those prisonnes, that there dyed euery yeere more then twoo thousande men of these whippings, & some fel made of them, and of hunger and cold wt they suffe­red. The sayde Iudges are present, when they whip them: and all the tyme that it endureth, they are occupyed in ea­ting and drinking and in pastymes without any maner of griefe therefore, and by reason it happeneth that somtimes some of these Lawyers beeing bryved with greate giftes or friendshippe are accustomed too see at libertie some of these prisoners, and put others in theyr places, for there neuer lac­keth some miserable people that for a little gaine wil put [Page] [...] the watch and counterwatch. All these captaines are of the same Prouinces bycause the loue of their Countrey maye cause them to serue truely, and cause them to labour the more to defende them. And bycause there may be more quietnesse, it is not permitted that any man shall carie any weapon, to offend, nor too defende, but onely such as are men of warre. And besides these, there are in the frontier townes & fortes which they haue, in the confines of the Laos, and Bramenes, and Tartarres, and Massagetas, ordinarie garisons for the defence of them, and of the number which haue bene spoken of, was within the compasse of 200▪ leages, but this is done with aduantage, by reason that in all partes of the Countrie is great habitation, & hauing captains which do giue them assaultes, they come as many to the defence as is needefull, vntill the king come with his great power, which he hath al­wayes in a readinesse, of manie footemen and horsemen for his garde and maiestie, and to bridle the comming in of his enemies. And for this cause he is alwayes resident in the Ci­tie of Paquin, bycause it is a place that standeth most com­modiously for the succour of all his townes, that are next bor­dering vpon any forraine Prince. The people of China are verie prompt of wit, and stoute in all the feates that doth ap­perteine to the warres. And although they are stoute men, and of great courage for to abide, and to giue battaile to the enemie, yet they alwayes vse straunge pollicies, and all kind of fire workes in theyr battailes, both by sea and land, in such sort that there was nothing that did cause the Portingales [...]o maruaile so much when they went thither the first time, as to see that they vsed Artillarie. Whereof they came to vnder­stande that they had artillarie among them many yeares be­fore it was vsed in Europe▪ And it appeareth to be so, bicause that in the Realme of Pegu, whether they came in olde time, and where in their conquestes, and in their fortifications, a­mongst other things they left their Artillarie, & where there is founde at this day, Belles and Gunnes of mettall, which they made. They vse also of all kinde of armour, and the most [Page 41] principall Gentlemen of the Countrie do carie foure swords with them, and fight with two of them togither, with great running.

They enter into the warres compassed about with many seruantes and familiar friendes, which are footmen, well ar­med, and very gallant, for it is so permitted to all souldiers, and men of warre. And by reason this king is so mightie and rich, they which serue are paied at their time without any de­lay, & with great liberalitie. And all such as shew themselues valiant, are highly esteemed, and rewarded with great gifts. The Tartarres and other enemies which they take prisoners in their warres, they vse them with no other captiuitie, then to place them to serue for men of warre in other frontiers of theirs, which do border ouer against other Princes, and they are payed as hee doth pay the rest of his subiects, and these weare certaine red hattes, and the rest of theyr apparell euen after the fashion of the sayd people of China▪ The faced hattes all people do weare, which are iudged for an [...]e offence to serue in any towne that doth border ouer against any other Prince, as those which go to Oran, or Melilla, and so they say in theyr iudgements that they banish them to weare red hattes. This Prince is serued with some Souldiers which are by nature of the high mountains of Russia, which are a free people, and liue after the maner of warriours, like to the Esquizaros, which are mightie men, and with red haire, & great beards, and they weare cut hose like to the Tudesos, and broade swords, & they are called Alimenes, whom some doe thinke that they are Almaines, but if it were so, there woulde haue beene knowledge of this great Realme long before. Like­wise hee is serued of other tall men of twelue or thirteene pawmes of height, and they doe assist them in the defence of the townes that stand in greatest daunger, of whom we can not vnderstande of what region they are, and they make so great account of their owne wisdome, after the maner of the Greekes, that they say that they are those which haue two eyes, and the people of Europe but one▪ and that all the [Page] rest of other Nations are starke blinde.

The xv. Chapter sheweth of the religion, lawes, and ceremonies which they haue and vse.

IT is greatly to consider, that the Chinaes being so wise in their gouernement of theyr common weales, & of so sub­tile a wit for all artes, that they are so false of vnderstan­ding, and so barbarous and blinde in the worshipping of their false & vaine idolatrie. For they haue no manner of knowledge of the true God, more than they imagine that al things which are created, doth depende from aboue, from whence doe come the conseruation and gouernment of them all, without knowing particularly who is the author, at­tributing it to the heauen it selfe, which they holde for the greatest of their Gods, and so they signifie it with the first fi­gure of their ABC. They worship the Moone, the Sunne, and Starres, and all other Images which they make with­out respect, and some figures or shapes of Lawyers, and of the priestes of their Idolles which they were most affectio­ned to, in some principal seruice they had done. And likewise they worship any maner of stones that they sette vpon theyr Aultars, where they doe make their Sacrifices, and also the Diuell which they paint after the same shape and manner as we doe among vs. The common sort of people doe say that they worship him, for bycause the good people, hee ma­keth Diuels, and the euill people he conuerteth into Kine, and other kind of beastes. The men of most knowledge and that be most pollitique, they say they worship him & regarde him, bycause he should do thē no hurt. They haue in al cities and places of habitation, and also in the fieldes, a great num­ber [Page 45] of sumptuous Temples, and of goodly buildings, which are of great Maiestie. There are two sortes of Priestes, and they are contrarie the one to the other in maners: the one sort goeth all shauen, and appareled in white, and with cer­taine high cappes made of felt somewhat piked before. These sort liue in common togither, and haue their cham­bers and lodgings after the maner of our Friers. The o­thers doe weare their haire long, and deuided in the higest parte of their head with a strike verie curiously varnished with blacke, after the fashion of a haud closed togither. They apparell themselues with silke or blacke Serge as all the rest of them do vse: they dwell euery one of them by them­selues: they assist in the seruice of the Temples, and in the festiuall dayes and burying. The one and the other are not maried, but they are euill liuers, and therefore they are not esteemed among the people, and they are punished with stripes amongst the Iudges for a small occasion. These peo­ple do offer in the Mornings and Euenings in their Tem­ples, Incense, Beniamin, the wood of the Eagle, and other things of different and sweet smels. And the place of praier which they vse in their house, is generally at the entrie in of their gates, where their Idolles stande. When they lanche their shippes into the Sea at the first making, the Priestes goe aparelled with long garments, being verie rich of silke to make their Sacrifices in the poopes of them, where the place of praier is, and they offer painted figures, and they cut and burne them before their Idolles with certaine ceremo­nies that they make, & sing songes with an vnorderly tune, soūding certaine little belles. And they worship the Diuel, where they haue him painted in the fore part of the Shippe, bicause as they say, he should doe no hurt to the Shippes. In all this discourse they are eating and drinking at discretion. When they pretende to go vpon any iourney eyther by Sea or lande, or begin anie buzinesse that seeme difficult or hard, they vse lottes, and cast them before their Idolles. These are made of two stickes, after the fashion of two halfe nuts, [Page] rounde at the one side, and the other side plaine. And before they be cast, they returne to theyr Idols with fayre wordes, beseeching them to giue good chaunce, and fortune: for by them they thinke doeth come good successe, or euill to them. And if it happe as they desire, then they will make too them great offeringes: and with this they are cast, and if they fall with the plaine side vpwarde, or the one side rounde, and the other plaine, they haue it for an euill signe: and they returne against the Idolles, and they speake to them shamefull and dishonest wordes, calling them dishonest dogges. And when they be weary of calling them so any longer, then they turne againe with faire and sweete wordes, and aske them par­don of that which they haue sayde, and desire them too giue them good fortune, promising them more then before they had offered them: wherevpon they turne to cast anewe, and by this order they proceede praysing them, and setting naught by them. And when they tarrie long, and if it bee a matter of importaunce, they runne to them, and take them, and cast them into the Sea, and sometimes into the fire, suf­fering them to burne a little, and they whippe them, and spurne at them with their feete, vntill it happe to them as they desire, that is, the rounde partes of these stickes to fall vpward. And then they worship and prayse them with much Musicke and songs, and cary to them offerings, of Hennes, Duckes, and Rice, all drest, and a Pigges heade sodden, which they much esteeme, and a great iarre of Wine, and of all this they set some part of it vpon the Altar in a Platter wherein is the toppes or poyntes of the Pigges eares and snout, and the nayles of Duckes and Hennes, and a fewe granes of the Rice, and some droppes of wine, and all the rest they themselues eate before the Idols, with much mirth and ioy. When there dieth any maried man that hath a wife and children and familie, immediately after he is dead they apparell him with the best apparell he had, and they set him on a Chaire, and there commeth to him his wife, and doth put herselfe vpon her knees before him, to take her leaue of him [Page 43] with many teares, and pitiful words she speaketh, and conse­quently his children and kinssolkes after the like order, and and all the rest of his householde following. And this cere­monie beeing done, they put him in to a coffin made of the wood of Canfora, which is conseruatiue and of sweete smel, well made fast in all poynts, bycause hee shoulde not smell. After this they put him into a Chamber, which is hanged with white hangings of linnen cloth vpon two bankes, and do couer him with a cloth euen to the ground, where in is sha­ped and formed the dead man, very naturally made. And in another place of the house without, or in the gate house com­ming in, they doo put for ceremonie a Table with candles lighted therevpon, all full of bread, and of sundrie sortes of fruites. And in this sort they keepe him xv. dayes, in the which time there do come at the night season Priestes con­tinually to offer vp their sacrifices, and to pray theyr owne inuentions after the maner of Gentiles. They bring many Papers painted, and with certaine ceremonies they make, they burne some of them there, and the rest they hang vp in cordes athwart for this cause, and they cast them togither, making noyse that they sende the deade men to heauen. All their superstitions done, they take the coffi [...], and carie him to the field, where the rest of the dead bodies are, wherein time they are consumed. In all these dayes there are in the house the Tabels set with manie kinde of meates, that the priestes may eate and drinke, and their friendes and acquaintaunce that do visite them.

The mourning apparell which they vse, is most sharpe, bycause they bring their clothes made of most course wooll, nearest to the fleshe, girte with hard coards, and on theyr heades certaine nightcappes of the sayde cloth, with edges like to hattes, which falleth downe vppon their eares. They [...]eare this for father or mother two or three yeares. And if they haue any Sonne that is a Lawyer, he doth let the exer­ [...]se of his office which hee hath, and d [...]h retire himselfe all this time vntill he hath done, and then he returneth a fresh to [Page] the court, to do as he did before. But those that are not so nere in kindred, do apparell them selues with rawe linnen cloth, not verie course. They doe easily beleeue lyes and feigned fables or tales, that men be conuerted into beasts, and beasts into men, and other ignorant toyes like too these. It is not knowne certainly that any haue preached to them the Gos­pel vntill the Portingales came thither, more thā in the coast of Molea, which is the India, of the side of the sea of Bengala, which they cal now S. Thomas. Thither came an Armeniā on pilgrimage, & did affirme to the Portingals, y at that time were there resident, that in the publike wrytings, which the Armenians had, there was relation and memorie that before this glorious Apostle did suffer martyrdome, hee past to the China, and there did preache the Gospell. And bycause hee wrought little fruite in them, hee returned to Molea, leauing some Disciples that hee had conuerted in that Countrey. Of the which there is no knowledge founde amongest them, more then this religious man hath decla­red, and sayde: that hee had beene in Canton, and from thence past to a small Ilande that standeth in the middest of the Riuer before the Citie, where there is a Monasterie of those Priestes gathered togither, and therein he sawe a Chappell, built high from the grounde, verie well made with certaine windowes gilded, wherein was the Image of a woman marueylously well made, with a Childe at her necke, and had before it the signe of a Lampe burning, and suspecting if it might bee anie rase of Christianitie, he did aske of those Priestes, and of other people that were there, what that Image did signifie: and no bodie coulde tell him, nor giue him any reason thereof, and so it coulde not bee de­termined, if by chance it were the Image of our Ladie that the Disciples of Saint Thomas did set there▪

There is not in all this Realme anie Iewes, nor rase of them. And it may be well vnderstood, seeing that the most meate they eate is Porke fleshe. Neither yet is there anie Moores, although there are some that haue discended of [Page 47] them that are arriued thither from the Realme of Samare­an, by trade of Merchandice, and of such as were conuerted of the Countrey, but the most part of them dyed by iustice. These which are now, are discended of such as were vanished for great no offence into diuerse Prouinces, & therefore there are some in Canton, and others in Cansi, but as nowe they are few, and the children & childrens children of those which were vanished, and borne of women of the Countrey of China, all of them do eate [...]orke, and drinke wine, and there is no man of remembrance of the sect of Ma­homa.

The xvi. Chapter sheweth of the order that may be had, wherby these people may turne to be Chri­stians, and of the nauigation that is made from the newe Spaine, vntoo the Ilande of the West partes, called the Philippinas.

OF some religious men cal­led Iesuites, it hath beene vnderstoode that they be­ganne too preache the Gos­pell too these people, but by reason that it is not permitted vntoo straungers too stay ma­nie dayes in this Countrey, they were compelled too re­turne foorthwith without yel­ding that fruite whiche they desired, notwithstanding they found thē very apt to be caught, [Page] and willing to learne, and easie to be reformed of theyr false Idolatrie, and with al humilitie they receiue it, and acknow­ledged the corrections of theyr filthines. He that first began this Catholike woorke, was Maister Frauncis Xauierre, one of the seuen Religious men of the firste confirmation of the saide companie, and was the first that came intoo Por­tingal, and that past intoo India, and from thence to China. But before he began to execute his Catholyke desire, he died in Canton, and was brought from thence too Goa, where his body lyeth buried in the Colledge of Saincte Paule, of the same Religion. The Religious Dominike declareth that throwing downe certaine stones vpon the ground which they did woorshippe, they came vnto him with such rage as if they woulde haue killed him, but he pacified them foorth­with in geuing them to vnderstand theyr little constancie & their vaine Idolatrie, and as they are of excellent witt, they forthwith fell in to the matter, and thought well of his iudge­ment saying, that no man had euer taught them the like, vn­till that time. And with the selfe same excuse they excused them selues withall, when he did reprehende them of the fil­thie sinne not too bee named, vntoo the which they are much giuen, thinking that they do not euil therein. But the grea­test difficultie that these religious men founde, was, that the gouerners and ordinary Iudges do attende with great care that no newe thing be taught amongst them without order & licence of theyr king, and as they are rigorous and readie to chasten, no man darre to bee a Christian without licence, al­though that they vnderstand it to be conuenient for theyr sal­uation: & therefore it doth import with expedition that these inconueniēces be taken away, and that there be sent an Em­bassador too this greate Prince. And in that Embassadge might go learned men, and Religious, that should giue them to vnderstande the darkenes wherein they liue, and too per­swade them to bee Christians, and that he shoulde permit thē too preach the Gospel throughout al his Realme, and howe that it is not hurteful too take from him his Lordshippe and [Page 45] gouernement but rather fauorable, wherby his subiects may obey him the better. This wil be easily obteined of him, & o­therwaies for to attempte it by way of conquest, it will be so harde a matter as it may bee vnderstoode by his power and greatnes, and by that which is conteined in a Chapter of the relatiō that the Captaine Artieda gaue to his Maiestie who was present at the cōquest of the West Ilandes wt are called Philippinas, treating of this realme which worde for worde speaketh as foloweth. There are also to the Northwarde of these Ilāds the firme lād which they cal China. It is a great Countrie, insomuch that it is certainely knowen that it bor­dereth with Tartaria, for the people that trade thither, say that they haue ware with them. They are a people very po­litike, they worke Iron with percers of steele. I haue seene golde and siluer wrought so well with Iron as coulde bee in the worlde, and in this sorte they woorke thinges of timber and all other thinges. They saye that the Portingales, are good people, and that they haue a littel light of the world, but in comparison too them they see but with one eye. They spin golde as they doo in Milan, and weaue Damaske and other silkes with it. They haue all kind of armour as wee haue, and artillery Iudging it by certaine vesselles that I haue seene come from thence, that it is plaine and better cast thē our is. They haue so good gouernment, that they say they make nei­ther Gouernor nor Captaine which is not a greate Astrono­mer. And first they shal pronosticate the tyme and chaunce that is too come, and it shall be prooued and seene to fall out true, that hee may preuent any thing that is to come. In eue­ry Citie and Prouince, there are garrisons of men of warre, they goe wel apparelled: they are as whyte as we are, and weare there beards long. The womē are very faire, although that all of them haue little eyes, they weare their coates and gownes so long that they touche the grounde, and they make their heare red with collours, and it is saide that they painte theyr faces. They say this king is of so great powre, that hee doeth bring into the fielde three hundreth thousande [Page] men, and twoo hundreth thousande of them horsemen. In thinges that are painted▪ I haue seene brought from thence wherein are painted on horsebacke armed men with harnesse and salets and lances. The countrie is so good and so well furnished with vittaile, that it is thought to be the best & most fertile soyle of the world: The Moores that I haue spoken withall doo affirme that they bee not so warrelike as wee are.

They haue Mouldes and haue printed bookes tyme out of mynde. If it please your Maiestie, that this Country bee seene with the sight of the eyes: I doo offer my self therevnto, geuing mee twoo Shippes of two hundreth and fiftie tōnes a peece, little more or lesse, and 40. Souldiers in euery shippe and the Artillarie, Munition, and Uittaile, sufficient and necessarie, with Gods healpe carying some order of Embas­sadge to the Lorde of the Countrie to enter in with my per­son, and too returne all along the coast by the newe Spayne. And too see the order they haue as well for the trade with in the lande as for all the reste if that will please your Maie­stie.

And in that which this Captaine saith that the king doth bring three hundreth thousande men intoo the fielde, besides the garrisons that he hath ordinarily in the Cities, & townes that doo border neerest other Princes in this my opinion re­maineth verefied. And although they be not so warrelyke as wee are, as the Moores haue declared, I knowe not what powre were sufficient for so great a number of horsmen, and against people so wel armed, the Artillarie being so common to them as it is to vs. And seeing there is required that there shoulde passe thither, so greate a nauigation, and seeing this great Countrie doth fal within the compas of the conquest of our Catholike king, it wil be a thing of importaunce that his Maiestie doo commaunde too ordeine this Embassadge with the good will of his holynes, whereby this Prince may reduce it to the gouernment of the holy Catholike Churche, whereof may growe greate effectes in the increasing of the [Page] Christian Religion. And this is very easie to be done, seeing that our Spayniardes are become so neere neighbors to that realme and the Nauigation soo neere and certaine as here in it is declared. There is in the new Spayne in the South part thereof twoo portes or hauens: the one is called Acapulco, which standeth in xvii. degrees, & a half of heigth which wil holde many shippes although they bee greate, and thother is called the Puerto de Na [...]edad, which hath the entry in of it very lowe, and standeth in nynetiene degrees and a terce large. From these portes do goe foorth the shippes that doo sayle too the Philippinas, and they goe too put themselues in the heighth that the course of the Iland is in, for the tyme when they goo foorth vpon this Nauigation which is in the ende of October the windes are alwaies Northerly in that coast vntil the end of April: Wherewithal they goe with the winde in theyr poope running west, and from the ende of A­pril vntil the ende of October they turne too blowe at West Southwest, which serueth them too returne, rising vpp intoo a higher degree that they lack no height. They met at their going with the Ilands called Barbudos, for they were so na­med, for bicause such as do inhabite there, do let their beards grow long. These people are apparelled with mattes made of the bowes of date trees very fine, and they haue no wea­pons nor warre with any Coūtrie, and theyr vittaile are Co­cos, and rottes and fishe, & they haue hennes lyke to those of Spaine, more towards the west. They turne & meete with the Ilands which they cal of the theeues which be xiii. and they lye in length North and South, the greatest may bee little greater then fourtie leages. They are al wel neere after one fashion and trade. The weapōs they haue he s [...]ings, & roddes dryed with the fire which doo serue them in place of lances. They shootte so farre with the s [...]ings that no hargubuse can shoott fo far. They liue with Ryce and fish, Cocos & rootes, there are in thē great quātitie of Ginger, & so beyonde that more towardes the West, they fal with the Ilandes of the Philippinas which are many. The Ilād of Mindanas which [Page] is the firste of the South side: it beginneth in fiue degrees in the height of the North: and it lyeth out shewing it selfe in length as the rest do, which stande as a company of trees in the Northnorthwest course, vntil you come into xiii. degrees and a terce, where you meete with the Iland of Luzon. This Iland is in length out vnto the nynetiene degree in the same course, there is in it three places inhabited with Moores, they know not perfectly of what secte they are of, but they giue reuerence to Mahoma: they eate no porke. They haue many riuers wherein they gather golde: & it is distant from this firme land of China lesse then one hundreth leages, and from the Cytie of Canton which falleth too the North part of it: one hundreth & thirtie, & little more. Our Spani­ards are in possession of the said Iland, and by rea­son the trade is greate from it too the firme land and for the curious things that are come frō thence to the new Spayne, and from thence too his maie­stie now they cal him China.

AL that is written of the great lord­ship of China in this woorke, I haue gathered my selfe with great diligence and care of men worthie of faith; Por­tingals, that haue bene there with mer­chaūdise, & of other buzines; as also of the saide people of China, which haue come too Spayne: of whome I tooke that which I thought to be certaine, & most meete for this shorte discourse▪

The [...] of the Chapters [...] are conteyned in this Booke.

THe first Chapter sheweth of the beginning that the kingdome of Portingale had, and of the successe it had vntil that the king Don Iohn the first conquered Ceu­ta in Barbarie.

The second Chapter sheweth of the diligence that the Infant Don Henry did make to come to the knowledge of the Moores of Ceuta, and of the Prouince of the Negros of Iolofe, and of the armed shippes which he sent in the discouerie of the coast of Ginnea, euen to his death.

The third chap. sheweth of the discouerie of the coast of Ginnea, in the time of king Don Alonso euē vnto his death: and of the persons which king Don Iohn his sonne sent by the Mediterrane Sea, that they might bring him relation of the state and trade of India, and of the Embassage hee sent to the king of Aethiopia.

The fourth Chapter sheweth howe the king Don Ema­nuel sent by the nauigation of the cape of Buena Esperanca Don Vasco de Gama with an Embassage to the king of Ca­licute, and of the successe he had vntill hee returned too Portingale.

The fifth Chapter sheweth how the king Don Emanuel sent an other great army vnto the India, with Pedraluarez Cabral, and how he discouered in this voyage the coast of Brasil, as also of the rest of the shippes, that continually went vntil they gat Malaca, and so had knowledge of the coast of China.

The sixth Chapter sheweth of the description of the Countrey of China, and of the Prouinces and notable Realmes that are conteyned in it.

The seuenth Chapter sheweth of the temperature of the land, and the notable things that it bringeth forth.

The viij. Chapter sheweth of the greatnes of the cities, and temples, & buildings, that are in all the Countrey of China.

[Page]The nienth Chapter sheweth of their faces, apparel, and conditions of this people.

The tenth Chapter sheweth of the nauigation the Chi­nas do make in the Sea, and in the Riuers.

The eleuenth Chapter sheweth of the letters, & figures of the Chinas, and of their studies ingenerall.

The xij. Chapter sheweth how that of this great realme of China is King and lorde one onely Prince, and of his counsaile and Maiestie, and of his house and Court.

The xiij. Chapter sheweth of the Presidents and Mini­sters that are in euerie Prouince, and the order which they haue in the gouernment of them,

The xiiij. Chapter sheweth of the gouernment and pre­uention that the king hath and doth for the successe of his warres.

The xv. Chapter sheweth of the Religion and Rites they haue, and the Ceremonies they vse.

The xvj. Chapter sheweth of the order that may be had, whereby these people might become Christians, and of the nauigation which is made from the newe Spaine, vn­to the Ilandes of the west partes called Philippinas.

Imprinted at London by Thomas Dawson, dwelling at the three Cranes in the Vine­tree. 1579.

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